Military Review

Polish chivalry. From Boleslav the Brave to Vladislav Jagiellon

105
"When Poland has not yet died ..."
Over Poland a bloody cloud hung,

And drops of red burn cities.
But the star shines in the glow of the past centuries.
Under the pink wave, heaving, the Vistula weeps.
Sergey Yesenin. Sonnet "Poland")


Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Today we continue to look at European military affairs from 1050 to 1350, a year that modern foreign historians consider to be the “era of chain mail”. Today our theme will be the knighthood of Poland. Well, we start with her stories...


German knights are fighting with Polish soldiers. Apocalypse, 1334-1336 Prussia. University Library of Torun


The labors of Prince Meshko ...


The Polish state was formed in the X century under the rule of Prince Meshko from the Piast clan, who in 966 decided to convert to Christianity according to the Catholic rite. Prince Boleslaw the Brave (992 — 1025) finally united the Polish lands, so that by the 1100 year, Poland had almost the same territory as today, except perhaps Pomerania on the Baltic Sea and southern Prussian lands. However, here in Poland began the era of feudal fragmentation (1138 — 1320) and the internecine feud. And as was often the case in other lands, the appeal of Prince Wladyslaw the Exile in 1157 to Friedrich I Barbarossa for help led to the fact that Poland then became dependent on the German Empire for a hundred years. Polish medieval chroniclers are reproachful of the Germans for their arrogance, and also accused them of various intrigues. The Germans were called "locusts", and they were condemned for "malice." Chekhov chronicler Gall Anonymous accused of "perfidy" and "robbery." Rus got from him too. He attributed to her such unpleasant qualities as "wildness" and "bloodthirstiness." Only under Casimir III the Great in the middle of the XIV century, Poland was finally able to revive as a kingdom, and then in 1349, Casimir III was able to seize Galich and Lvov. After several trips to Chervonnaya Rus, in 1366, he was also able to capture Volyn and Podolia, adding fame and power to himself.

Friends who have become sworn enemies


For the history of Poland, the following event was of great importance: in 1226, the pagan Prussians attacked Mazovia, the central province of Poland. The Duke Konrad of Mazovia turned to the Teutonic Order, who became famous during the Crusades, for help. The knights, however, not only conquered these pagan tribes, but also acted "like a dog that bites the hand feeding it": having started building castles on Polish soil, they conquered the port city of Gdansk, and then took all northern Poland, declaring their land. Having strengthened in the huge castle of Malbork and controlling the trade of Baltic herring and amber, the Order soon became the main source of military power in the region.


"Friends who have become enemies." A scene from the movie "Crusaders" 1960. Armor made of plastic, look "a little rustic." But in general, historicism in the equipment of the warriors of this movie, perhaps more than in many expensive modern movies that use real metal.


Traditions and other people's traditions


As for military affairs, for the period of the formation of the Polish state in the north-western Slavs, historians point to the dominance of infantry over cavalry. The cavalry detachments were feudal squads, which was typical of Eastern Europe, and the infantry was the militia of the cities. By the beginning of the XII century, the coastal Slavs also had a lot of rooks on which, huddling together, they raided as far as Norway. The cavalry became more, but easy, and she used the tactics of the neighboring Prussians and Lithuanians. That is, the riders attacked the enemy at full gallop, threw darts and short spears and swiftly retreated. D.Nikol regards it as close to nomadic, not sedentary peoples. The only difference was that the riders did not shoot bows from the saddle. They had to fight with pagans-Prussians, Lithuanians, Samogitians both in summer and in winter, because it was in winter that they most often made their raids, driving people into captivity. Then the same tactics were adopted from them by the Knights of the Crusaders, who killed men, but tried to seize more women and children. At the same time, already in the 13th century, many Slavic princes of what are now the Baltic provinces of Germany became full members of the Christian German military aristocracy. Naturally, she could not touch the Polish knights and the idea of ​​the liberation of the Holy Sepulcher. So, the Polish crusaders are already mentioned 1147 year, when the Polish Prince Vladislav went to the Outremer. Seven years later, namely in 1154, Prince Henrik Sandomirsky arrived there, taking part in the siege of Ascolon along with his knights. Returning to Poland, he invited the Knights of the Order of the Hospitallers to Malopolska, who founded their own Comtury here. In 1162, the Serbian-Luzhitsky prince Yaksa of Kopanitsa invited the Knights of the Knights Templar to Poland. A certain Polish knight had Gerland, being in Palestine, not only joined the Order of the Hospitallers, but reached a solid position in it. Many knights went to the East on their own. So, in 1347, a French diplomat Philip de Masere met in Jerusalem a Polish knight, Wojciech from Paws, who gave a strange, but quite knightly, vow to stand until the Saracens were expelled from the Holy Land.

Polish chivalry. From Boleslav the Brave to Vladislav Jagiellon

Map of Wielkopolska 992 - 1025


Of course, the Polish Slavs had never been “Germanized” very much, but the fact that, starting from the 1226 year, they were under strong German influence and their military organization served as their main example - without a doubt. And then came the 1241 year, the defeat at Legnica, which showed how much for a rider means the ability to shoot a bow from a horse. But it did not change anything! Tradition is a tradition. Traditions of nomads from the East to the Poles were alien. Therefore, bows, although they were used from the X century, remained weapons only Polish infantry, but not riders! In the same X century, the military culture of the Poles was closer to German than to the culture of their neighbors, for example, in the same Pannonia. In addition, it was from Germany that most of the swords were imported to Poland, as well as spearheads and other weapons. True, some types of weapons, such as axes with long arms and helmets of characteristic outlines, remained a specific feature of their Slavic arsenal.


Polish soldiers X — XI centuries. Fig. Harry embleton


In the middle of the XII century, the Kingdom of Poland began to disintegrate into a number of small principalities, but this did not stop the process of "westernization." Crossbows began to replace bows as the main weapon for infantry, and cavalry equipment became almost the same as in Germany or in Bohemia, although somewhat more old-fashioned. However, there was also light cavalry, the tactics of which still showed some oriental features. Moreover, the Mongol invasion of Poland led to the fact that while maintaining the leading role of heavy cavalry, the role of light cavalry also began to grow. The Polish princes began to hire entire units of horsemen from the Golden Horde, and use their mobility to raid the enemy.

