Military Review

Knighthood of the medieval Balkans

44
Dear god how do i do
And to which kingdom to cleave:

Will I take the kingdom of heaven?
Will I take away the kingdom of the earth?
If now I choose a kingdom,
I will choose the kingdom of the earth,
Brief is the kingdom of the earth,
The Kingdom of Heaven will be forever ...
“Death of the kingdom of Serbian. Song


Knights and chivalry of three centuries. How did the knights of the Balkans differ from the knights of Western countries, what features in the weapons did they possess?

Last time we finished considering the military affairs of the Lower Lands, the Outremer, as it was then said in Europe. Today our path lies north. Passing Byzantium (there will be a separate story about it) we will find ourselves in the Balkans - “the underbelly of Europe”, at first glance it seems to be its distant outskirts, but in fact “a direct route to its very heart”. Yes, but what was so interesting there in the period in question, from 1050 to 1350, the year? But about this now and our story goes ...


Greek warriors. Manuscript miniature approx. 1300 - 1399 (National Library of France, Paris)


Many mountains, nations and religions


The medieval Balkans were as fragmented as they are today. Most of the inhabitants of this region were Slavs, including Bulgarians, Macedonians, Serbs, Bosnians, Dalmatians, Croats and Slovenes. Of these, the last four groups before the Ottoman conquest were mostly Catholics. But after the Ottoman conquest, most of the same Bosnians gradually adopted Islam, but it is interesting that in medieval Bosnia there already existed a significant non-Christian minority. They were Bogomils, followers of the version of the Manichaean faith, which previously existed in eastern Anatolia and, like the heresy of the Albigensians or the Cathars, became widespread in southern France. Residents of medieval Dalmatia were partly Italians, both in culture and in speech. The Wallachs - the semi-nomadic ancestors of modern Romanians lived in a large part of the territory of the Balkans, including some of the western and southern parts of the peninsula. The relief of this territory was heavily cut. There are a lot of mountains, valleys between them, along the coast there are many islands where you could hide from any conquerors. In Croatia alone, there are 1145 large and very tiny islands. It was a real pirate paradise in which pirates could feel at home.


Thumbnail from the manuscript 1300-1350 (Archive of the Hellenistic Institute, Venice)


Consequences of the Crusades


At the beginning of the 11th century, most of the western Balkan peninsula, with the exception of parts of Slovenia and Croatia, was part of the Byzantine Empire. By the time of the First Crusade, after the independence period, the Croats were under Hungarian rule. After the Fourth Crusade and the fall of Constantinople in 1204, the entire Balkan region shattered even more. Northern and western Greece was divided between the small princedoms of the crusaders and the Byzantine despots of Epirus. For example, the same Albanians soon in these conditions were able to win independence, but by the middle of the XIV century. Serbia conquered a significant territory from the Danube to the Gulf of Corinth, and the Albanians again lost it. The southern Italian kingdom of Naples at this time actively participated in what is happening on the lands of Greece. Well, the principality of the Crusaders occupied only a relatively small part of southern Greece, while Venice and Genoa fought for control over most of the Greek islands surrounding the peninsula to control maritime trade.

Knighthood of the medieval Balkans

Weapon Serbian warriors. (Military Museum, Belgrade)


When the "top" move away from the "bottom"


Culturally and even politically, Byzantium, of course, had a strong influence on most of the Balkan Peninsula. However, during the period under review, the influence of Western and Central Europe had an increasing influence on the western lands of the region, especially in military matters. The mountains were ideal for building castles, and the valleys for breeding thoroughbred horses. Well, locks are knights, and knights cannot be knights without horses. Therefore, for the development of chivalry and chivalrous military art, this region turned out to be ideal. Therefore, Western influence laid down here on the “good soil”, and occurred through the expanding Hungarian kingdom and the Republic of Ragusa (Dubrovnik), which was the main channel for the import of Italian weapons and armor. Then it fell into Bosnia and into areas further east. In addition, the military elites of the western part of the Balkan Peninsula turned to the West not only for the supply of weapons, but also on a broader political plane, which gradually isolated them from the majority of the local Orthodox population, which remained largely "anti-Franco" and "anti-Catholic." A fairly common situation arose, when the “upper ranks” perceived a foreign culture, while the lower classes still remained purely local and traditional. There is a rift between the mobility and the mass of the people. And over time, this very alienation was to play a very important role during the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans. Only here at that time nobody thought about it. People of that time couldn’t even come to their heads ... Everyone lived exclusively “according to the will of God”! But chivalry here was the same as everywhere else!


