Warships "Soyuz". The program "Star"

For the national astronautics, the Soyuz spacecraft is a landmark project. Work on the creation of a basic model of a multi-seat manned transport spacecraft began in the USSR back in 1962. Created in 1960-s, the ship was constantly upgraded and is still used for space flight. From 1967 to 2019, the 145 launches of Soyuz launches have already been made. For our country, the Soyuz spacecraft is of paramount importance, becoming the key component of the first Soviet and then Russian manned cosmonautics.



Manned spacecraft "Soyuz-19"


Like almost all space developments of the Soviet period, the Soyuz spacecraft had a dual purpose. On the basis of this ship, variants of military vehicles were also developed. One of these ships was the Soyuz 7K-VI, which was developed in the USSR in 1963-1968 under the Star program. Soyuz 7K-VI was a special multi-seat military research manned spacecraft. The ship was distinguished from civilian variants by the presence of armament - a 23 mm quick-firing aviation guns adapted for use in outer space.

The appearance of the "Union"


Work on the creation in the USSR of a rocket-space complex for manned flights and lunar flyby began on 16 on April 1962 of the year. The creation of a new spacecraft for the ambitious Soviet lunar program was conducted by employees of the OKB-1 under the guidance of outstanding designer Sergey Korolev (today RSC Energia named after S. P. Korolev). By March 1963, the shape of the descent vehicle was chosen, which in the future will become the “Union”. Gradually, Soviet engineers based on the project of a lunar spacecraft created the 7K-OK apparatus, designed to accommodate three astronauts orbital spacecraft, designed to test various maneuvers in Earth orbit and to dock two spacecraft, transferring astronauts from one ship to another. Instead of fuel cells, considered earlier, the ship received memorable solar cells.

Creating a new spacecraft, Soviet engineers paid much attention to the organization of favorable working and living conditions for astronauts at the stages of launching into space, the flight itself and the descent from Earth orbit. Structurally manned spacecraft "Soyuz" included three main parts. Among them, the orbital or household compartment was distinguished, which served as a scientific laboratory where it was possible to conduct research and experiments, the same compartment was used for cosmonauts to rest. The second compartment was the cockpit - the descent module, in which the astronauts who took their places, returned back to our planet. In addition to the places for the three astronauts, there were all the necessary life support systems, ship control and a parachute system. The third compartment of the Soyuzov was the instrument-aggregate compartment in which the propulsion systems, fuel, and utility systems of the ship were installed. The power supply of the spacecraft "Soyuz" was carried out at the expense of solar batteries and batteries.


The Soyuz TMA-01M spacecraft before docking with the ISS


The tests of the first Soyuz spacecraft began at the end of 1966. The first flight of the device, designated Cosmos-133, took place on November 28 1966 of the year. The second flight of 14 in December of the same year ended with the rocket explosion with the ship on the launch pad, the third flight of the 7K-OK apparatus (Cosmos-140) took place on February 7 of 1967 of the year. All three flights were completely or partially unsuccessful and helped the specialists to detect errors in the ship’s design. Despite the lack of fully successful launches, the fourth and fifth flights were planned manned. It couldn't end well, and the launch of Soyuz-1 23 on April 1967 ended in tragedy. The launch of the Soyuz-1 from the very beginning was accompanied by a number of abnormal situations, there were serious remarks to the work of the onboard systems of the ship, so it was decided to withdraw the device from orbit ahead of time, but the landing system crashed after landing of parachute systems due to the parachute systems failure cosmonaut Vladimir Mikhailovich Komarov was killed. Despite the tragedy, work on the creation and further improvement of manned spacecraft "Soyuz" continued. The ship had an obvious potential that allowed it to remain in service in 24, besides, on its basis, the Soviet military planned to create a number of military vehicles, which also prevented the program from closing, despite the failure of the first launches.

