How Avangard was created. Secret weapon history

This year, the Strategic Missile Forces will receive the first mass-produced missile systems with a hypersonic planning combat block Avangard. The adoption of this system will be a worthy finale of a long and complex project implemented by national science and industry. Although most of the data on Avangard and its development remains closed, from time to time various data on the course of the domestic hypersonic program appeared. This allows you to roughly imagine how the creation of a fundamentally new weapons.



The first official image of LA "Avangard"


First mentions


It is known that the first work on hypersonic topics in our country began a few decades ago. Experimental aircraft of various types were built and tested. The development of a new model designed for use in the Strategic Missile Forces, apparently, began no later than the end of the nineties.

In February, 2004, at the Baikonur test site, an intercontinental ballistic missile UR-100НТТТХ was launched. It soon became known that this MBR carried a new payload in the form of some kind of aircraft capable of developing hypersonic speed and maneuvering during flight. Foreign analysts came up with an assumption about the testing of a combat unit with the index 15Ü70.

Later, by the end of the decade, new designations began to appear in open sources, allegedly related to the hypersonic program. The entire design of the weapon was called “4202”, and the hypersonic aircraft was designated as 15Ü71 or simply U-71. Later similar designations were found in open official documents.

According to different sources, various enterprises of the rocket-space and defense industry participated in the work on the topic “4202”. The leading role was played by NPO Mashinostroyenia (Reutov). Since the end of the two thousand years, the participating enterprises have been upgrading their production capacities, possibly associated with a hypersonic program.

"4202" on trial


What kind of aircraft was tested in 2004 was unknown, but further events suggest that these were not tests within the framework of the 4202 project. Another similar news entered 2010. Then, domestic media reported testing of an ICBM with a fundamentally new combat unit. However, this time there were no details either, which did not allow us to speak of the existence of a hypersonic LA of a modern appearance.


Forecasts of the look of LA "4202" / Yu-71


It is believed that the first known test launch under the 4202 program took place at the end of 2011. Then the UR-100H UTTH rocket from the Baikonur test site sent its load to the Kura test site. The official aim of the shooting was to check the new combat equipment capable of overcoming the missile defense system. In September, 2013 could have another similar launch with similar goals. According to domestic and foreign media sources, in 2015-16. Two or three more tests of the “4202” / 15Ü71 / U-71 product took place.

During this period, interesting assumptions appeared in foreign sources regarding the origin of the new project. So, the opinion was expressed that the purpose of the 4202 program was initially to create a new combat unit for promising ICBMs, but later it was expanded. At the same time, the first versions of the direct connection of the U-71 project with promising ICBM RS-26 Rubezh and RS-28 Sarmat appeared.

It should be recalled that until last year, data on the domestic hypersonic program were fragmentary. There was only a limited number of official communications, and other information came from not always reliable sources or was the result of a study of the available information. As a result, the public was able to roughly understand the goals and objectives of the new project, the main advantages and disadvantages, etc., but the lack of more accurate information and basic characteristics imposed certain limitations.

Code "Avangard"


It is now known that the new missile system is called Avangard, but in the past this name has caused some questions. For the first time such a name was sounded in the middle of 2011. The leadership of the Ministry of Defense spoke about the impending rearmament of the Strategic Missile Forces, and in this context a certain Avangard product was mentioned.

Later, in the media and on specialized resources, the version appeared, according to which Avangard and Rubezh projects have the most direct connection - to the extent that these codes denote the same development.


Launch of the UR-100N UTTH rocket with Avangard


In 2011-17 On the Russian and foreign test sites, tests of the promising complex “Rubezh” / “Avangard” / “Avangard-Rubezh” took place. As reported, these were launches of a “conventional” ICBM with standard combat equipment. It is noteworthy that at that time there was no connection between Avangard and the 4202 program. However, flights along the “internal” highway Kapustin Yar - Sary-Shagan could hint at the presence of certain features that require concealment from foreign intelligence services.