"Winged tip" spears. These tips were traditional weapons throughout Europe. (National Museum of Serbia, Belgrade)



But this is a very interesting artifact. The fact is that in the ancient world the tips were cast, bronze and vtulchatye. Medieval opposite - iron and petiolate. This is a medieval tip, but pedunculated. And also made of bronze. That is, those who manufactured it had problems with iron, but bronze was enough, but they knew only petioles. Pour vlulu they did not think! (National Museum of Serbia, Belgrade)

Homeland shield with a slanting upper edge


Bosnians, being closer to the Adriatic coast and to Italy, were even more influenced by the West than the Serbs, especially in military matters. Apparently, Bosnia was independent from the beginning of the XII century and until 1253, when it fell under the rule of the Hungarian crown, and before being included in the ephemeral Serbian empire of the XIV century, King Stephen Dusan. It was a relatively poor, geographically isolated and, of course, stormy, in terms of social relations, mountainous area, in which archaic forms of warfare and very specific weapons remained for a long time. there was a kind of equipment. For example, somewhere here in the middle of the XIV century a equestrian shield appeared, known as the “Bosnian Scutum”, which was distinguished, firstly, by its upper edge, sloped from left to right and from top to bottom, and secondly by its design. Very often, its surface was decorated with the wing of a bird of prey, either painted or real, from feathers!


A very interesting shield from the Metropolitan Museum in New York. True, it refers to the 1500 year, but nevertheless it is a typical "Bosnian Scutum." The description of the shield indicates that such shields with a characteristic rear edge were used by Hungarian riders. In the 16th century, such shields were adopted in many Eastern European countries by both Christian and Islamic horsemen. The elongated top edge of the shield served to protect the back of the head and neck from being hit by a saber, which has become the main cavalry weapon in this region. On the outer side of the shield is depicted the sword of the prophet Muhammad with a double blade, and on the inner side - the Crucifixion and the iron of the Passion. This unusual combination of Islamic and Christian symbols suggests that the shield was used in the tournament by a Christian warrior dressed in Muslim fashion. In these Hungarian-style tournaments, participants donned Hungarian and Turkish costumes and used sabers to cut down feathers attached to the helmets of their opponents and to the sharp corner of their painted shields. Even at a time when the Turkish armies were a constant threat to Eastern Europe, the opponents of the Turks imitated their costume and tactics, they were so impressed.

Do you want to shoot a bow? First get off your horse!


Croatia, united with the Hungarian kingdom on the basis of almost equal rights in 1091, has remained part of the Hungarian state up to our days. Therefore, it is not surprising that the military affairs of Croatia, as well as the armor and weapons of its medieval army, echoed the military affairs of Hungary, although there was no element of archery from a horse in it. That is an important element of the tactics of the steppe origin, which distinguished the Hungarian horsemen from the horsemen of other Western countries, as well as our distant ancestors, too. It is from here, by the way, that another reason for the hatred of the Slav warriors by the Western knights comes from. They considered it disgraceful to shoot a bow from a horse into a warrior of equal social dignity, and where it was impossible to do without it, they hired Turkopules. European horse archers before taking on the bow had to get off his horse, so ... not to insult the noble animal! And then ... it seems the same knights, but they are fighting in violation of all the rules of knightly art, that is, they win "wrong". But the Hungarians are also “wrong”, although they were Catholics. And here and not Catholics, and allow themselves such. "Yes, they are worse than pagans and Muslims, by God!"