It should be noted that the Polish knighthood - the nobility, very quickly borrowed all the Western knightly customs and traditions and very knightly military tradition fit very organically. National courtly novels about Walcezhe Udal, about Peter Vlast appeared, and the spirit of wandering and thirst for adventure led to the fact that already XII-XIII centuries. there are reports of Polish knights who served in the courts of foreign rulers, for example, in Bavaria, in Austria, in Hungary, as well as in the Czech Republic, Saxony, Serbia, in Russia, and even in pagan Lithuania. Knight Boleslav Vysoky, for example, participated in the campaign of Frederick Barbarossa to Italy and in the tournament, organized directly under the walls of the besieged Milan, and he performed so successfully that he was approved by the emperor himself. Coats of arms in Poland, as signs of knightly dignity, appeared a little later than in Western Europe, where they had been known since the 12th century. However, already in the XIII century, the first images of the coats of arms in Poland are found on the seals of the princes, and in the XIV century, the coats of arms belonging to Polish knights could be found in many coat of arms of Western Europe. That is, it means that the Polish knights came to these countries, participated in the tournaments held there and the heralds had to include them in compiled coat of arms, so to speak, “to posterity as an example.” Accordingly, many knights of France, England, Spain, not to mention Germany, came to Poland, promising to fight pagans. And here a wide field of activity opened up for them, since there were more than enough pagans here! This situation was very well described in Henryk Sienkiewicz’s novel The Crusaders. It also shows how the Polish knights themselves “Westernized” on one side, did not differ from European knighthood with their clothes, weapons, or customs, but on the other, they still remained Poles in their hearts! Interestingly, the Polish coats of arms were more “democratic” than Western ones, were not so much personal as family (sometimes one emblem had several hundred families!) And for a long time, according to the principle of noble equality, had no signs of dignity, for example, images of a crown or miter.


Polish helmet X century eastern sample. (Museum of the Polish Army, Warsaw)


"A beautiful helmet - all over the head!"


In the historical period we described in Poland, two types of helmets were used, which is confirmed by archeological data. The first - “the big Polish” was a helmet of the eastern type; they were made in ... eastern Iran (!), Usually richly decorated - usually covered with gold or copper sheet. Almost conical in shape, these helmets were assembled from four segments with rivets. The heads were crowned with a bush, for a horsehair sultan or a feather. The lower edge of the helmet crown was reinforced with a rim, to which the chain mail barmitsa was fastened, covering not only the neck, but also part of the face. Question: how are they in the X-XIII centuries. got from Iran to Poland? It is believed that at first they were delivered to Russia, where they also had distribution, and from there they went to Poland and Hungary. Apparently, it was a status element of armament, so that such helmets could be ordered in batches. Well, let's say, princes for their squad, to impress wealth on the neighbors. A total of four such helmets were found in Poland itself, two in Western Prussia, one in Hungary and two in western Russia. One such helmet is on display at the Royal Arsenal in Leeds, England. By the way, such close ties between Europe and Asia are not surprising in this case. Remember the bas-reliefs on the famous column of Trajan. There we see Syrian archers in the characteristic helmets of the "Oriental". Yes, the Roman Empire (Western) fell, but Byzantium could well continue to export popular weapons, go to Russia it could by the Caspian Sea and the Volga, so ... "war - war, and trade - trade." So it was and always will be. On the other hand, the Poles could well themselves establish the manufacture of models of oriental weapons, which they were fond of. Why not?


Solid forged helmet with a nose plate. (Museum of the Polish Army, Warsaw)


The second, or Norman type of helmet, is known in Poland for two artifacts found in the Lednitsky and Orkhovsky lakes. They are also conical, but solid-walled, without ornaments, with a nasal protective plate. There is a small hook on the helmet from the Lake of Lednice on it, apparently in order to hook on it the chain mail barmitsa covering the face. And again, this could be both “helmets from the North” and their copies of local production.

Then, among the riders, the so-called “big helmet” begins to be used, which we see on the seal of Prince Casimir I (c. 1236) - and this is the very first image of such a helmet we know in Poland.


Polish Grand Slam (Polish Army Museum, Warsaw)

Kolchugi and brigandine for cavalry and infantry


Polish shields and even their remnants have not survived to our time. There is not a single chain mail of the early Middle Ages. But there are written reports that chain mail in Polish lands was used, and the first mentions of such armor as brigandine refer to the first half of the 13th century. Thus, a warrior dressed in it is depicted on the seal of Prince Henry II the Pious (1228-1234). We also see a warrior in the brigandine and on the seal of the duke Bernard of Shveydnitsa (ca. 1300 and 1325).


Polish warriors of the 12th century Fig. Garry Embleton


Interestingly, even in the XIV century, Polish troops still included a large number of infantry. For example, it is known that the army led by Vladislav I Loketek (Lokotkom) in 1330 year, according to chronicles, consisted of 2100 riders in "heavy armor", 20 000 riders of light cavalry, and about 30 000 infantry soldiers with a variety of weapons.


Polish artillery gun 1382 of the year. (Museum of the Polish Army, Warsaw)


The first documentary mention of the use of handguns in Poland dates back to 1383, but there is every reason to believe that it was used before. But already under King Vladislav II Jagiellon (1386 - 1434), various types of artillery appeared in Poland in a multitude. Mostly gunners were townspeople, but among them it was possible to meet representatives of the nobility class.


Polish warriors of the first half of the XIV century .: 1 - Mazovian noble, 2 - southern Polish knight, 3 - western Polish knight. Fig. Harry embleton


Использованная литература:
1. Nicolle, D. Arms and Armor of the Crusading Era, 1050 - 1350. UK L .: Greenhill Books. Vol.1.
2. Sarnecki, W., Nicolle, D. Medieval Polish Armies 966-1500. Oxford, Osprey Publishing (Men-At-Arms # XXNX), 445.