The first projects of the military "Unions"


Back in 1964, in Kuybyshev (today Samara), the work of creating the world's first manned orbital interceptor 3K-P or Soyuz-P began at the Progress plant in branch No. 1 of the OKB-7 plant. A year earlier, due to the large load, all materials on new versions of the Soyuz for military use were transferred from OKB-1 to Kuybyshev. At the Progress plant, the work on the creation of new versions of the military "Soyuzov" was led by Dmitry Kozlov, the lead designer of the enterprise.

It is easy to guess that the 7K-P spacecraft was based on the construction of the Soyuz ordinary spacecraft (7K), but with some changes. Initially, the space interceptor did not plan to install any weapons. The main task of the crew of a manned spacecraft would be the process of inspecting foreign space objects, primarily satellites belonging to the United States. It was planned that the crew of the spacecraft 7K-P would go into open space for this, where, if necessary, it would be possible to put the probable enemy’s spacecraft out of operation or to place the vehicles in a specially designed container for later sending to Earth. At the same time, it was quickly decided to abandon the idea of ​​such use of the ship and crew. The reason was that all the Soviet satellites of that period were equipped with an explosion system, the Soviet military assumed that the American satellites had the same system, which constituted a threat to the lives of the astronauts and the interceptor ship itself.

Warships "Soyuz". The program "Star"

Projects of the military "Unions": 7K-P, 7K-PPK, 7K-R, 7K-VI ("Star"), "Soyuz-VI" (from left to right, render: astronautix.com)


The project of the Soyuz-P spacecraft was replaced by the full-fledged combat spacecraft, which received the designation Soyuz-PPK. This version of the "Union" designers decided to equip the batteries of the 8 small missiles "space-to-space", all the rockets placed in the bow of the ship. This concept involved the destruction of the spacecraft of a potential enemy without reconnaissance. The ship was not very different from the civilian versions of the Soyuz in size, its length was 6,5 meters, the diameter was 2,7 meters, and the habitable volume of the ship was calculated for two cosmonauts and was 13 cubic meters. The total mass of the space interceptor was estimated at 6,7 tons.

Simultaneously with the work on the creation of the Soyuz-PPK interceptor in Kuibyshev, work was being done on the creation of an orbital reconnaissance aircraft, called the High-altitude explorer. This ship was also known under the designation 7K-VI and was developed in the framework of the project with the code designation "Star". The basis was still the civilian Soyuz 7K-OK, but the filling of the ship was completely different. The military ship 7K-VI was supposed to carry out visual observation of the enemy’s satellites, conduct photo-intelligence, and, if necessary, hit the enemy’s spacecraft. At the same time, work was also being done on the creation of the Soyuz-R warship in the reconnaissance version.


Remote cosmonaut of the Soyuz 7K-VI military spacecraft


Already in 1965, the projects 7K-P and 7K-PPK were decided to close. The reason was that in OKB-52, which was headed by prominent Soviet designer Vladimir Chelomey, in parallel, they worked on the creation of a fully automatic fighter jet of IP satellites, the concept of which was more suited to the Ministry of Defense. After this, the main theme of the Kuibyshev branch No.3 of OKB-1 was the project of the reconnaissance spacecraft 7К-Р. It was planned that the "Soyuz-R" will become a full-fledged orbital station of small size, on which a complex of equipment will be installed for conducting radio intelligence, as well as photo intelligence. The prototype for the ship was once again the base model of the Soyuz, first of all its instrument-unit compartment, but instead of the descent and home compartments it was planned to install an orbital compartment, with the target equipment installed. But this idea was not realized by the Soviet designers. The project of the Soyuz-R reconnaissance spacecraft lost the competition of the Almaz reconnaissance station, which was chosen by the competition commission and supported by representatives of the Scientific and Technical Council of the USSR Ministry of Defense. At the same time, all the developments of the Progress plant in Kuibyshev under the Soyuz-R project were transferred to the OKB-52 for further work on the Almaz project.

