Military Review

June 29 - Day of the partisans and underground fighters

18
The day of the partisans and underground workers is a new date in the calendar of memorable dates of the Fatherland, it was included in the list of memorable dates only two years ago, but already managed to become quite a famous and celebrated date. This year, the Day of the partisans and underground fighters will be celebrated only for the third time.


The establishment of a new memorable date has long historical prerequisites. It was June 29, 1941 that the Directive of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR and the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks was issued, addressed to party and Soviet organizations of front-line regions of the country's regions. The Directive formulated the need to organize partisan detachments in the territory captured by the enemy. The directive prescribed: "in the areas occupied by the enemy, create partisan detachments and sabotage groups to fight with the enemy army ..., create unbearable conditions for the enemy and all his accomplices, pursue them at every step and destroy, disrupt all their activities."

It should be noted that the idea of ​​organizing an underground partisan movement in the territory seized by the enemy arose only after the perfidious invasion of the territory of the country by a knowingly very powerful enemy. Prior to this, the guerrilla warfare method was practically not developed, and its possibility was not allowed in principle. This is explained by the same essence of the military doctrine of the USSR 30-s, which has already become the talk of the town. As is known, the leadership of the USSR believed that in the event of a hostile invasion, the war would quickly move into its territory and from the defensive would become purely offensive. During the period of mass repressions, the ideas of training for possible guerrilla warfare began to be considered at all as a manifestation of defeatism, and people who in one way or another were engaged in this work were repressed. According to the ideology of war with the enemy "little blood and on its territory", the organized training of the partisan movement morally disarmed the Soviet people, sowed defeatist sentiments. However, the reality was different, and the organization of a powerful partisan movement became imperative.

June 29 - Day of the partisans and underground fighters
Personal presentation weapons fighters of the partisan detachment named after GI Kotovsky. Detachment named GI Kotovsky first composition acted on the territory of the Brest region of the Byelorussian SSR, the second composition - on the territory of the Brest and Vileika regions of the Byelorussian SSR.

The contribution of partisan detachments to the victory over the enemy cannot be overestimated. Thanks to the actions of the partisans, the invaders could not feel safe even in the deep rear. This put tremendous moral pressure on the Nazis.

Already six months after the Directive was issued, by the end of 1941 of the year, the number of guerrillas reached 90000 people, and the partisan detachments more than 2000. The center of the partisan movement was the rear of Army Group "Center" - the whole of Belarus, Bryansk, Smolensk and Orlovschina. Thousands of underground workers acted in Ukraine, in the Baltic States, and in the Crimea, and in the south of the RSFSR. In a word, the entire German rear was captured by the underground partisan movement - people would never want to put up with fascist rule, and popular resistance was truly mighty and heroic. Guerrilla resistance of the Great Patriotic War continued glorious partisan traditions of the ancestors - our people were not accustomed to meet the enemy on their territory.

Pinsk partisans on the march. Partizan in the foreground transfers the 7,62-mm heavy machine gun DS-39 (Degtyaryov machine-tool sample 1939 of the year), the calculation of such a machine gun consisted of four people. The Pinsk partisans acted at the junction of the Minsk, Polesye, Baranovichi, Brest, Rivne and Volyn regions of the Byelorussian SSR.

In total, during the years of the war, more than one million underground members and partisans of all ages, including women and children, acted behind enemy lines. Partisans destroyed and captured more than 1 million invaders and collaborators, destroyed more than 4000 enemy tanks and armored vehicles, 65000 vehicles, knocked out and destroyed 1100 enemy aircraft on the ground, destroyed and damaged 1600 railway bridges, derailing 20000 German echelons!

Guerrilla unit of the Hero of the Soviet Union S.A. Kovpaka passes on the street of the Ukrainian village during a military campaign

The gun crew of the 45-mm gun of a partisan-Komsomol member F.I. Timofeev of the Chernigov-Volyn partisan unit A.F. Fedorov firing at the enemy

Partisan women who participated in the liberation of the Crimea. Village Simeiz on the southern coast of the Crimean peninsula

Public execution of a “suspected partisan” by officers of the German field gendarmerie. The photo “for memory” was found in the personal belongings of the murdered German soldier. On the board nailed to the gallows, it is written in German and Russian: "Such a fate will befall each partisan and commissar and those who oppose the German army."