Vladislav's gold ring, first quarter of the 15th century (National Museum of Serbia, Belgrade)


Dalmatians and Slovenes - the most "pro-Western" of all


More is known about Dalmatian weapons and armor than about other Balkan regions, because more documentary sources have been preserved. The cavalry was almost identical to the cavalry of the West, and especially Italy. Infantry, primarily archers with simple and complex bows, and later with crossbows, played a very important role in this urbanized and seaside region. The importance of infantry has increased especially since the beginning of the 14th century, when Dalmatian cities had to contend with their internal Balkan neighbors. Therefore, they actively imported a variety of weapons and armor from Italy. In particular, Ragusa (Dubrovnik) imported firearms from Venice as early as 1351 in order to protect itself from attacks from Hungary.


Signet from Dubrovnik. Gold, mobile. Early XV century. (National Museum of Serbia, Belgrade) Please note that the ring shows a shield with a coat of arms and a knight's helmet, typically Western European, decorated with a dragon figure on the coat of arms. (National Museum of Serbia, Belgrade)



Silver dinar of the despot Stefan Lazarevich (1402-1427). Christ on the throne (obverse), Lazarevich's heraldic helmet (reverse). (National Museum of Serbia, Belgrade)


The most unconditionally pro-Western of all the Balkan peoples in terms of military equipment were the Slovenes. They inhabited the provinces of Karniola, Styria, and, until the area was Germanized, Carinthia. After all, it was the Holy Roman Empire that somehow managed to stop the invasions of the Hungarians in the X century. And then only Western Istria was located outside the Empire, and under the rule of Venice. So the penetration of western culture into this region was carried out very quickly and not without reason.


Norman mercenaries in the service of Byzantium. Fig. Angus McBride


Albanian Stradiotti


Albanians also dominated many of their closest neighbors throughout most of the Middle Ages. The coastal cities of Albania experienced the decline of the cities of the period of the early Middle Ages, remaining major shopping centers until the end of the XI century. Where the lands were under Byzantine rule, local warriors served as stradiot under various categories of Byzantine leadership. By the way, the feeling of national identity was made difficult for Albanians by the fact that some of the Albanians were Catholics and others were Orthodox. Albanian independence was won around 1190, but then lost again in 1216. This was followed by a wave of increased military influence from Italy and France, which at first was happily received by the local feudal lords. However, this influence, say the same Anjou monarchy, never spread beyond the coastal plains and cities, and in the highlands still existed its own, local culture. In the XIV century, the influence of Albania spread far to the south, to Thessaly, and long dominated the region of Epirus. When at the beginning of 1330, Albania fell under the power of the Serbs, this territory could put at least 15 000 horsemen, of which about one thousand were real knights, but the rest of 14 were lightly armed warriors who had a spear, a sword, and in case of mail. All these troops usually fought under the Venetian flag in Italy of the XV century, where they were known under the Italian name Cradioti.


Typical knight of the XIV century. (1300-1310) Fresco in the Church of Catherine of Alexandria, in Velikaya Lomnitsa, Slovakia.


Thus, prior to the beginning of the Turkish conquest in the Balkans, this was a region of quite European military culture and traditions, on the one hand influenced by Byzantium, and on the other, Italy and the Holy Roman Empire. National "motives" existed somewhere in the mountains, and the essence of spiritual contradictions was the conflict between Catholics and Orthodox. The region was more monolithic in cultural terms and more to the West than to the East, which, by the way, did not change even after 669 years!


Knights fight with Muslim horse archers or Turkopuly. Fresco by artist Johannes Aquila (1383-1393), Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, Tournise, Slovenia.


Использованная литература:
1. Nicolle, D. Arms and Armor of the Crusading Era, 1050 - 1350. UK L .: Greenhill Books. Vol.1.
2. Verbruggen, JF, The Art of War of Europe on the Middle Ages from the Eight Century to 1340. Amsterdam - NY Oxford, 1977.