To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Knighthood of medieval Hungary
Knighthood of the medieval Balkans
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Knights of Outremer
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Knights of the South of Italy and Sicily 1050-1350.
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Part of 11. Knights of Italy 1050-1350.
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Part of 10. Knights of the Kingdom of Arelat
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Part of 9. Germanic effigii
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Part of 8. Knights of the Holy Roman Empire
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Part of 7. Knights of Spain: Leon, Castile and Portugal
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Knights of Spain: Aragon, Navarre and Catalonia (part 6)
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. CH 5. Knights of France. Central and southern areas
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Knights of Ireland (part 4)
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Knights of Scotland (part 3)
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Knighthood and knights of England and Wales. Part of 2
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Knighthood and knights of northern France. Part of 1
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  1. Amateur
    Amateur 16 June 2019 06: 30
    -3
    This is a continuation of the article "The President of Poland: Unlike Russians, Brave Poles Fight to the End" dated June 13, 2019.
    So to speak "substantiation of theses"
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 16 June 2019 07: 15
      +8
      Um ..... what are you, dear?
      1. Looking for
        Looking for 16 June 2019 12: 46
        +3
        this is to that. not far-fetched pseudo-patriots bother with all sorts of nonsense. Acting on the principle that whatever the child was amusing, just not crying.
    2. kalibr
      16 June 2019 10: 35
      +3
      Victor, the last thing to write a comment, without reading the article, or by reading obliquely ...
    3. arturpraetor
      arturpraetor 16 June 2019 13: 32
      +7
      Well, yes, you can write about Polish knights of the XIII-XIV centuries only in conjunction with modern politota No.
  2. Edward Vashchenko
    Edward Vashchenko 16 June 2019 06: 52
    +8
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, thanks for the article! A good overview of Polish knighthood.
    A small note on the so-called. "Great Polish", it is true that it could be produced by analogy in Poland, as noted by A. N. Kirpichnikov, but Iran is not. The first such helmet was discovered by archaeologists in the Urals, where the early Hungarians roamed at that time. Of course, it was most widely used in Ancient Rus' of the XNUMXth century, so it is not very correct to call it "Great Polish".
    The analogue can be found on a plate from Khorezm of the 8th century: but this is highly suspected.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 16 June 2019 07: 13
      +6
      Vyacheslav Olegovich, sincerely thanks for the review!
      Now I’ll stand up a little for you in front of Edward. It seems to me that the confusion in the name of the helmet is “big Polish”, it is absurd, by analogy with the roller coaster ride in Russia and the Russian roller coaster ride in America. I guess these helmets came to Europe in the morning. Then they became a distinctive "stamp" of the arms of the Eastern Slavs. A similar metamorphosis occurred with the Norman teardrop shield! So, as in many sources he was called "Russian."
      Yours!
  3. Korsar4
    Korsar4 16 June 2019 07: 24
    +4
    Interesting. It is probably not easy to trace all the way from manufacturing to using helmets.
  4. YOUR
    YOUR 16 June 2019 09: 27
    +3
    An interesting formation in Poland, with its honorable nobility. If in all countries the nobility made up no more than 3% of the population, then in Poland from 15 to 18%. With a bare ass, but noble. And their habits from this, the nobleman, but dumbing a dumb man and showing himself a hotman, lay down under everyone who got a spoon. As in other matters, the valiant military formation Zaporizhzhya Sich fought only for those who paid more or went to predatory campaigns where they could snatch.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 16 June 2019 11: 06
      +6
      As in other matters, the valiant military formation Zaporizhzhya Sich fought only for those who paid more or went to predatory campaigns where they could snatch.

      Yeah ....... !!!? "White sheep" were only our Volga and Don Cossacks. good
      Are you going to distribute textbook examples? Ermak Timofeevich, even in his thoughts did not have to go to Siberia for zipuns! No thoughts, not in one eye !!! Only by the sentence of the sovereign and the Stroganovs moved for the Stone! Do not tell my claws - the adventure of Yermak of pure water is a predatory campaign! The fact that he turned into a state confluence of benefits and nothing more !!! Throughout its existence, the Cossack freemen made surprises to neighbors, one Razin, which was worth Russia! I will not say anything about Pugachev in principle !!!
      Yours!
    2. arturpraetor
      arturpraetor 16 June 2019 13: 43
      +6
      If in all countries the nobility amounted to no more than 3% of the population, in Poland from 15 to 18%.

      These are figures already from the time of the Commonwealth, where such a percentage increased largely due to Mazovia, in which, with a large population, the number of the nobility reached the EMNIP exceeding half of the total population. Before the direct inclusion of Mazovia in the Crown and the union with Lithuania, the gentry was much smaller.

      By the way, a gentry with a bare ass - a typical picture of the Mazovian gentry, the Greater Poland, Lesser Poland and other gentry were much more pragmatic, and were able to not only crush the ambition.
      As in other matters, the valiant military formation Zaporizhzhya Sich fought only for those who paid more or went to predatory campaigns where they could snatch.

      Another thing is the Don Cossacks, who went to rob the Turks together with the Cossacks, in which case they did not disdain mercenary activity until the time of Peter I, and indeed they just invented the term "zipun", not because they often practiced hikes for them laughing
  5. _palych_
    _palych_ 16 June 2019 09: 27
    +1
    I do not like the articles of the author, all superficial and gag, just as the saying goes "both the Swiss, and the reaper, and the gamer on the pipe."
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 16 June 2019 09: 36
      +4
      Why are you reading them ???
    2. kalibr
      16 June 2019 10: 34
      +5
      Below, after each article, there is a link to the sources used. You open any - they are on the Web, and if you don't know English yourself, then you use a google translator. You compare ... then, then you can take a book, for example, by Zharkov, about knights (there is one on the Web!) And read it again. I’m afraid to recommend my books, but they also contain links (and already page by page!) To all the "burning issues". So I would like something "from myself", but perhaps prepositions, introductory words and pronouns. Well, the style, of course. And so, alas, everything is based on the most authoritative publications of famous historians. Well, the easiest and most affordable way: take magazines AROUND THE WORLD for 1975. There were articles by M. Gorelik. You read and learn all about the "knights", although not in such detail, not by country. Any more questions?
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 16 June 2019 10: 37
        +3
        Oh, Vyacheslav Olegovich, hello! And I already decided that you were in a voyage ...
        1. kalibr
          16 June 2019 11: 56
          0
          No, dear Anton! Just at the cottage. My granddaughter passed all the OGE and we took her to rest ... Well, the farm. I am now a sick pan! Three greenhouses, a lot of all kinds of plants. Already we eat cucumbers with might and main, and lettuce, arugula, basil are like silage. Well, we have to weed, water, sprinkle with yeast, pick strawberries and cook jam. Frost harvested vegetables and leaves exist. Honeysuckle was harvested - jam, compote, frost ... Well, the granddaughter eats cucumbers with sour cream and reads Agatha Christie. Well, I ... don't think about anything. I never thought it was such a pleasure! With us is the cat, it hurts mice, sparrows - it is a holiday for her at all! But you need to not forget about BO. Here came to report the articles to the archive and write a few new ones. A voyage will begin on July 9 and last for 16 days. While the daughter with his son-in-law flew to Italy and is already sending us a photo. While in Rimini, but either take the car or tour Rome, Bologna, Milan, Venice. In San Marino, take a bus ride. The sea is warm but shallow, and there is a strong cold current behind the moles. And the food is one pasta! Br-rr!
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 16 June 2019 12: 05
            +1
            N. Mikhailov from Greece (about. Zakynthos) sent you greetings.
            1. kalibr
              16 June 2019 12: 10
              0
              I know, and thanks to you and him! There are very three beautiful churches and a nunnery. I have already offered him to think about a joint article about the Christian religion in relation to the struggle for it by the Greeks with the Turks + his photos and impressions. Here comes a rested, in the sun ... then!
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 16 June 2019 12: 28
                +1
                So far scolds the heat and pebble beaches laughing
                He writes: tell Shpakovsky, I can’t imagine how the hoplites felt in this hell.
                Sympathizes with the Ushakov landing on Corfu. I didn’t say anything that the landing took place at the end of February and the coast on Corfu is sandy ...
                1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                  Kote Pan Kokhanka 16 June 2019 14: 13
                  +2
                  Quote: 3x3zsave
                  So far scolds the heat and pebble beaches laughing
                  ..