As always, the lack of open information led to the most daring versions. Among other things, speculations were made about the testing of a fundamentally new combat unit or promising means of air defense breakthrough. An opinion was also expressed on testing hypersonic aircraft, but it was not particularly popular.

Surprise from the president


1 in March last year as part of his message to the Federal Assembly, President Vladimir Putin for the first time officially disclosed information on several promising weapons. Among these products was the Avangard missile system.

It turned out that this name carries a complex that includes an ICBM and a hypersonic planning combat unit. Such weapons have several advantages over conventional warheads and allow them to more effectively accomplish the same tasks. In fact, all the advantages are provided by the highest speed of flight: it complicates timely detection and makes it almost impossible to intercept.

Soon, from official sources, it became known that Avangard products would go into service together with UR-100N UTTH type carriers. In the future, promising ICBM RS-28 Sarmat will receive this role. The Frontier PC-26 was no longer remembered in the context of hypersonic weapons, because it was abandoned several years ago for reasons of economy.


MBR "Sarmat" - the future carrier of the product "Avangard"


At the end of 2018, Deputy Prime Minister Yuri Borisov revealed some of the details of the Avangard project. So, it turned out that four years earlier this complex was under threat of closure due to serious difficulties in its creation. However, the industry was given the opportunity to continue the program, and this led to well-known results.

December 26 held the next, the third test launch of the Avangard system. Characteristics have been confirmed, and this allows us to decide on the adoption of the complex for service. At the same time, the contract for the mass production of new weapons, as it turned out, was signed back in 2017, but was kept secret until a certain time.

Plans for the future


After last year’s speech by the President, official sources began to regularly publish various news on the Avangard project, and now the situation with the available information is much better than in the recent past. The timing of the future deployment of such systems, their operators, etc. are already known.

Already this year, the first Avangard complexes will take up combat duty in the 13 th missile of the Orenburg Red Banner Division, and in the future it will be possible to re-equip other units. In the near future, hypersonic warheads will work with the UR-100N UTTH missiles, and in the early twenties, a new version of the complex based on the Sarmat ICBM is expected.

Thus, one of the boldest and most ambitious projects of the last decades has been successfully completed. Fundamentally new weapons brought to mass production and should soon go to the troops. Due to the special characteristics and capabilities, a new weapon will be able to attack designated targets without fear of enemy air defense and missile defense. This will make Avangard a unique means of strategic deterrence or retaliation.

Despite the imminent start of operation, Avangard largely remains secret. The situation with the past stages of the project is no better, when it was called “4202”, 15Ü71 and U-71. It is possible that in the future, new information will be made available to the public about the development of these weapons, and the country will be able to learn all the details, understand the complexity of the work, and also deserve to evaluate the work of designers. However, while necessary to observe the necessary secrecy.
Author:
Photos used:
Russian Defense Ministry / mil.ru, Militaryrussia.ru
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  1. Horse, people and soul 3 June 2019 18: 16 New
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    However, the necessary secrecy should be respected for now.


    The poster is in the subject ...



    Do not chat!


    Do not chat!
    1. Observer2014 3 June 2019 18: 33 New
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      Quote: Horse, people and soul
      However, the necessary secrecy should be respected for now.


      The poster is in the subject ...



      Do not chat!


      Do not chat!

      laughing wassat laughing Come on. Also secretaries to me. I’ll draw even steeper under the ruler. Right there they depicted a whole system. And with a photo in 3D Sorry isometric a technical drawing? laughing bully Karlaki marlaki under the ruler. That's what it is. So we don’t need to build ourselves wise by the experience of the Specialists here. The people should be proud of their military equipment! Point. And do not recognize it from foreign magazines. Example of the USSR. What helped keep everything a secret? NO!. That's it. wink A plus article. Although in general terms, understanding arises about the work done hi And no one insists on more! soldierThe time will come to shoot more films on this issue!
      1. Voyager 3 June 2019 19: 07 New
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        Well, yes, an already elderly host of the “Military Reception” will still be proud to give us tours of assembly shops and even give us a red button laughing
        1. Observer2014 3 June 2019 19: 10 New
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          Quote: Voyager
          Well, yes, an already elderly host of the “Military Reception” will still be proud to give us tours of assembly shops and even give us a red button laughing