To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Knights of Outremer
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Knights of the South of Italy and Sicily 1050-1350.
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Part of 11. Knights of Italy 1050-1350.
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Part of 10. Knights of the Kingdom of Arelat
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Part of 9. Germanic effigii
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Part of 8. Knights of the Holy Roman Empire
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Part of 7. Knights of Spain: Leon, Castile and Portugal
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Knights of Spain: Aragon, Navarre and Catalonia (part 6)
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. CH 5. Knights of France. Central and southern areas
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Knights of Ireland (part 4)
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Knights of Scotland (part 3)
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Knighthood and knights of England and Wales. Part of 2
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Knighthood and knights of northern France. Part of 1
44 comments
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  1. Brutan
    Brutan 23 May 2019 18: 22
    +10
    Very interesting nuances, because chivalry is subject to influences from all sides, and there are still a lot of countries.
    little-known things, thanks
    1. Albatroz
      Albatroz 23 May 2019 18: 43
      +9
      and Byzantine, and Eastern, and European influence. Boiling cauldron
  2. Albatroz
    Albatroz 23 May 2019 18: 46
    +7
    Stradiot became one of the best soldiers of the era
    1. Brutan
      Brutan 23 May 2019 18: 49
      +8
      pandura always liked too
      1. Albatroz
        Albatroz 23 May 2019 18: 53
        +8
        all legs grow from about the same era
        1. kalibr
          23 May 2019 19: 00
          +5
          More will be about it!
          1. Albatroz
            Albatroz 23 May 2019 19: 03
            +9
            That's great! I will wait good hi
  3. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 23 May 2019 19: 06
    +6
    In the XIV century, the influence of Albania spread far to the south, to Thessaly, and long dominated the region of Epirus. When at the beginning of 1330, Albania fell under the power of the Serbs, this territory could put at least 15 000 horsemen, of which about one thousand were real knights, but the rest of 14 were lightly armed warriors who had a spear, a sword, and in the best case of mail.

    Something I can not believe, honest word ... The author (I mean the author of the original source) clearly exaggerated something. A small mountainous region - are 15000 riders and of them 1000 professionals with heavy weapons? It seems to me that the whole empire (rather, the kingdom after all) Dushan could hardly have exhibited so much.
    In any case, in Russia, the principality, capable of exposing such a number of soldiers, would be out of competition.
    1. arturpraetor
      arturpraetor 24 May 2019 00: 58
      +2
      I counted offhand (very inaccurate, though) - if you were guided by the "average temperature in the hospital" of the settled countries of the Middle Ages, then to exhibit 15 thousand horsemen of Albania it would be necessary to have the same population as it is now ... laughing And so, according to my information, the population of Albania at the indicated time could not exceed 200 thousand people, most likely - in the region of 150-180. For such a population, 15 of thousands of horsemen is already a level of mobilization of the steppe nomads, but not of the highlanders.
      1. kalibr
        24 May 2019 13: 06
        +1
        That is why at the end the source of basic information is indicated.
        1. arturpraetor
          arturpraetor 24 May 2019 15: 06
          0
          So it’s clear, you didn’t carry out a study on the number of troops in the article, but wrote a little about something else hi But I can supplement my colleague’s commentary and express skepticism about the source according to the rules, so here I am ...
          1. kalibr
            24 May 2019 15: 30
            0
            But am I against it?
    2. pytar
      pytar 24 May 2019 18: 36
      0
      In the XIV century, the influence of Albania spread far to the south, to Thessaly, and long dominated the region of Epirus. When at the beginning of 1330, Albania fell under the power of the Serbs, this territory could put at least 15 000 horsemen, of which about one thousand were real knights, but the rest of 14 were lightly armed warriors who had a spear, a sword, and in the best case of mail.

      Something I can not believe, honest word ... The author (I mean the author of the original source) clearly exaggerated something. A small mountainous region - are 15000 riders and of them 1000 professionals with heavy weapons?