A group of arrested Soviet citizens on suspicion of guerrilla actions before being shot. In the background, in the center, a guard of the field gendarmerie with guns at the ready, at the top right - Wehrmacht officers and a firing squad of soldiers who arrived.

13-year-old partisan scout Fedya Moshchev. Author's annotation to the photo - “The boy was found a German rifle”. In the book "The fate of the militia" N.I. The history of this image is described as follows: “... A detachment was assembled at the dugout headquarters ... to undermine the railway. Fedya Moshchov, our young partisan, was quite a boy, too, but he wasn’t taking it, I saw his lips trembling with resentment and, to distract him, led him into our dugout, decided to take a picture, I had a camera The “contact”, taken from the Germans ... In the photo Fedya turned out well, but his face is sad, tearful ... Of course, everyone took custody and tried to uniform Fedya, and drove the tunic, and hemmed the breeches, found the boots on the leg . Vasya Vitko cut his butt on a German rifle to make it easier to wear. In the surviving picture, Fedora’s bandolier is also German, with German cartridges, and a RGD grenade at the waist, this is Vitko who gave him his own, to complete the image ...

Soviet partisans after a successful operation.

Young partisan Peter Gurko from the detachment "For the power of the Soviets." Pskov-Novgorod partisan zone.

The guerrilla brigade named after Parkhomenko (more than 1000 people) of the Minsk compound is being promoted to the “rail war”. On the left in the foreground with a tablet in hand - 25-year-old kombrig Alexei Lvov. 37-I guerrilla brigade named Parkhomenko operated in the Bobruisk and Glussk regions of the Mogilyov and Polesye regions of the Byelorussian SSR

Soviet partisans smuggle the wounded across the river

Soviet partisans hanged in Kharkov on the balcony of the administrative building. A trophy photo captured in March 1943, on the Mius-front near the village of Dyakovka. The inscription in German on the backside: “Kharkov. Hanging partisans. Awesome example for the population. That helped!!!".

Soviet partisans with a captured German 7,92-mm MG-34 machine gun mounted on a homemade machine like "sleigh".

The commander of the partisan detachment presents the medal "For Courage" to the young partisan intelligence officer. The fighter is armed with a Mosin 7,62-mm rifle.



Soviet partisan-teenager Kolya Lyubichev from partisan connection AF Fedorov with a captured German 9-mm submachine gun MP-38 in the winter forest. Nikolai Lyubichev survived the war and lived to old years.

Unknown Soviet partisan hanged on a pole of a power line in the city of Mozhaisk. The inscription on the gate behind the hanged man - "Mozhaisk cinema." The photo was found in the personal belongings of Hans Elmann, a soldier of the 10 Company of the 686 Regiment of the German 294 German Infantry Division (allegedly) who died in the battles near the village of Dmitrievka on the Mius 22 River in March 1943 of the year.

The guerrillas beat out from the village of the German punitive detachment.

The shooting of the Soviet partisans.

Soviet fighters of the 11 squad of the 3 of the Leningrad partisan brigade are fighting punitive, 1943 year. In the foreground is the partisan machine gunner M.V. Yukhnov.

Guerrilla Messenger, tortured by the Nazis.

Hung Soviet partisans. 1941

This is the first public execution in the occupied territories, on that day in Minsk, on the arch of a yeast factory, 12 was hanged by Soviet underground workers who helped wounded Red Army men to escape from captivity. In the photo - the moment of preparation for the hanging of Cyril the Coward. Right - executed 17-year-old Maria Bruskin. The poster says in German and in Russian: “We are partisans who shot at German troops”, although the members of the underground did not engage in armed struggle against the occupiers. It is possible that during the arrest someone from the underground fighters put up armed resistance, perhaps - this is only a justification of the execution before the local population. The execution was carried out by volunteers of the 2 Battalion of the Lithuanian Police Auxiliary Service, commanded by Major Impulevičius.

German threatening plate on the outskirts of the town of Karachev in the Bryansk region, which reads: “Attention! Danger - partisans! Strictly prohibited for civilians, as well as the military will appear in the area west of Karachev-Reset. Anyone who appears in the restricted area will be shot. Local commandant's office Karachev "."