                  I envy you !!!
                  We have +5, +7 in the mornings; if by the evening it opens up to +15, then happiness!
                  On Monday I’ll go to Moscow to bask !!! laughing
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 16 June 2019 14: 51
                    +3
                    Do not be jealous, the Greek summer is another test, all the more so it lacks (almost) the experience of such voyages. I'm trying to somehow support with "valuable advice" ...
                  2. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 16 June 2019 17: 52
                    +2
                    Rejoice. Even though 5 is at least 15 heat is good.

                    Many places move to Madrid at the beginning of the twentieth century: "Three months of winter and nine months of hell."

                    Rain in the suburbs and Moscow today imitated itself.
                    Until September, a long time. And what will it be for September.
                    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                      Kote Pan Kokhanka 16 June 2019 17: 59
                      +2
                      Michael, I am glad that I do not live in Novy Urengoy!
                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 16 June 2019 18: 06
                        +3
                        And who is Mikhail?

                        It was the Hellenes who rejoiced that they were human beings, not animals, Hellenes, not barbarians, men, not women.

                        And with our diversity, there will always be “Crimean Latitude, Kolymsk Longitude”, or something similar.
                      2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                        Kote Pan Kokhanka 16 June 2019 18: 14
                        +1
                        I sprinkle ashes on my head .... guilty Dear Sergey, I’ll correct myself ... recourse blundered ....
                        About the weather, I was already naughty. When it was warm in the Urals (I was cold in Novy Urengoy). Returned home cold again !!! To be honest, I want the heat! I want to swim, sunbathe, etc. But.....
                      3. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 16 June 2019 18: 17
                        +2
                        Desires are usually fulfilled. I know little about the Urals.

                        He was in Bashkiria in November. But Ufa does not cover the entire Ural palette.
                      4. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                        Kote Pan Kokhanka 16 June 2019 18: 28
                        +2
                        Bashkiria, as well as Perm - Urals. The weather there is indistinguishable from central Russia. Moreover, Ufa from Yekaterinburg is seven hundred kilometers to the south-west! What a priori south = warmer !!!
                        In the mountains, let them be so old and low as the Urals, the weather is different. It is rarely warmer than in front of a stone or beyond! I’ll go on vacation, I’ll definitely go howl, I will find snow and take pictures !!!
                      5. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 16 June 2019 18: 48
                        +2
                        Yes. And perceived as the Urals.

                        The north of Kirov, where the upper Kama also falls short.
                        And the airport of Yekaterinburg - on the road from Chita - you will not run away.

                        Not calling yet the Urals.

                        Okay, you won’t go everywhere. And the heat will gradually come to you.

                        I wonder what will take with me?
                  3. arturpraetor
                    arturpraetor 16 June 2019 18: 21
                    +4
                    Come to us, in Pobuzhie. After a week, run home - 34 in the shade, clouds at zero, with occasional breaks in light rain to make the air look like tropical laughing Forecasters promised a cool summer. Yeah, schaz ... Give me the kingdom of eternal spring, otherwise the working iron is cut off from overheating, and it’s hot to think! crying
                  4. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 16 June 2019 18: 49
                    +3
                    But with Spring and Autumn, tension becomes. Appreciate how the artifact is necessary.

                    In the Moscow region, varietal roses have already bloomed and St. John's wort with placental grass.

                    What is being done!
                  5. arturpraetor
                    arturpraetor 16 June 2019 19: 00
                    +5
                    Quote: Korsar4
                    What is being done!

                    Everyone laughed at global warming, but something is not funny already. Recently, the annual hell in the summer has essentially led to the fact that you can’t work outdoors during the day - every year we pack people in hospitals and coffins, who decided to work in the heat during the day. The Southern Bug River, once quite solid, was so shallow that it was scary to watch. Rainfall was also decreasing - earlier there were hard rains every year, and now even after the snow melts the earth is dry - all the water leaves the earth instantly, so everything dries out before winter. But only 5 years ago, and before that everything was fine! I remember how we went to summer cottages, and worked in the garden during the day, and the river had to be crossed where now you can try to go on foot in peak heat, and every spring floods due to melting snow ...
                  6. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 16 June 2019 19: 16
                    +4
                    What a laugh. Another thing is that the discussion of the reasons is often crafty.

                    I’m not sure that the statistics of all medical problems for 2010 for the Central Region are completely open and meaningful.

                    And we are already talking about changing the boundaries of natural zones.

                    And the problem of water is so acute. How many small rivers have already been lost.

                    One of the most terrible books - Shmelev "Sun of the Dead".

                    Okay, let's see what's what. September is a little closer.
                    And evenings and early mornings in summer are good.
                  7. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 16 June 2019 19: 34
                    +4
                    Hmm ... Last summer they started talking about St. Petersburg as a seaside resort.
                  8. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 16 June 2019 19: 55
                    +2
                    In the White Sea swam. But you won’t surprise anyone.