      The author most likely is not mistaken. The fact is that the period of the arrival of the Ottomans in the Balkans coincided with a serial change in the demography of the Balkan peoples. There were plague epidemics that mowed the peoples of the entire peninsula. The population of Northern / Danube / Bulgaria was particularly hard hit. There was added a perennial drought. The vast region is empty. There was no one to defend the fortresses. During the Ottoman invasion, the Bulgarians for the first time in their history could not protect the mountain passes by the Old Mountain / ridge that divided Bulgaria into Northern / Danube / and Southern / Thrace /. These mountains, turned into a cemetery for many conquerors before. In the period before the conquest of Bulgaria from the Ottomans, only parts of the regions of Thrace and Macedonia were more or less preserved. By the way, due to the weakening of the Bulgarian Kingdom, Serbia took possession of Macedonia for some time and even part of Thrace. The plague epidemic has affected the Turks and Albanians less. The latter lived dispersedly in remote mountainous areas of the Albanian mountains, but their population increased during the described period. Although there were even then the smallest of the Balkan peoples. It must be said that they did not suffer from the absence of military courage. When Scanderbeg, the talented rulers and commanders, rode them, the Albanians appeared as brave warriors. The Turks, trying to conquer this small country, suffered terrible losses. Many Ottoman bones have sown the Albanian mountains. In the end, the forces were disproportionate and the Turks still conquered the Albanians, but they did not succeed very easily.
  4. Keyser soze
    Keyser soze 23 May 2019 19: 20
    +3
    Macedonians ?! Author, really?

    Please, at least one document, in the studio, about the existence of the Macedonians, in the period under discussion. Yes, let’s not fathom - Let’s immediately expand the boundaries - from Christ to 1944, find something about the Macedonians.

    And if you find it, buy a ticket to Skopje and carry it - immediately get the Hero of Northern Macedonia and the donkey loaded with silver ... wassat
  5. stoqn477
    stoqn477 23 May 2019 19: 37
    +2
    Did the author of the Macedonian knights from the Skopje History Museum receive information? Apparently yes. In addition, there will be no such stupidity elsewhere.
    1. kalibr
      23 May 2019 21: 19
      +1
      At the end of the article there is a link to the used literature. Here is this work: Nicolle, D. Arms and Armor of the Crusading Era, 1050 - 1350. UK L .: Greenhill Books. Vol.1. RR 293. Take this book, open on the specified page ... read.
    2. Mac Simka
      Mac Simka 23 May 2019 22: 28
      +1
      Easy, the author does not plow in the specifics of Macedonia, which is excusable.
      There is a good movie "Mobilized Middle Ages" on YouTube. There is a well-lit theme.
  6. Keyser soze
    Keyser soze 23 May 2019 20: 41
    +5
    While the author is looking for Macedonian knights, let me turn on with a few documents about the period:

    The inscription of King Samuel (found in 1888 in the village of Herman, now in Greece), is located in the NIM Sofia. The inscription was first published by Fyodor Uspensky, Director of the Russian Archaeological Museum in Constantinople in 1899. It was discussed and commented on by Konstantin Irechek, Timofei Florinsky and Lubomyr Miletich.

    † in the name of the father and the father and of the spirit of God, as samoip (l) slave
    memory ѡьцѹ and motherє and brotherѹ on крстѣхъихъ • имєна ѹсъпъшихъ
    nikola rab bѣji ... ѣ davd is written ... it’s only from the creation of the world
    ҃҃ • fa҃ • injection дик҃ •




    The inscription of Tsar Ivan Vladislav, the nephew of Samuel, was found in the city of Bitola (now in Northern Macedonia). Found in the 1956 year and until the 1970 year it stood in the museum trezor. In the 1968 year, Bulgarian secret services manage to take an imprint from the inscription, and in the 1970 year, after the Bulgarian-Yugoslav scandal, the inscription was exhibited in the museum, but again goes into a trezor in a short time. Since 1990, it can be seen in the museum of the city of Bitola.

    † For all the sake of the establishment of the world, renew our offer and offer you the opportunity to do our best to help and prayer for our good fortune. and for the rest on the life of the Bulgarians, to begin the same speed of the city of Bitola m ҃tsa okto ҃vra v К. The end, however, is that ... coming from self-driving quickly, the Bulgarian family is ѹnѹk Nicola ї Riimiѧ, the good son of Aron Samoil, but his brother, who is self-righteous, was already born in ... .. the king would have to have been tsar Vasily ҃ ҃F ҃K ҃V ѣ ltѣ from the goal of the world ... ѹѹ sep () ѣѹѹѹѹѹѹѧѧѧѧѹѹѹѹѹ