Building a partisan detachment before the raid to the rear of the enemy in the Bryansk region

Young partisan scout Tolya Gorokhovsky

Pskov partisans go on a combat mission

The guerrillas, in cooperation with the units of the Red Army, are fighting on the enemy's escape routes. Kursk region.

The column of partisans goes to the rear of the enemy. Photo taken in 1942 year in the north-west direction.

Guerrilla unit on the march in the village.

Soviet women partisans armed with Mosin rifles with fixed bayonets.
Photos used:
http://waralbum.ru
18 comments
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  1. Dmitriy69
    Dmitriy69 29 June 2012 08: 45
    +15
    Why is Russia invincible? Yes, because the enemy even seized the land under his feet burns.
    1. radikdan79
      radikdan79 29 June 2012 09: 47
      +7
      Dmitriy69,
      Incidentally, the experience of the partisan struggle against the Nazis in Belarus is being studied at the American Academy of West Point to organize rebel groups in other countries ...
      1. 755962
        755962 29 June 2012 13: 20
        +3
        A little about my countryman.
        Cherepovets, despite his remoteness from the occupied territories, is also famous for its partisan heroes. One of them is Boris Stepanovich Okinin (1912 - 1941).
        He was born in 1912 in the village of Lychno, Ustyuzhensky District, Vologda Region.

        In 1929 he graduated from high school number 1 in Cherepovets. He graduated from the Cherepovets River College. Then he worked at the Nevsky Shipyard in Leningrad. At the end of August 1941, he volunteered for a partisan detachment, in the first months of the war he was behind enemy lines in the vicinity of the village of Vyritsa, Leningrad Region. After a successful operation, Okinin, along with his comrades, returned to the base, where punitive officers were already waiting for them. A tough battle began. Boris Stepanovich, firing from a light machine gun, covered the withdrawal of the detachment and allowed him to tear himself away from the enemy. When the ammunition came to an end, the partisans, leaving the last cartridge for themselves, preferred death to the Nazi captivity. His corpse was mutilated by punishers. The next day, a group of soldiers of the detachment buried their comrade at the place of death.


        For his feat, Boris Okinin was posthumously awarded the Medal For Courage. One of the streets in the Northern region of Cherepovets is named after him.
  2. The comment was deleted.
    1. collapse
      collapse 29 June 2012 09: 24
      +6
      Vadivak well done, 5 +++++++++++++++, mood lifted !!!)))))))))))))
      1. Gavrilon
        Gavrilon 29 June 2012 12: 52
        +3
        +100000 The letter from the grandfathers was heartily pleased.

        The farther into the forest the meaner the partisans am
  3. wk
    wk 29 June 2012 08: 55
    +8
    Nikolai Semenovich Tikhonov

    (1896-1979)

    BALLADA ABOUT NAILS


    Calm down the pipe to the end,
    He smiled calmly from his face.

    "Team, to the front! Officers, go!"
    The commander walks dryly.

    And the words are equal in full height:
    "Anchoring at eight.

    At whom the wife, the brother -
    Write, we will not come back.

    But there will be a noble bowling alley. "
    And the eldest in response: "Yes, captain!"

    And the most daring and young
    I looked at the sun over the water.

    “Does it matter,” he said, “where?
    It's even easier to lie in the water. "

    Admiral's ears caught the dawn:
    "The order is executed, there are no rescued".

    Nails would be made from these people:
    Harder would not have been in the world of nails.