          C'mon, I honestly don’t like this “screw-nut”. Small. And they always stick their noses wherever they go .. I don’t remember the transfer Also military subjects. Leading guy under two meters. Class good Leads the program.
  2. gridasov 3 June 2019 18: 34 New
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    It’s ridiculous to read about some kind of secrecy and mystery of the technology. The simple thing is that the big data analysis method allows you to include in the analysis all the information about alternative solutions to this problem and how to implement it. Therefore, where engineers could not overcome the lack of fundamental knowledge in achieving hyper speeds in elastic atmosphere, they simply solved the problem , bypassing these issues. However, there are no new theoretical justifications, no new technical solutions.
    1. Lipchanin 3 June 2019 19: 15 New
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      Quote: gridasov
      However, there are no new theoretical justifications, no new technical solutions.

      but the hypersound came from somewhere request
      1. gridasov 3 June 2019 19: 56 New
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        Well, you probably already need to understand where this hypersound is achieved. It's the same basic knowledge of physical processes. Hypersound in the atmosphere and space are completely different physical processes.
        1. Cherry Nine 3 June 2019 21: 37 New
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          Quote: gridasov
          Hypersound in ... space
          1. Lipchanin 3 June 2019 22: 11 New
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            Quote: Cherry Nine
            Quote: gridasov
            Hypersound in ... space

            laughing good
            Masterpiece
            1. gridasov 3 June 2019 23: 22 New
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              Sorry, but it’s not my problem to voice such information. And in this I more than agree with you. But this is so presented.
      2. Corn 4 June 2019 01: 16 New
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        but the hypersound came from somewhere
        apart from all kinds of experimental guns, the V-2 already developed quite a hypersound, and since then the warheads of ballistic missiles have not become slower.
      3. telobezumnoe 23 July 2019 10: 07 New
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        Gagarin also flew at hypersonic speed, now it’s just a marketing trick to call hypersound, and a ramjet hypersonic engine, like a pulsed one, remains what is desired rather than real
    2. Reklastik 3 June 2019 21: 48 New
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      Quote: gridasov
      they just solved the problem , bypassing these questions.

      Neo and Morpheus near you? Say hello to these glorious guys who have opened to us a world of illusions of human perception and ways to circumvent themlaughing
      1. Lipchanin 3 June 2019 22: 14 New
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        Quote: Reklastik
        discovered the world of illusions of human perception and ways to circumvent them

        there is one more
      2. gridasov 3 June 2019 23: 23 New
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        I will definitely tell you if I’m familiar. Only I very often meet with illusionists like you when they come into reality.
      3. gridasov 3 June 2019 23: 59 New
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        In general, I think that if you were at least a little smart, you would not have used the term speed as a derivative of the distance and flight time, but used complex mathematical transformations of some parameters to others from the moment the flight started to the point of contact. But I think you are far from these concepts and methods. In general, in vain you distort me and compare me with a boxer
        1. Reklastik 4 June 2019 19: 58 New
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          I didn’t use such words here, you attributed it to me for some reason, and now you are responding to what I supposedly said))) This is a standard trick of illusionists like you, and, quite simply, verbiage))) And before these your methods to me, and true, far away - even trying to act like you do not want to)))) You are definitely not a boxer, he is at least honest and sincere in his passages)))
  3. bk316 3 June 2019 18: 42 New
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    Article plus, thanks. Good compilation of open sources.
    I want to live up to the moment when the history of its creation is declassified and it will be possible to compare our speculation and reality.
  4. swzero 3 June 2019 19: 02 New
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    The article does not say a word that the lion's share of work on this topic was carried out in the USSR. Starting with the notorious Spiral and ending with Albatross 15P170 (the first flight in 1990) - the direct ancestor of the Vanguard. http://militaryrussia.ru/blog/topic-844.html
    In fact, a significant part of the current “new products” has Soviet roots. They were able to restore and complete the Soviet development work, well done, but do not give out these works exclusively for the achievements of the current Russian Federation. If it had not been for the collapse of the union, the avant-garde would have probably flown in the late 90s.
    1. swzero 3 June 2019 19: 18 New
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      More precisely, the direct ancestor of the Vanguard was block 15Y70 / product 102 (the first launch, again in 1990), was developed in parallel with Albatross.
      http://militaryrussia.ru/blog/topic-870.
    2. Lipchanin 3 June 2019 19: 21 New
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      Quote: swzero
      In fact, a significant part of the current “new products” has Soviet roots.