                    Conclusion like O'Henry in Soul Mates. But in the heat it is also wrong.
                  9. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 16 June 2019 20: 00
                    +1
                    Hopefully not in Kandalaksha?
                  10. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 16 June 2019 20: 04
                    +1
                    Near Belomorsk.
                  11. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 16 June 2019 20: 06
                    +1
                    Yeah, well, it's cleaner.
                  12. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 16 June 2019 20: 08
                    +1
                    "Don't go into river water.
                    And the ocean rots.
                    Do not wait, freedom.
                    It only gives death "(c).
  6. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 16 June 2019 19: 20
    +3
    To Iceland, Artyom!
  7. arturpraetor
    arturpraetor 16 June 2019 19: 23
    +4
    I am so lazy and small-town-patriotic that the mere thought of crossing the state border causes shock and horror, and here I have to get over to Iceland laughing
  8. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 16 June 2019 19: 30
    +2
    Then bear with me, I've been working in the sun for a week, but where to go?
  9. Korsar4
    Korsar4 16 June 2019 19: 30
    +3
    Tobacco, of course, is not a role model.

    But you can remember Rodari:

    "Children of the country by presidential decree
    Living in cities is prohibited in the summer "(c)
  10. Korsar4
    Korsar4 16 June 2019 19: 24
    +2
    "Why do these birds fly to the north,
    If the birds are only supposed to go south? "(C).
  11. frog
    frog 17 June 2019 21: 18
    +1
    "Geese fly to the North, women fly to the south - summer has come" (c)
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 16 June 2019 11: 44
    +1
    take magazines AROUND THE WORLD for 1975.
    I found out ten minutes ago: they don’t even need to be taken. On the magazine’s website ALL (!), The archive up to 1950 has been digitized and is in the public domain!
    1. kalibr
      16 June 2019 11: 58
      +1
      Anton, I just assumed something like that when I wrote "take". Now in the age of computers, finding something ... not a problem, especially if you know what to look for.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 16 June 2019 12: 03
        +2
        Unfortunately, not always ... I tried to find one article from the "Ural Pathfinder", but they have a crooked site and a rogue archive.
  • Looking for
    Looking for 16 June 2019 13: 00
    -2
    Shpakovsky is a deeply disguised enemy of Russian statehood. In Russia there are now many such "Palestinian Cossacks" who rejoice in the toga of "Russian patriots" BUT only living on the money of dubious funds with seemingly neutral names, but essentially anti-Russian.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 16 June 2019 13: 03
      +2
      Come on? "But the men don't know!"
    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 16 June 2019 14: 27
      +6
      Quote: Seeker
      Shpakovsky is a deeply disguised enemy of Russian statehood. In Russia there are now many such "Palestinian Cossacks" who rejoice in the toga of "Russian patriots" BUT only living on the money of dubious funds with seemingly neutral names, but essentially anti-Russian.

      Thinly swept !!! I remember as soon as someone from Penza came to me for further training! So it’s a disaster !!! Especially practical psychologists, out of 10 back to Penza, only half returned! The rest managed to find a gentleman in six months and jump out to get married !!! laughing
      This is how the Spies from Penza breed !!! And one of the ladies saw my library and gave me the first book of V.O. Shpakovsky about tanks!
      crying
      Everyone is ready to give a confession, tell me only where and against whom! wassat
      Now seriously, Vyacheslav Olegovich - The author is not unambiguous and a little uncomfortable, but he did a lot to popularize military iron - from armor to tanks! In this connection I love and respect me!
      Dogs. Dogs. In history, you need to have a sober head, a warm heart and clean hands !!! She is not objective, mother, therefore she must relate to events with reverence and fairness!
    3. Catfish
      Catfish 17 June 2019 20: 31
      +2
      Oh, dear mom! Are you serious? And by the way, does your nickname "Seeker" mean that you are specifically looking for hidden "enemies of Russian statehood" on the site? Where are you leaking information? Or simply the laurels of Nikolai Ivanovich Yezhov are not allowed to sleep, do you remember how he finished? bully
      1. frog
        frog 17 June 2019 21: 20
        +1
        And laurels N.I. Yezhov professional, or in the field of personal, so to speak, life?))
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 17 June 2019 22: 05
          +1
          "Nothing personal" (C). Only laurels and professionalism are different, de Sade is also a clinical case.
  • XII Legion
    XII Legion 16 June 2019 10: 01
    +7
    I don’t know why, but I am especially interested in Polish chivalry.
    Maybe because Poland will later become part of the Republic of Ingushetia, or maybe because in the 16-17th centuries it was at the forefront of the fight against the Ottoman threat, protecting Europe.
    But chivalry was one of the strongest, thanks
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 16 June 2019 10: 46
      +2
      Hello Poland!
      How many years I dreamed about this meeting.
      And heaven is a dim light.
      And the churches of old candles ”(c).
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 16 June 2019 12: 37
        +2
        Alas for me, Sergey! All I can support our exciting game (and that is not in the original language):
        "Plyn Vistula, Plyne
        In Poland
        And dopuki wilderness
        Polish not zagyne! "
        1. kalibr
          16 June 2019 13: 12
          +2
          Closed, closed Zucchini, but we believe that you took our fun with you. For you, for you, we were joking, laughing and singing With an open, open-minded soul. Good luck to all of you! It is impossible to live without smiles in the world! Goodbye friends, goodbye friends! When, when Zucchini callsigns call you to the screens, Hurry soon. Waiting for you, waiting for you the one whose homeland - distant countries, Smile, smile of friends. Good luck to all of you! It is impossible to live without smiles in the world!
        2. Korsar4
          Korsar4 16 June 2019 13: 46
          0
          "How many opportunities have you taken away.
          And impossibilities - how much?
          In the insatiable gap of the earth,
          Twenty-year-old polka "(c).
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 16 June 2019 11: 08
      +4
      As for me, Poland as a part of RI is a suitcase without a handle.
      1. XII Legion
        XII Legion 16 June 2019 11: 14
        +7
        This is a very important suitcase - a suitcase of strategic importance.
        A pen from him - let him be in St. Petersburg)
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 16 June 2019 11: 18
          0
          Buffer zone, want to say?
          1. XII Legion
            XII Legion 16 June 2019 11: 22
            +6
            No, I want to say - it is Russian Poland
            Catherine was a strategic clever (minus the unrealized Greek project).
            Poland is part of Russia, and the handle (control) is in St. Petersburg.
            Poland is from all points of view (strategic, economic, political) that suitcase that you do not mind carrying and should not be given to anyone. When the Russians on the Bug are a thorn in our European "partners" and, naturally, enemies.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 16 June 2019 12: 50
              +2
              "From fraternal countries, the press tells us
              Poles are sent from stress
              Pressed to the fingernail by the wicked guide of Walesa
              Who dreamed of poisoning the whole of Warsaw "
              A. Bashlachev "The exploit of the scout"
              Again, as for me, the "splinter" is the Russian tanks on the Oder. GSVG, in short.
              But in general, this is great-power chauvinism, which, incidentally, the Poles are sick with all their heads.
              And we would ... We would bring order to ourselves.
            2. Kronos
              Kronos 16 June 2019 13: 44
              0
              And then they ask why the Poles are such Russophobes
      2. Korsar4
        Korsar4 16 June 2019 11: 16
        +2
        This is probably one of the topics that I would like to understand.