"Union 7-VI" and the program "Star"


The longest of the military options for using the Soyuz spacecraft was the project of the high-altitude explorer 7K-VI. The Star program was initiated on 24 August 1965. The Soviet leadership forced the flight of the American spacecraft Gemini-4, which took place in June of the same year, to accelerate work on the creation of military orbital systems for various purposes. The flight of the Americans alerted the political and military leadership of the USSR, since in addition to the scientific and technical program, the crew of the Gemini-4 spacecraft made a series of experiments in the interests of the Pentagon. Among other things, the crew observed launches of ballistic missiles, photographed the Earth’s surface on the night and day sides, and also in practice worked out a process of approaching the space object, which was the second stage of the American Titan II rocket. In fact, it was an imitation of the inspection of the satellites of a potential enemy.


Model of the ship 7K-VI. Photos were taken in the branch №3 OKB-1 in 1967 year. Photo: TsSKB-Progress


At the first stage of the Star program, the military unit 7K-VI was not much different from the civil manned ship 7К-ОК. The ship also consisted of three compartments, which were installed one after the other in the same sequence. However, in 1966, the leading designer of the Progress plant, Dmitry Kozlov, decided to completely revise the project. A new version of the military researcher suggested a change of layout, the descent vehicle and the orbital compartment should be swapped. After the changes, the capsule with the astronauts was placed on top. Under the astronauts' seats there was a hatch leading down to the cylindrical orbital compartment, the compartment itself increased in size. The crew of the ship was to consist of two people, the maximum mass - 6,6 tons.

A distinctive feature of the new military "Union" was the presence of weapons in the form of a fast 23-mm automatic Nudelman-Richter X-gun, which was adapted for use in space. The gun was mounted on top of the descent vehicle. The designers adapted the tool to work in vacuum conditions. The main purpose of the automatic cannon was to protect the military researcher from interceptor satellites and ship inspectors of a potential enemy. To aim the automatic cannon at the target, the crew had to turn the entire ship, and to aim, use the sight. Especially for testing the possibility of using the gun in space, large-scale tests were carried out on a dynamic stand specially built for this purpose. Tests have confirmed the possibility of using the gun in space, the return from the shooting would not lead to somersaults of the 23K-VI apparatus.


Model of the ship 7K-VI. Photos were taken in the branch №3 OKB-1 in 1967 year. Photo: TsSKB-Progress


The main device of the ship 7K-VI was supposed to be an optical visor OSK-4 with a camera. Vizir planned to install on the side window and use for military research. With his help, the astronaut could observe and photograph the surface of our planet. Also in the side window could accommodate special equipment designed to monitor the launch of ballistic missiles called "Lead". Feature of the design was the rejection of the use of solar panels. Kozlov decided to abandon this heavy and large structure, which was constantly necessary to focus on the sun. Instead, it was planned to install two radioisotope thermogenerators on board the military "Union". The electrical energy required to power the systems of the ship was converted from the heat generated during the radioactive decay of plutonium.

Despite some success, the project “Star” was also not brought to its logical conclusion. Even in spite of the fact that by the middle of 1967, a wooden model of the future ship was made in Kuibyshev, and they also worked on a draft design and assembled a full-size model 7К-VI. At the same time, the date of the first flight of the new military ship was approved - the end of 1968 of the year. However, in January 1968, the project was closed. The initiator of the Zvezda program closing was V. P. Mishin, who held the post of chief designer of TsKBEM - Central Design Bureau of Experimental Mechanical Engineering (this was how OKB-1966 was called from 1 onwards). Mishin's arguments were quite convincing, the designer noted that it was not worth duplicating the already existing ship 7K-OK, which could always be improved up to the installation of weapons and solve the same tasks. At the same time, one of the main reasons could be the unwillingness of engineers and the management of TsKBEM to lose the monopoly on manned flights.
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  1. Theodore 18 June 2019 18: 14 New
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    After the Soviet Union, they didn’t create anything new! But 28 years have passed .......
    1. 17085 19 June 2019 00: 17 New
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      Controversial statement. Creating a ship of a different shape but with the same content, just for you to say “wow” is, at least, stupid. More than 28 years have passed since its adoption, many of the ideas that appeared during the Soviet Union could be implemented in our time. I understand perfectly well that for you there is no difference between the Soyuz TM (flying during the USSR) or the Soyuz MC (the third modification since 2003). Since no one on Earth has anything like this, on the basis of this, I dare to assume that the opponents are at least 55 years behind, and I can’t imagine how much they need to go to reach our level, trying to portray the “jump” opponents risk tear yourself up.
      1. Horse, people and soul 19 June 2019 00: 31 New
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        Since no one on Earth has anything like this, on the basis of this, I dare to assume that the opponents are at least 55 years behind, and I can’t imagine how much they need to go to reach our level, trying to portray the “jump” opponents risk tear yourself up.


