The establishment of a new memorable date has long historical prerequisites. It was June 29, 1941 that the Directive of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR and the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks was issued, addressed to party and Soviet organizations of front-line regions of the country's regions. The Directive formulated the need to organize partisan detachments in the territory captured by the enemy. The directive prescribed: "in the areas occupied by the enemy, create partisan detachments and sabotage groups to fight with the enemy army ..., create unbearable conditions for the enemy and all his accomplices, pursue them at every step and destroy, disrupt all their activities."
It should be noted that the idea of organizing an underground partisan movement in the territory seized by the enemy arose only after the perfidious invasion of the territory of the country by a knowingly very powerful enemy. Prior to this, the guerrilla warfare method was practically not developed, and its possibility was not allowed in principle. This is explained by the same essence of the military doctrine of the USSR 30-s, which has already become the talk of the town. As is known, the leadership of the USSR believed that in the event of a hostile invasion, the war would quickly move into its territory and from the defensive would become purely offensive. During the period of mass repressions, the ideas of training for possible guerrilla warfare began to be considered at all as a manifestation of defeatism, and people who in one way or another were engaged in this work were repressed. According to the ideology of war with the enemy "little blood and on its territory", the organized training of the partisan movement morally disarmed the Soviet people, sowed defeatist sentiments. However, the reality was different, and the organization of a powerful partisan movement became imperative.
Personal presentation weapons fighters of the partisan detachment named after GI Kotovsky. Detachment named GI Kotovsky first composition acted on the territory of the Brest region of the Byelorussian SSR, the second composition - on the territory of the Brest and Vileika regions of the Byelorussian SSR.
The contribution of partisan detachments to the victory over the enemy cannot be overestimated. Thanks to the actions of the partisans, the invaders could not feel safe even in the deep rear. This put tremendous moral pressure on the Nazis.
Already six months after the Directive was issued, by the end of 1941 of the year, the number of guerrillas reached 90000 people, and the partisan detachments more than 2000. The center of the partisan movement was the rear of Army Group "Center" - the whole of Belarus, Bryansk, Smolensk and Orlovschina. Thousands of underground workers acted in Ukraine, in the Baltic States, and in the Crimea, and in the south of the RSFSR. In a word, the entire German rear was captured by the underground partisan movement - people would never want to put up with fascist rule, and popular resistance was truly mighty and heroic. Guerrilla resistance of the Great Patriotic War continued glorious partisan traditions of the ancestors - our people were not accustomed to meet the enemy on their territory.
Pinsk partisans on the march. Partizan in the foreground transfers the 7,62-mm heavy machine gun DS-39 (Degtyaryov machine-tool sample 1939 of the year), the calculation of such a machine gun consisted of four people. The Pinsk partisans acted at the junction of the Minsk, Polesye, Baranovichi, Brest, Rivne and Volyn regions of the Byelorussian SSR.
In total, during the years of the war, more than one million underground members and partisans of all ages, including women and children, acted behind enemy lines. Partisans destroyed and captured more than 1 million invaders and collaborators, destroyed more than 4000 enemy tanks and armored vehicles, 65000 vehicles, knocked out and destroyed 1100 enemy aircraft on the ground, destroyed and damaged 1600 railway bridges, derailing 20000 German echelons!
Guerrilla unit of the Hero of the Soviet Union S.A. Kovpaka passes on the street of the Ukrainian village during a military campaign
The gun crew of the 45-mm gun of a partisan-Komsomol member F.I. Timofeev of the Chernigov-Volyn partisan unit A.F. Fedorov firing at the enemy
Partisan women who participated in the liberation of the Crimea. Village Simeiz on the southern coast of the Crimean peninsula
Public execution of a “suspected partisan” by officers of the German field gendarmerie. The photo “for memory” was found in the personal belongings of the murdered German soldier. On the board nailed to the gallows, it is written in German and Russian: "Such a fate will befall each partisan and commissar and those who oppose the German army."
A group of arrested Soviet citizens on suspicion of guerrilla actions before being shot. In the background, in the center, a guard of the field gendarmerie with guns at the ready, at the top right - Wehrmacht officers and a firing squad of soldiers who arrived.