      and our Army is a direct descendant of "The Comic Regiments of Peter I
      and Popov invented the radio. and the Chinese still launched rockets
      one thing is an idea, another thing is its embodiment.
      1. swzero 3 June 2019 19: 35 New
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        15Yu71 / product 402 is a further development of the project 15Y70 / product 102 and both projects were developed by the same design bureau. In the article, if it claims to be objective, it was worth at least mentioning it.
        PS. From the amusing regiments of Peter the Imperial Guard / Life Guard grew. In addition to feasts, drinking bouts and palace coups, she was not particularly remembered by anything. It has nothing to do with the current army.
        1. Lipchanin 3 June 2019 20: 27 New
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          [quote = swzero] 15Yu71 / product 402 is a further development of the project 15Y70 / product 102 and both projects were developed by the same design bureau. In the article, if it claims to be objective, it was worth at least mentioning it. [/ Quote]
          from this and began
          [quote] It is known that the first work on hypersonic topics in our country began a few decades ago. Experimental aircraft of various types were built and tested. The development of a new sample intended for use in the Strategic Missile Forces, apparently, started no later than the late nineties.
          [/ quote
          [quote] In addition to feasting, drinking and palace upheavals, she was not particularly remembered. It has nothing to do with the current army. [/ Quote]
          Well, this is how to look ....
          and in general, maybe enough to dump the USSR backlogs? judging by your comments, we did NOT come up with anything new.
          Mendeleev invented the table, no less important are the elements that add to it
          1. gridasov 3 June 2019 21: 16 New
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            I think that the question is not so much in the time of these backlogs, but in the fact that within the framework of one life of the authors of ideas, some projects are not being mastered. Therefore, we need inextricable succession in key developments. You can recall many examples when the departure of geniuses marked the loss of knowledge. The greatest tragedy of all time, I would call the death of the Library of Alexandria created a gap between knowledge from the past to the future and destroyed the support for development, which had to be re-created
    3. Alexander Migay 4 June 2019 01: 04 New
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      And here the Spiral, better remember Ajax
    4. Alexander Migay 4 June 2019 01: 05 New
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      And here Spiral, AJAX closer
    5. K-612-O 4 June 2019 06: 34 New
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      Technologically, this was unfortunately impossible. There were no control systems and materials, and guaranteed operation of BB automation in such modes was not provided.
  5. Voyager 3 June 2019 19: 02 New
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    It is noteworthy how the information periodically leaked over the years, but you can’t compose a general picture of parts and grains. Few people knew or knew what all this could really be.
    1. gridasov 3 June 2019 20: 02 New
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      These achievements are like phrases taken out of context. If we compare the entire complex of resource costs with goals and objectives and many others, the only completed task at the moment is to temporarily abstain the enemy from active actions. And an important part was performed by animation specialists.
    2. AAK
      AAK 3 June 2019 22: 35 New
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      A colleague, is not one of the layouts on the subject "Ajax" in the photo? If wrong - tell me ..
      1. Voyager 4 June 2019 15: 52 New
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        In the photo the layout of just the same "Vanguard". “Ajax” should have been more like an airplane than a winged block, if I'm not mistaken
  6. evgen1221 3 June 2019 19: 22 New
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    Now, probably in the west, each meteorite span over the country is considered as another test of hyper)))
  7. Operator 3 June 2019 20: 06 New
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    "all the advantages are provided by the highest speed of flight: it makes it difficult to detect in time and makes it almost impossible to intercept"