        Well, let's see, see how no one has it. The Chinese themselves fly into space on a copy of the Soyuz spacecraft, which they themselves further improved to the extent possible. Chinese space exploration is a terribly secret thing. But she is.

        It seems like this fall our sworn friends should launch a manned Dragon. Let's see how they do it.

        Time puts everything in its place. Resting on the laurels of the perfect and not developing further with an eye on the successes of others is not a dangerous thing. Could and catch up and overtake in such a race.

        hi
      2. g1washntwn 19 June 2019 07: 06 New
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        Quote: 17085
        trying to portray a “jump” opponents run the risk of tearing

        Right now, adherents who preach the divinity of SpaceX will come running and stick you, and to me for blasphemy, their angry minuses smile
        1. g1washntwn 19 June 2019 10: 03 New
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          What I said, they go to all my posts and minus from top to bottom, violating paragraph “k” of the Site Rules. I have no questions about the "not very smart" representatives of homo-sapiens. But the inaction of the Site Administration and moderators annoying. Not able to write a script for timing estimates from one account? And another question, do I have one commenter not reflected when hovering over a comment rating? Although the site promises to see both this and its own (from what fright?) Own comments.
      3. Obi-Wan Kenobi 19 June 2019 07: 43 New
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        Since no one on Earth has anything like this, on the basis of this, I dare to assume that the opponents are at least 55 years behind, and I can’t imagine how much they need to go to reach our level, trying to portray the “jump” opponents risk tear yourself up.

        Yes, what are you ??? Well then read:
        [media = https: //pikabu.ru/story/novyie_amerikanskie_kosmicheskie_korabli_4789951]
        NASA announced the return of its manned flight program in September 2014. Then at a special press conference the head of NASA, Charles Bolden, named the two companies that the agency chose to conclude a multi-billion dollar contract for the construction of manned reusable spacecraft designed to deliver astronauts to the ISS. The winners of the tender were SpaceX and Boeing, who presented the projects of the Dragon V2 and CST-100 ships (from Crew Space Transportation), respectively. The total cost of work on the creation of vehicles amounted to 2,6 billion dollars for SpaceX and 4,2 billion dollars for Boeing.
        “For NASA and the nation, it was not easy, but the best choice. We have received numerous offers from our aerospace companies. Highly qualified American firms, united in their desire to return the man to space from the United States, competed to serve the nation and end our dependence on Russia. I welcome their innovations, hard work and patriotism, ”Bolden said. He explained the choice in favor of SpaceX and Boeing by the successful cooperation of the agency with these private companies and NASA's confidence in their compliance with the high requirements of the agency.
        “For freight transport, SpaceX won twelve missions (currently the Dragon version is flying to the ISS), and Orbital has eight. The Orbital cash prize is higher, although they have fewer missions because NASA does not want to depend on one source. For a manned flight, as I expect, Boeing or Lockheed will be chosen, which will win most of the funding, and we hopefully will be second, ”said its head Ilon Mask in June 2010, evaluating SpaceX's prospects. As it became known after four years, he was not mistaken.