    Eternal memory to the fallen! Glory to the heroes!
  4. patriot2
    patriot2 29 June 2012 09: 03
    +10
    So, with the holiday of you Partisans of the Great Patriotic War - you are real Patriots of your Motherland!
    Eternal memory to the dead and tortured partisans of the Second World War!
  5. JoylyRoger
    JoylyRoger 29 June 2012 09: 42
    +6
    Happy holiday !!!!
    Oh, no matter how experience was to be remembered and applied ....
  6. vostok
    vostok 29 June 2012 10: 32
    +5
    The partisans made a tangible contribution to the victory over fascist Germany, from the mere mention of the partisans the Germans cracked their knees. Thanks for the victory! Happy holiday!
  7. Guran96
    Guran96 29 June 2012 10: 36
    +4
    Thanks to the partisans, the Nazis could not feel calm in the occupied territories. Resistance to the invaders was fierce. The partisan movement in victory is undeniably enormous.
  8. edge
    edge 29 June 2012 10: 48
    +5
    I would bow to my uncles in my belt, but it's a pity they are gone ........
  9. suharev-52
    suharev-52 29 June 2012 11: 01
    +4
    Nor would we have to recall the glorious partisan traditions of our ancestors. Sincerely.
  10. Dimka off
    Dimka off 29 June 2012 11: 22
    +4
    happy holiday!

    In a dark grove deaf
    Partisan young
    Lurking in ambush with a detachment.
    In the autumn rain
    We will wait for the enemy
    And trample the fascist reptile!

    Neither sister nor wife
    We are not waiting at the window
    Native mother does not set the table.
    Our families are gone
    Our huts were burned
    Only the wind howls in the ruins ...

    And flies over the country
    This wind is native, -
    He counts both tears and wounds
    So that they can at night
    To avenge the executioners
    For children, for partisan fathers.

    In a dark grove deaf
    The moon did not shine
    In a clear sky the dawn went out.
    There is a fascist convoy
    Flew downhill
    And exploded on his own mines.

    In a dark grove deaf
    Partisan young
    Lurking in ambush with a detachment.
    In the autumn rain
    We will wait for the enemy
    And trample the fascist reptile!
  11. Lech e-mine
    Lech e-mine 29 June 2012 11: 55
    +2
    Well done partisans beat the Fritz without mercy.
  12. snik57
    snik57 29 June 2012 12: 10
    +3
    Partisans of Russia - GREAT POWER !!! good
  13. Dobrokhod Sergey
    Dobrokhod Sergey 29 June 2012 14: 03
    +2
    Indeed, there was a popular war, a holy war, and this was the key to success.
    Thank you!

    A stunning story about Alexander German: http://www.liveinternet.ru/users/panzir56/post115109168
  14. Andrey77
    Andrey77 29 June 2012 15: 12
    +1
    The experience of guerrilla warfare of the USSR 1941-1944 has been studied up and down by everyone who is not lazy. First of all, by the Americans. Do not expect guerrilla warfare in Syria and Iraq.
    1. Cynic
      Cynic 29 June 2012 17: 51
      +2
      Quote: Andrey77
      Do not expect guerrilla warfare in Syria and Iraq.

      Hmm.
      It’s too early to talk about Syria.
      Here is Iraq?
      Although there are mischievous terrorists! Partisans, of course, are not there!
      bully
  15. Cadet787
    Cadet787 29 June 2012 17: 19
    +3
    With the holiday you partisans former and future.
  16. Cynic
    Cynic 29 June 2012 17: 53
    +2
    Glory to the partisans!
    Happy holiday to you!
    By the way, one of my favorite books is "People with a clear conscience."
  17. Prophet Alyosha
    Prophet Alyosha 29 June 2012 19: 18
    -2
    This is truly our - Russian holiday !!! And this holiday, believe me, will soon be the most ACTUAL among the Russian people again. And just like in those distant years, we must be ready for a guerrilla war, after all, the Army has collapsed and reduced to the level of a "limited contingent", will not be able to give a worthy rebuff to the aggressor. Our rulers again put the Russian people before a choice - to become a partisan, or to become a slave !!!
  18. wandlitz
    wandlitz 29 June 2012 20: 40
    +1
    COMPANIES WITH THE HOLIDAY !!!
  19. kuzmich
    kuzmich 29 June 2012 23: 04
    +1
    Article fat plus, this is actually a national holiday good
    1. Andrey77
      Andrey77 5 July 2012 03: 06
      0
      Never a folk. What kind of people? Now there is a guerrilla war against the Russian Federation from a number of southern republics. ANY guerrilla warfare methods I attribute to terrorism. Dot. I will not put a bold minus article, but also a plus.
  20. Nechai
    Nechai 29 June 2012 23: 59
    +3
    Pavel Borisovich Luspekaev (April 20, 1927, Big Salas [1] - April 17, 1970, Moscow)
    From Wikidepia: "Pavel was born on April 20, 1927 in the village of Bolshiye Saly, Myasnikovsky district, Rostov region. His father was from Nakhichevan Armenians (from the village of Bolshiye Saly), worked as a butcher; his mother is a Don Cossack woman. In the early 1940s, Pavel entered Lugansk vocational school, later evacuated with him to Frunze, worked as a mechanic.