    Exactly the opposite - movement with a hypersonic speed in the stratosphere maximally facilitates radar detection of aircrafts moving in a plasma cloud, and makes it absolutely impossible to intercept it with the aid of atmospheric interceptors that are in service with the US ground and naval defense systems.
    1. gridasov 3 June 2019 20: 22 New
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      It remains only to add, which does not allow in the light of modern times the achievement in the field of creating element devices with high energy density to control these devices and maneuver in different layers of both the atmosphere and space. In general, kinetic flight along a given approximate ballistic trajectory is all.
      1. Protos 3 June 2019 23: 35 New
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        The most common is that the hypersonic unit is maneuvering and controllable in ALL sections of the trajectory! hi
      2. malyvalv 4 June 2019 01: 26 New
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        You are all trying to reduce the topic to the fact that Vanguard is an ordinary ballistic missile. But then no one would have fenced the garden.
        1. telobezumnoe 23 July 2019 10: 17 New
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          the avant-garde is a combat unit, not a missile, and it is not ordinary because it can maneuver in height, just like a pebble jumping from water, also from the atmosphere, while the height is not large and it is not visible for a long time beyond the radio horizon, that’s probably all the differences from previous maneuvering warheads.
      3. Moore 4 June 2019 04: 34 New
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        Quote: gridasov
        It remains only to add, which does not allow in the light of modern times the achievement in the field of creating element devices with high energy density to control these devices and maneuver in different layers of both the atmosphere and space. In general, kinetic flight along a given approximate ballistic trajectory is all.

        You are just like that bishop in a dispute with Galileo:
        There are seven days in a week; there are seven holes in a person’s head: two eyes, two ears, two nostrils and a mouth; there are seven planets in the sky: Moon, Mercury, Venus, Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn. And if you admit that Galileo discovered four more planets, then there will be eleven planets, but this cannot be!
  8. Armata T-14 3 June 2019 20: 41 New
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    He also has a GOS, wow. What for? He hits the stationary targets, especially the 2MT thermonuclear charge - an error of 10-20 meters does not make the weather - at the epicenter everything just evaporates, disappears. Or are they going to beat the Vanguard on ships? laughing

    By the way, GOS, if it does exist, there can only be optical. Radar is useless in a plasma cloud
  9. Armata T-14 3 June 2019 20: 44 New
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    In essence, all benefits are provided Highest flight speed: it makes it difficult to detect on time and makes interception almost impossible.

    Not only. Still maneuvering. In addition, hiding the block by the plasma cloud, although this is already a side effect
  10. DimerVladimer 4 June 2019 10: 57 New
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    Thus, one of the most daring and ambitious projects of recent decades has been successfully completed.


    This is for journalists "project completed."
    In general, course-adjusted blocks began to be tested back in the USSR.
    After flight tests, I happened to see corrected blocks back in the early 90s in chipboard mode.
    The process of their improvement has not stopped and will not stop.
  11. Old26 4 June 2019 21: 05 New
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    Quote: swzero
    15YU71 / product 402 is a further development of the project 15Y70 / product 102 and both projects were developed by the same design bureau.

    And "Albatross" was also developed at the Design Bureau of Engineering.

    Quote: Protos
    The most common is that the hypersonic unit is maneuvering and controllable in ALL sections of the trajectory! hi

    For everyone? And on average and at the initial stage? But the main thing is why he should be guided in these sections of the trajectory. It is the CP that brings him to the flight path to the target. And maneuvering at the beginning will lead to the fact that the block does not hit the target

    Quote: malyvalv
    You are all trying to reduce the topic to the fact that Vanguard is an ordinary ballistic missile. But then no one would have fenced the garden.

    "Vanguard" is not a ballistic missile, but the military equipment of a ballistic missile. And this, sorry, two different things

    Quote: DimerVladimer
    After flight tests, I happened to see corrected blocks back in the early 90s in chipboard mode.

    Well, the 178th block was tested in the early 90s, EMNIP
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