        And about the Chinese, I generally keep quiet.
        1. 17085 19 June 2019 08: 35 New
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          I can write more beeches, but society values ​​objectivity.
          NASA does not have a ship, only pathos and exorbitant ambitions, and in terms of repeating the 1965 Alliance, in fact, only "hanging the most."
          And it’s really better to be silent about the Chinese.
      4. Infinity 19 June 2019 12: 14 New
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        Quote: 17085
        that the opponents are at least 55 years behind, and I can’t imagine how much they need to complete in order to reach our level, trying to portray the “jump” opponents run the risk of tearing.
        They had a spacecraft, technically more complex than the Soyuz - Space Shuttles. Therefore, I would not talk about 55 years. But "Unions" are more practical and cheaper. Our answer to Space Shuttles - Buran - turned out to be even more complex and prohibitively expensive for the 90's economy.
        The result is the closure of both Space Shuttles and Buran. Something new is needed. The Americans did not abandon the concept of reusable spacecraft, but from the huge Shuttles they returned to the small ships, which, however, were almost created. Like ours with the "Federation" (or what this CC Rogozin renamed there). Let's see what happens. But even if this concept is successful, it will only give a reduction in value. But not much. In a good way, we need a technological breakthrough ...
    2. Fig you 24 June 2019 17: 37 New
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      Actually, the Union is the same age as Apollo and was created in the mid-end of the 60s of the last century
      So it's been 50 years
  2. rocket757 18 June 2019 18: 22 New
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    Our glorious ancestors had PLANS and ACHIEVEMENTS! And the current last ones have solid MATTERS, according to the prosecutor’s office .... ehhh!
    1. g1washntwn 19 June 2019 07: 11 New
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      The prosecution is already the consequences of commercialization, that is, in essence - irreversibility and inevitability. Since where there is manure there are flies, there is no escape from this. And in the West, everything is the same, only it is not called corruption, but otherwise, so as not to aggravate the gentle hearing of "gentelmen."
      1. rocket757 19 June 2019 08: 03 New
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        Quote: g1washntwn
        Since where there is manure there are flies,

        A reasonable comparison, money is flies! Probably depends on the quantity .... however, the options are VERY MANY and NO AT ALL, they have differences.
        1. g1washntwn 19 June 2019 08: 13 New
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          In this context, the appropriate abmere is enough, they will fly from all sides. But in practice, yes, limited resources make us look for unconventional approaches to the solution. True, the "effective managers" went further and said: - The artist must be hungry. And they froze the indexation of salaries with simultaneous mass reductions, so that scientists and workers can more easily invent and work hard.
          1. rocket757 19 June 2019 08: 32 New
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            Quote: g1washntwn
            The artist must be hungry. And they froze the indexation of salaries with simultaneous mass reductions, so that scientists and workers can more easily invent and work hard.

            Something like this comes out .... is on the fifth "effective manager" is a new version of dictatorship, totalitarianism! Radish horseradish is not sweeter.
            1. g1washntwn 19 June 2019 08: 35 New
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              The President’s decree on increasing labor productivity in our country is being decided on the ground - to reduce and force the rest to plow for two, 12 hours and for the same one salary. Not happy - wafiderzein is a market relationship!
              1. rocket757 19 June 2019 08: 49 New
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                Market relations, capitalism, the option is not sugar at all. Only with us everything is skewing in the worst direction.
                Change the system, at least straighten the warps .... so, dreams.
    2. Narak-zempo 19 June 2019 21: 08 New
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      Quote: rocket757
      Our glorious ancestors had PLANS and ACHIEVEMENTS! And the current last ones have solid MATTERS, according to the prosecutor’s office .... ehhh!