    In 1943, as a fifteen-year-old teenager, he volunteered for the front. He ended up in one of the partisan detachments, repeatedly took part in military operations as part of a partisan reconnaissance group ("task force 00134"). During one of the battles, Pavel was seriously wounded in the arm by an explosive bullet, and his elbow joint was shattered. [3] He was sent to the Saratov military hospital, where they urgently began to prepare for the amputation of his arm. By some unthinkable effort of will, Pasha emerged from unconsciousness and did not allow the surgeon to touch his hand until he vowed to try to do without amputation. [4] The hand was saved. After his recovery, P. Luspekaev was assigned to serve in the headquarters of the partisan movement of the 3rd Ukrainian Front. In 1944, having demobilized from the army, Pavel moved to Voroshilovgrad (now Lugansk). "
    I will add - Before being wounded in one of the ambushes by a German in the steppe, Pavel was very cold. This frostbite later and gradually led to the fact that he was left without legs ... And in "White Sun ..." he starred on both prostheses ...
    1. Bob
      Bob 30 June 2012 17: 16
      +1
      Quote: Nechai
      Pavel Borisovich Luspekaev

      Pavel Borisovich Luspekayev a big bow. And the hero and actor, and the film ....
      And the film is SUPER, you watch, you don’t see enough. I don’t know how about the modern generation, do they know, do they remember. I would like to believe in the best. And this means that the country also has a future.
  21. Larus
    Larus 30 June 2012 10: 11
    +2
    It should be noted that the idea of ​​organizing an underground partisan movement in the territory occupied by the enemy arose only after the treacherous invasion to the territory of the country is obviously a very powerful enemy. Prior to this, the guerrilla warfare technique was practically not developed, and its possibility, in principle, was not allowed. This is explained by the very essence of the military doctrine of the USSR of the 30s, which has already become a byword.

    I read for a long time the recollections of people who did just that, namely, training people, laying bases, etc. After all, the experience of the partisan movement was accumulated during the revolution, but before the war, there was a purge that affected those responsible for this matter, therefore a lot is lost, but not all. So all these liberal bunches aside Stalin wanted to attack, but he was ahead of him.
  22. Bob
    Bob 30 June 2012 11: 17
    +2
    Glory to the heroes, their contribution to the victory is invaluable.
    So all of us, it may happen, already today or tomorrow we will have to decide on our future - to become traitors (there were such traitors in the past, they are now), or patriots who defend the common interests of justice and order, security and legality, against adversaries of all stripes - whether it be potential invaders or local thugs, brought up on the liberal-shitty western values ​​of individualism, homosexuality, etc., etc.
    Maybe someone will be interested in the topic: http://www.kodges.ru/2008/03/15/maroder.html
  23. Kostya pedestrian
    Kostya pedestrian 30 June 2012 11: 52
    +1
    Why did we win at Kursk?
    The partisans smeared the rails with fat, so that the trains for the Wehrmacht could only stop behind the front line!

    To the author of the article, thanks for the useful and interesting information.
    1. Andrey77
      Andrey77 5 July 2012 03: 08
      0
      Why did we win the Second World War?
      Partisan Uncle Vasya stole a machine gun from a German!
  24. sf35wesdg
    sf35wesdg 1 July 2012 11: 19
    0
    What is being done with the country where the authorities are looking?
    I somehow accidentally stumbled upon a site for finding people http://tiny.cc/nayti
    Here you can find information about any resident of Russia, Ukraine and other CIS countries.
    I'm really scared - twist like that any nit-picking can come in and see.
    Addresses, best friends, relatives, above all, for example, there are my photos, phone number.
    It’s good that you can delete, find your page - pass the check and delete
    And then there is nobody who is looking for ...