        Neighbors, one word.

        It pierces all our literature - from Pushkin, Gogol and Dostoevsky.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 16 June 2019 11: 24
          +2
          Yes, yes, yes, down to anecdotes. "Lenin in Poland" laughing
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 16 June 2019 12: 08
            +1
            "And the other has a different fuck! -
            The whole gentry is yearning at her feet "(c).
          2. Catfish
            Catfish 17 June 2019 20: 17
            +2
            Good afternoon, Anton. hi

            There was a French film "Babette Goes to War", in it a certain character "Daddy Schultz", the chief of the Gestapo. So he, having served for some time in Poland, could not have imagined a worse place on earth. The officer was fined - "to Poland!"; the car broke down - "to Poland"; the mare threw to the ground - "to Poland!" Such was his prejudice against this state. request
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 17 June 2019 21: 09
              +1
              Hello, Konstantin!
              There is such a historical story that Nicholas the First, regarding the guards officers who were guilty, ordered: "To their opera, to the opera." And it was a small punishment. Service in Poland was difficult, especially in positions of responsibility.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 17 June 2019 22: 06
                +1
                So dad Schultz was still right. laughing
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 17 June 2019 22: 32
                  0
                  Probably yes. Poland is an honorable link.
      3. kalibr
        16 June 2019 12: 05
        +2
        By the way, Anton! I have no luck - I drive through Poland all the time, and from the stops there was only Wroclaw. I liked the city very much, but ... I would like to get to the Museum of the Polish Army in Warsaw. And now again - I am driving through Poland, moreover, through Warsaw, but ... will I have time - that is the question. And one more thing ... finally, an English acquaintance (!), One of my acquaintances (that's how!), Was able to work in the archives of Poland regarding my stepfather Pyotr Shpakovsky and found ... So I can continue working on the novel "Four Crosses for Pan Soviet officer. " It's a pity, again, I won't be able to use his work and get into their archive myself. That's how annoying. But what to do. Otherwise I can't get there in any way!
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 16 June 2019 12: 19
          +1
          Maybe it makes sense to purposefully plan a trip? I understand that a lot depends on the offers of tour operators and the features of your family’s movement, but there would be a desire!
    3. arturpraetor
      arturpraetor 16 June 2019 13: 51
      +6
      Quote: XII Legion
      or maybe because in the 16-17 centuries it was at the forefront of the fight against the Ottoman threat, protecting Europe.

      This is Poland, i.e. The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, which practically did not take part in the anti-Turkish wars between Varna 1444 of the year and the middle of the XVII century? Between these battles there is only a conflict between 1485-1503, Tsetsora and Khotin, and the last two battles can be attributed already in time to the middle of the XVII century. No, the Poles, of course, considered themselves the vanguard of the fight against the Turks at the indicated time, but whether it really was them was very doubtful. The Venetians fought much more with the Turks in the 16-17 centuries, and the Austrians were the forefront, taking the baton after the Mohacs against the Hungarians.
  • Torins
    Torins 16 June 2019 11: 00
    0
    Quote: YOUR
    An interesting formation in Poland, with its honorable nobility. If in all countries the nobility made up no more than 3% of the population, then in Poland from 15 to 18%. With a bare ass, but noble. And their habits from this, the nobleman, but dumbing a dumb man and showing himself a hotman, lay down under everyone who got a spoon. As in other matters, the valiant military formation Zaporizhzhya Sich fought only for those who paid more or went to predatory campaigns where they could snatch.

    They started it after the conquest of Poland by Suvorov and the division of the state into parts. Until that moment, Poland was a strong state that did not lie under anyone.
    1. arturpraetor
      arturpraetor 16 June 2019 13: 58
      +4
      Quote: Torins
      Until that moment, Poland was a strong state that did not lie under anyone.

      A fairly strong state with great potential, but at the same time with progressive paralysis of the central government and almost complete foreign policy impotence, especially after the suppression of the Jagiellonian dynasty. European countries in the XVI-XVIII centuries practically did not consider the Rzeczpospolita as a political subject, and preferred not to touch it, since the state carried out large supplies of grain and other resources to European markets. Moreover, the Poles themselves admit this, if you believe what I read from them - of course, we are talking about balanced historians. If the Rzeczpospolita were a really strong state and pursued an active domestic and foreign policy, it would be a monster that would be very difficult to defeat. A significant part of the potential of their state, the Poles at the indicated time, in fact, wasted due to coincidence of circumstances and "gentry liberties".
  • kalibr
    16 June 2019 12: 12
    +3
    This is also true, alas. And with us and with them. How many times did you get to the sites of reputable museums, museum centers, castles ... and there ... some youngsters practiced and could not be found. According to one French castle, Russian émigrés did photos for me, although there was a public relations department in the mayor's office!
  • kalibr
    16 June 2019 12: 23
    +1
    Quote: 3x3zsave
    features of the movement of your family, but there would be a desire!

    With your mouth and drink a lot of honey! Everything is already planned out ... But ... there is still a surprise factor!
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 16 June 2019 13: 09
      0
      My honey, Vyacheslav Olegovich, you know this, very "heather".
      And the "surprise factor" is an adventure game in its purest form!
  • kalibr
    16 June 2019 13: 05
    +1
    Quote: 3x3zsave
    I did not say anything, that the landing took place at the end of February and the coast on Corfu is sandy ...

    There is also a sandy beach (on his island!) In the "Smugglers' Bay". But you can get into it only by sea! Yes - and in February it is "not hot!"
  • kalibr
    16 June 2019 13: 09
    +1
    Then I, then I, then I!
    Listen to the will of you, I bzhoza
    My leaves vatr,
    for white lashes fire ...
    Hursa night and day
    to cheat me generously
    check me generously
  • Operator
    Operator 16 June 2019 13: 11
    -6
    Poland never had the power to cope with external and internal opponents on its own, so from the first years of its existence it fell under Germany - the adoption of the Catholic faith, the mass distribution of land to the German orders, vassal dependence on the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation.