13-year-old partisan scout Fedya Moshchev. Author's annotation to the photo - “The boy was found a German rifle”. In the book "The fate of the militia" N.I. The history of this image is described as follows: “... A detachment was assembled at the dugout headquarters ... to undermine the railway. Fedya Moshchov, our young partisan, was quite a boy, too, but he wasn’t taking it, I saw his lips trembling with resentment and, to distract him, led him into our dugout, decided to take a picture, I had a camera The “contact”, taken from the Germans ... In the photo Fedya turned out well, but his face is sad, tearful ... Of course, everyone took custody and tried to uniform Fedya, and drove the tunic, and hemmed the breeches, found the boots on the leg . Vasya Vitko cut his butt on a German rifle to make it easier to wear. In the surviving picture, Fedora’s bandolier is also German, with German cartridges, and a RGD grenade at the waist, this is Vitko who gave him his own, to complete the image ...
Soviet partisans after a successful operation.
Young partisan Peter Gurko from the detachment "For the power of the Soviets." Pskov-Novgorod partisan zone.
The guerrilla brigade named after Parkhomenko (more than 1000 people) of the Minsk compound is being promoted to the “rail war”. On the left in the foreground with a tablet in hand - 25-year-old kombrig Alexei Lvov. 37-I guerrilla brigade named Parkhomenko operated in the Bobruisk and Glussk regions of the Mogilyov and Polesye regions of the Byelorussian SSR
Soviet partisans smuggle the wounded across the river
Soviet partisans hanged in Kharkov on the balcony of the administrative building. A trophy photo captured in March 1943, on the Mius-front near the village of Dyakovka. The inscription in German on the backside: “Kharkov. Hanging partisans. Awesome example for the population. That helped!!!".
Soviet partisans with a captured German 7,92-mm MG-34 machine gun mounted on a homemade machine like "sleigh".
The commander of the partisan detachment presents the medal "For Courage" to the young partisan intelligence officer. The fighter is armed with a Mosin 7,62-mm rifle.
Soviet partisan-teenager Kolya Lyubichev from partisan connection AF Fedorov with a captured German 9-mm submachine gun MP-38 in the winter forest. Nikolai Lyubichev survived the war and lived to old years.
Unknown Soviet partisan hanged on a pole of a power line in the city of Mozhaisk. The inscription on the gate behind the hanged man - "Mozhaisk cinema." The photo was found in the personal belongings of Hans Elmann, a soldier of the 10 Company of the 686 Regiment of the German 294 German Infantry Division (allegedly) who died in the battles near the village of Dmitrievka on the Mius 22 River in March 1943 of the year.
The guerrillas beat out from the village of the German punitive detachment.
The shooting of the Soviet partisans.
Soviet fighters of the 11 squad of the 3 of the Leningrad partisan brigade are fighting punitive, 1943 year. In the foreground is the partisan machine gunner M.V. Yukhnov.
Guerrilla Messenger, tortured by the Nazis.
Hung Soviet partisans. 1941
This is the first public execution in the occupied territories, on that day in Minsk, on the arch of a yeast factory, 12 was hanged by Soviet underground workers who helped wounded Red Army men to escape from captivity. In the photo - the moment of preparation for the hanging of Cyril the Coward. Right - executed 17-year-old Maria Bruskin. The poster says in German and in Russian: “We are partisans who shot at German troops”, although the members of the underground did not engage in armed struggle against the occupiers. It is possible that during the arrest someone from the underground fighters put up armed resistance, perhaps - this is only a justification of the execution before the local population. The execution was carried out by volunteers of the 2 Battalion of the Lithuanian Police Auxiliary Service, commanded by Major Impulevičius.
German threatening plate on the outskirts of the town of Karachev in the Bryansk region, which reads: “Attention! Danger - partisans! Strictly prohibited for civilians, as well as the military will appear in the area west of Karachev-Reset. Anyone who appears in the restricted area will be shot. Local commandant's office Karachev "."
Building a partisan detachment before the raid to the rear of the enemy in the Bryansk region
Young partisan scout Tolya Gorokhovsky
Pskov partisans go on a combat mission
The guerrillas, in cooperation with the units of the Red Army, are fighting on the enemy's escape routes. Kursk region.
The column of partisans goes to the rear of the enemy. Photo taken in 1942 year in the north-west direction.
Guerrilla unit on the march in the village.
Soviet women partisans armed with Mosin rifles with fixed bayonets.