      It was thought here that maybe the modern "effective space managers" would not be hindered by the experience of imprisonment and a broken jaw during interrogation. Of course, they won’t become Queen from this, but there will be some sense.
      1. rocket757 19 June 2019 22: 02 New
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        The limit of the present is to knock on each other, but finally on everyone .... except that they should shorten the pounding .....?
        Although more rational as in a joke - the tail, to the ears! - Schaub did not suffer and did not spoil the atmosphere!
  3. Thrifty 18 June 2019 18: 30 New
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    Indeed, technology was created in the USSR for decades! And now, apart from promises, we have nothing new! And, apparently, we will lose priority in space with such an attitude to space exploration, forever. ..
    1. Horse, people and soul 18 June 2019 23: 19 New
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      But there is Poseidon, Vanguard, Petrel, Relight ...

      Apparently there is a breakthrough in the miniaturization of nuclear reactors and space ion engines.

      We must wait.
      1. armata_armata 19 June 2019 08: 23 New
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        We must wait.

        You look there and the filly will die wassat
        1. Horse, people and soul 19 June 2019 08: 31 New
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          The filly is not the last on Earth and not in the Red Book.
          True, the only one speaking and typing on the clave.



          Someone will survive who needs it most.
          Prince Igor also did not live to see the flight of Gagarin. He had his own affairs.
          And Caesar. And Caligula with his beloved horse-senator Incitat.

          laughing
          1. armata_armata 19 June 2019 08: 41 New
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            The filly is not the last on Earth and not in the Red Book.
            True, the only one speaking and typing on the clave.

            Self-critical, but by your nickname you can guess that the filly winked
            Someone will survive who needs it most.

            Well, if in the west they come up with a cryochamber, then of course
            Prince Igor also did not live to see the flight of Gagarin. He had his own affairs.
            And Caesar. And Caligula with his beloved horse-senator Incitat.

            Thank you for calling the real terms for the development of the cosmonautics of the Russian Federation, and we’ll write down a replacement for the union planned by 4119 good
            1. Horse, people and soul 19 June 2019 08: 46 New
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              Self-critical, but by your nickname you can guess that the filly


              I am not proud.

              lol

              Thank you for calling the real terms for the development of the cosmonautics of the Russian Federation, and we’ll write down a replacement for the union planned by 4119


              Write what you want, it does not affect anything.

              laughing
              1. armata_armata 19 June 2019 08: 49 New
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                Write what you want, it does not affect anything.

                Well, this is the last 30 years only the lazy did not understand wink What do you want to do within the framework of the law, the officials in control grew. space this will not affect, as was planned in 4119, it will be so hi
                1. Horse, people and soul 19 June 2019 08: 51 New
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                  Trying in vain. Wrong to write. Here is a form for you.

                  1. armata_armata 19 June 2019 08: 52 New
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                    Here is a form for you

                    Well, even if the form is not a sample of the USSR, it is already a breakthrough, there is something to be proud of wink
                    But wait, damn it, it seems nothing crying
    2. Narak-zempo 19 June 2019 21: 13 New
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      Quote: Thrifty
      Indeed, technology was created in the USSR for decades! And now, apart from promises, we have nothing new! And, apparently, we will lose priority in space with such an attitude to space exploration, forever. ..

      In the USA, too, all the “innovations” on which Musk grazes were patented around the same time. The time was different and other people moved astronautics on both sides of the ocean. About 50 years later, probably about them, legends will generally be told about demigods.
  4. 1536 18 June 2019 18: 34 New
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    Russian industry is unlikely to be able to offer anything in the field of new spacecraft in the foreseeable future. Many enterprises ceased to exist, remained abroad, and cooperation was disrupted. Youth space industry is not needed. Much easier to live and work in Houston, if they take it. Bitter is true. But space exploration will be without Russia. There is no hope that the glory of space explorers from the USSR will live for centuries, following the example of the heroes of the Iliad or Odyssey. Almost everything is dishonored or oblivious. And soon it will be completely forgotten and wiped out. For example, who today remembers that the first woman astronaut Valentina Tereshkova flew into space on June 16 of June 1963?
    1. mark2 18 June 2019 19: 00 New
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      Nobody will explore any space. No one will ever fly to the moon or to Mars.
      Capitalism produces expansion only where there are resources and the population who will buy products from these resources. Neither on the moon nor on Mars have reliably confirmed any resources extremely needed on Earth. But there is no population at all.
      We will smoke on this planet. No one can escape.
      1. 1536 18 June 2019 19: 10 New
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        It is necessary to announce a contest for the darkest commentary on Russian space.
      2. Horse, people and soul 18 June 2019 23: 14 New
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        Neither on the moon nor on Mars have reliably confirmed any resources extremely needed on Earth.