    As a result, the Germans made consumables from Poland for the implementation of their Drang nach Osten strategy, which the Poles are still proud of - despite the elimination of their statehood in the 18th century and the conferring of the well-deserved title of "hyena of Europe" in the 20th century.

    As a result, the Polish formed a mentality of Hiwis (German henchmen), from which they could not recover even during the years of German occupation and the decade of independent Poland within the Warsaw Pact states.

    The mentality of the six-hivi predetermined the place of Poland in NATO - such as let them protect us, and we will implement the good old dog Drang nach Osten from behind their backs - now virtually in the form of support for the anti-Russian regime in Ukraine, providing its territory for American bases (objects of primary nuclear strike), the demolition of monuments to Soviet soldiers-liberators.

    "Only the grave will fix the hunchback" (C).
    1. Torins
      Torins 16 June 2019 14: 10
      +4
      Alas, you do not own the knowledge of history) Where did you get what you issued now?)))
      1. Operator
        Operator 16 June 2019 14: 27
        -2
        From the article of V.Shpakovsky, of course laughing
    2. The comment was deleted.
  • kalibr
    16 June 2019 13: 40
    +6
    Quote: Seeker
    deeply disguised enemy of Russian statehood

    How lovely! A Japanese spy has already been! English - was an agent of the US State Department - was! Anti-Soviet was. Now also the enemy of statehood ... Sir, did you hit your head and did you roll the balls out of the bearings in your head? And who will pay me a pension if there is no statehood? Pope? And about dubious funds, it is you without hints ... And right away in the FSB in the Penza Region ... I have. they say, accurate information. Check immediately. Recently, he himself wrote that in Venice he meets with MI-5 agent nicknamed Pierrot - we must stop!
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 16 June 2019 13: 56
      +1
      Here the FSB in the Penza region has nothing more to do, especially now!
  • Graz
    Graz 16 June 2019 14: 00
    0
    and what do the Poles have? What kind of fearsome people in the aglitsky pictures?
  • kalibr
    16 June 2019 14: 03
    +1
    No, but what else can I advise him? By the way, Anton, I have a dacha just next to the Chemodanovka that everyone is talking about now - 2 km across the field. But ... I have everything turned off. Therefore, I learned about the event from conversations on the "patch" where products are sold, and then a day later ... This is a conversation about how we know what. I was there and didn't know anything!
  • arturpraetor
    arturpraetor 16 June 2019 14: 03
    +6
    The article is good for its topic, as always, but I can not help but make a few comments (or additions - depending on which side to look at, they are still not quite on the topic of the article)
    And then came the 1241 year, the defeat at Legnica, which showed how much the rider means the ability to shoot a bow from a horse. But, nothing has changed! Tradition is tradition.

    It didn’t change because the Poles practically didn’t fight with the steppes at that time, several Tatars went to Poland in the 13th century - and that’s all, that was it, and horse archers could be hired if something happened. In a war with sworn friends like the Teutons, equestrian shooting skills aren’t very useful.
    For example, it is known that the army, led by Vladislav I Loketek (Lokotk) in the 1330 year, according to chroniclers, consisted of 2100 horsemen in "heavy armor", 20 000 light horsemen and about 30 000 infantry soldiers with various weapons.

    Oh these chroniclers laughing With all due respect to the Poles of that time, they could not assemble such an army. In the 1370 year, the Poles estimate the population of their country at 2 million people, and, given the very developed agricultural economy of Poland at that time, they could not get many people out of it for military service. If the number of heavy horsemen is quite reasonable, then light cavalry and infantry can be safely divided into two. Under Grunwald, who was a little later, the Crown was able to put in the field no more than 27 thousand people, and most likely - from 16 to 20 thousand. And here - 52100 people!
    1. kalibr
      16 June 2019 14: 08
      +3
      These are the comments (and commentators!) That reconcile me with humanity in general and the citizens of Russia (with those who are in HE), in particular.
      1. arturpraetor
        arturpraetor 16 June 2019 14: 12
        +4
        And such authors do not allow me to fall off the ax hi And then here sometimes you read something from the site - so the hair is on end even in intimate places, but there are quite calm and interesting topics, with a calm and constructive discussion drinks
        1. kalibr
          16 June 2019 17: 20
          +1
          Artem, to a specific conversation about the number ... There were readers from Bulgaria and they offered me to read the materials of their historians. I read. One was especially interesting - just about the number. D. Nicole, as we say "resting", such quantities are given there. But it’s based on something, right? The articles are scientific, "not from the OBS website." So, right now I am at a loss: to write material about Bulgaria and Romania and be based on what? On these articles or the book by D. Nicolas. And I also looked ...
          1. arturpraetor
            arturpraetor 16 June 2019 17: 50
            +3
            But it’s based on something, right? The articles are scientific, "not from the OBS website."

            Usually they are based on annals, but annals are just the source where the numbers of troops are most likely to be overestimated, because you need to show your own power and / or show all the threat from the enemy - where completely scientific come from (within the framework of his time) The 500 thousandth hordes of Batu in 1237 are among historians of past generations. Another thing is that it is necessary to write material, but stamped paper was not delivered laughing That is, I’m kind of not saying that you should directly dispute the figures in your articles. But as an addition to the articles, I cannot but express my doubts about the number, since I was quite interested in this topic, and based not only on the speeches of Klim Zhukov, but rather the opposite request Accordingly, there is something to say, and there is something to offer - for myself and my work in the field of AI, I have developed a rather complex and largely intuitive scheme for calculating the size of armies at one time or another, depending on
            - the economic power of the region / state (an economically more developed state can, theoretically, collect more cavalry and heavy infantry, but if the country is at the same time experiencing rapid agricultural growth, then the figure may be less, since there is a shortage of labor in the fields);
            - the geography of the region (the inhabitants of the plains on average expose less to the people than the highlanders);
            - socio-political structure (the sedentary can, after a short period of time, having carried out a total mobilization, expose quite a lot, but the full mob. potential of the steppe residents is more than 8-10 times)
            - strengths / weaknesses of central authority (strong central authority calls for more troops than decentralized);
            And so on. All this is based on the estimated population of certain regions at one time or another, in counting and searching for information on the topic of which I also pumped up quite a bit recently laughing For example, in Poland in 1370, for example, under feudalism, a developed economy, but booming agriculture, relatively compact living, and the power of the royal power at that time, the Crown could set a maximum of 1,5% of the population in the field - this is, in fact , the whole mob. potential for the medium term, then people would have to be removed from the economy for a long time, which they tried not to do again. This gives about 30-35 thousand people, of which from 16 to 27 were noted in Grunwald - the numbers are quite consistent with each other. But as you can see, this
            1) Anyway, an approximate estimate of the size of the army;
            2) Requires a fairly large number of different specials. information. It is difficult to find the population of the country in question on the right date, especially in the Middle Ages, sometimes you have to choose a cross between several sources - when trying to find other people's estimates for the population of the Galicia-Volyn principality, for example, I almost knew the frailty of being, because the maximum and minimum found ratings differed approximately 10 times wassat
            You write about the general history, organization and weapons with armor - which is a bit different topic smile Therefore, I don’t see anything scary if you continue to write about the number of troops based on your sources, devoting time to the main topic of your posts, and let me make such inserts with estimates of the possible number of troops of one or another country at any given time. hi
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 16 June 2019 19: 03
              +1
              Are the data on the population of the regions convincing enough?

              Interestingly, do the models describe abundance? Only here still the scale of disasters will have to be taken into account, but it is also estimated.

              It’s not easy to get to a solid foundation.
              1. arturpraetor
                arturpraetor 16 June 2019 19: 21
                +4
                Quote: Korsar4
                Are the data on the population of the regions convincing enough?

                Of course, no. Population censuses in the Middle Ages were carried out, but many did not survive, or were "buried" in the archives so that you simply cannot find them. Nevertheless, there are some approximate figures, more for Western Europe, less for Eastern Europe. Most often, on the basis of indirect information, it is necessary to take a population that is very shaky in terms of provability, but this is better than nothing. By Novoye Vremya, it is already easier - there are reference books, there are specific population censuses. The estimates are approximate, but at the same time, if you take a responsible approach to the issue and know what and how, the level of reliability will be sufficient - out of nowhere millions of inhabitants will not be drawn.
                Interestingly, do the models describe abundance? Only here still the scale of disasters will have to be taken into account, but it is also estimated.

                Strange as it may seem, disasters in the Middle Ages usually do not cause long-term demographic damage - large losses are followed by a short demographic boom that “levels out” the population over several decades, unless, of course, new disasters follow. And yes, the construction of specific demographic models is a difficult and dreary business, and for each state it is unique. In the long term, I do them extremely rarely, but between some milestone dates for which there is more or less accurate information, the population can be roughly represented, knowing the population density, the degree of urban development and the average population growth in countries at the specified time. True, nomads require a completely different approach, there is a lot to dig, because SUDDENLY nomadic states always include one or another percentage of the sedentary population, and this causes certain difficulties both with the calculation of the total population and with the calculation of mobs. potential.
                Quote: Korsar4
                It’s not easy to get to a solid foundation.

                And in this case there is no solid foundation, as it is not strange, in the annals. Someone's subjective assessments recorded in the annals do not have an objective basis. An objective basis for the number of troops can be made up of salary lists, supply codes, surname regimental / official lists, and other documents, but firstly, they often simply weren’t preserved, and secondly, they were not always kept in wartime, not to mention already that such a level of documentation requires a highly developed bureaucracy, which in many countries appeared the earliest in the 15th century. For example, in the Moscow state, to the reign of Ivan the Terrible, there are exact lists of regiments that give specific numbers of troops, but for some reason some still prefer to use the opinions of past generations, as Grozny had N times more troops, and before it - so more so laughing And why? And because someone somewhere didn’t count it, or invented it, wrote it in the annals / personal letter, and so it went for a walk among people.
    2. sivuch
      sivuch 17 June 2019 09: 34
      +3
      You think! Walsingam counted 100000 Frenchmen at Agincourt, and Herodotus at the Marathon - as many as 1 million Persians.
      1. arturpraetor
        arturpraetor 17 June 2019 14: 07
        +2
        Exactly. And at Hastings, the EMNIP, according to one of the sources, the British had the 150-thousandth army (in fact, 7-8 thousand). Chronicles are sometimes annealed with numbers in full laughing
  • kalibr
    16 June 2019 14: 03
    0
    Quote: Graz
    and what do the Poles have? What kind of fearsome people in the aglitsky pictures?

    I did not look, but ... perhaps, yes. But how do I know why?
  • fuxila
    fuxila 16 June 2019 15: 55
    +2
    I do not agree with you about the light cavalry of the Western Slavs. The Arab traveler Ibn Yakub noted that they have many horses and soldiers are fully armed, specifically about the Polish prince Meshko I (died in 992), he wrote that he had a squad of 3 thousand men and he endowed them with horses. According to Gall Anonymous, lightly armed soldiers from the Poles appeared during the wars against the Pomeranians, who had light weapons, because they fought more at sea, when in 1075 in one of the battles many Poles drowned while crossing the river because of their heavy armor. Of course, this is literally impossible to believe, because and before that, all Polish soldiers could not be fully armed, but still the fact that the Poles had well-equipped cavalry in the second half of the tenth century. obvious.
    1. kalibr
      16 June 2019 17: 16
      0
      Probably should have attracted this source. But so many of them ...
  • kalibr
    16 June 2019 17: 27
    +2
    Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
    The author is not unambiguous and not very convenient,

    You said it well!
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 17 June 2019 01: 56
    +5
    Oh! laughing
    Why do interesting discussions occur when I'm either on the road, on a business trip, or in the woods, or on a holiday? Are you kidding, right? crying It looks like the cost of summer, you can only accept it, do not sit at home ... A good dozen comments noted the pluses, a couple of minuses, each plus has something to say good, each minus is nasty and evil, but ... one side is a telephone, on the other is a forest, a fire ... Firewood crunches, white nights, the Luga river, pines ... Many thanks to the author and most commentators, I will be with you again soon.
    1. arturpraetor
      arturpraetor 17 June 2019 02: 00
      +4
      And I thought - where did you go? Have a nice rest, dear colleague, we are waiting for you drinks
  • sivuch
    sivuch 17 June 2019 11: 13
    +1
    Vyacheslav, and Zavisa in the next series?
    1. kalibr
      18 June 2019 05: 54
      +1
      Alas, no, Poland is over for now.