        How is it, how is it not?

        But what about Helium-3?

        With Helium-3, with its available quantity, even old Ladas can be converted to use a clean nuclear reactor.

        So there is no Helium-3 on Earth in such an amount that any taxi driver ... but on the moon - is.

        laughing
    2. Horse, people and soul 18 June 2019 23: 23 New
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      For example, who today remembers that on June 16, 1963, the first woman astronaut Valentina Tereshkova flew into space?


      This flight brought so many problems that after before Savitskaya more women did not fly into space. Korolev cursed the whole flight of Tereshkova, who behaved completely inappropriately.
      1. Narak-zempo 7 September 2019 14: 33 New
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        Quote: Horse, people and soul
        which behaved completely inappropriately

        But in the Duma it conducts very adequately, does not violate party discipline, and voted for pension reform exactly according to the instructions from MCC.
  5. Romario_Argo 18 June 2019 20: 40 New
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    how many searched on the Internet did not find a single image how and where the gun was attached to the Unions
    1. sergo1914 18 June 2019 22: 10 New
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      Quote: Romario_Argo
      how many searched on the Internet did not find a single image how and where the gun was attached to the Unions


      Ehh ... This story is worth a book.
    2. Horse, people and soul 18 June 2019 23: 17 New
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      Gygygygygy ... when there were guns in the Unions, then there was still no Internet.

      A piece of humor.

      laughing
  6. ccsr 19 June 2019 12: 39 New
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    Author:
    Yuferev Sergey
    The main device of the 7K-VI ship was supposed to be the optical sighting system OSK-4 with a camera. They planned to install the visor on the side porthole and use it for military research. With it, the astronaut could observe and photograph the surface of our planet.
    .... Despite certain successes, the Star project was also not brought to its logical conclusion.

    This is not at all what the author describes, because already in the second half of the seventies the Almaz station was created and flight design tests were carried out, which showed the operability of the entire system. The transition to unmanned reconnaissance satellites was associated with a significant reduction in the cost of the entire system, and the advent of optoelectronic systems made it possible to abandon photographing on film, which made the astronaut unnecessary to photograph objects.
    It was supposed to switch to the Almaz station of the second generation in versions with a second docking station or a return vehicle from the TKS. However, work on manned stations "Almaz" were discontinued in 1978. TsKBM continued the development of OPS stations in an unmanned version for the Almaz-T Earth radar remote sensing space system.
    The automatic station OPS-1981, prepared for launch in 4, lay in one of the workshops of the assembly and testing building of the Baikonur Cosmodrome for several years due to delays not related to work on the OPS. On November 29, 1986, an attempt was made to launch this station under the name Almaz-T, which proved unsuccessful due to the failure of the Proton LV control system.
    25 July 1987, the successful launch of the automatic version of the OPS "Almaz", which received the designation "Cosmos-1870". High-quality radar images of the Earth’s surface from a satellite were used in the interests of the defense and economy of the USSR.
    31 March 1991, a modified automatic version of the OPS with significantly improved on-board equipment was put into orbit called "Almaz-1".
    The automatic Almaz-2 OPS with further modification of the onboard equipment into orbit was not withdrawn due to the difficult state of the economy after the collapse of the USSR and the work stopping.
  7. Fig you 24 June 2019 17: 42 New
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    +1
    I wonder why the Americans did not try to stuff guns and rockets into either Gemini, Apollo, or the Shuttle?
    Maybe that's why they were able to land astronauts on the moon, but the USSR could not?