    Prez summer 6523 [1015] from the creation of the world, renew the tazi fortress, Zidane and righteous from Joan, autocrat of the Bulgarian, with help and with prayer for the blessing of the day, Our Lady, and through secession to the two sides of the old apostles. Tazi fortress be sent for refuge and for salvation, and for the belly on the Bulgarite. I would be grateful to the fortress of Bitola for the month of October october, in 20-ti den, and ceded it for a month (...) in the region. Tosi the autocrat was better than a Bulgarian, grandson to Nicola and Hripsymbia turn, syn to Aron, some brother to Samuel, the king is self-rusted, and two-armed coats to Shchipon grazkata troops to Tsar Vasily, it’s all taken ... ( (...) the king is defeated by a bidet from Tsar Vasily in the year 6522 [1014] from being created into the light of the Key and initiative in the region on the lat.



    An interesting scandal erupted when last year (it seems) the French embassy in Macedonia made a tourist guide around the city of Bitol and put on the first page a picture of the stele of Ivan Vladislav. The Macedonians were sickly burnt from this (because there is a word Bulgarians and an autocrat Bulgarian), after which the French quickly processed the guide, with a different picture.
    1. kalibr
      23 May 2019 21: 15
      0
      I don’t understand the meaning of your comment. What is the crime, what is wrong? And why are you not satisfied with the Macedonians? The article contains this phrase: "including Bulgarians, Macedonians, Serbs, Bosnians, Dalmatians, Croats and Slovenes." More Macedonians are not mentioned. But ... it is word for word translated from the work of D. Nicolas. Chapter 15. "Western Balkans", p. 293. This book is in the list of used literature. What else do you need from a popular science article?
      1. Keyser soze
        Keyser soze 23 May 2019 21: 34
        +5
        What is the crime, what's wrong? And why are you not satisfied with the Macedonians?


        Sorry Vyacheslav, did not mean to offend you! I understand that this is a popular science article, but your source is not correct. In the period you have indicated, the people, like the Macedonians, will not talk about the Macedonian knights, simply does not exist. All this time is either the First Bulgarian Kingdom or Byzantium or the Second Bulgarian Kingdom. You can check me out, but the timeline is something like this:

        1018 - Byzantium broke the First Bulgarian Kingdom
        1098 - Croatia joined Hungary (at that moment in the Balkans only Byzantium and all)
        1181 - Serbia appeared - (and Serbian knights :))
        1191 - The Second Bulgarian Kingdom Risen from Ruins
        1205 - The Latin Empire destroyed Byzantium (and then, in general, the first real knights appeared in the Balkans)
        14 April 1205 - The first knights in the Balkans were defeated by Tsar Kaloyan, under Adrianople. The Latin emperor lived in prison in Tarnovo and died there.
        1331 - the Principality of Wallachia appears.

        It is somehow difficult and almost impossible to speak of chivalry in the Balkans (in the Western sense of the word). Just powers with knights are not here.
        1. kalibr
          23 May 2019 21: 53
          +3
          I understand you. Once upon a time I published an article here about the battle of Kaloyan with the crusaders in the 1205 year. Then I wrote several times that with regard to the topic of weapons and armor, we regard knights precisely as warriors in armor and on horses. We do not take their social affiliation, land holdings, homage and so on. It is clear that not ALL LATNIKI WERE KNIGHTS, but ALL KNIGHTS WERE LATNIKA. So in social terms - yes, it is difficult to talk about chivalry in the Balkans. In terms of studying weapons and armor - it is possible. I just can’t start the article every time with this.
          1. Keyser soze
            Keyser soze 23 May 2019 22: 02
            +5
            Once upon a time I published an article here about the battle of Kaloyan with the crusaders in the 1205 year.


            I’ll go look and read it with interest. Now I understand your interpretation of the warrior knights, thanks for the clarification. I just reacted to the "Macedonians" - Macedonians and Turks are a favorite topic for every Bulgarian laughing
      2. Mac Simka
        Mac Simka 23 May 2019 22: 05
        +3
        The Macedonians are fighting different. I have already pointed out to you that neologism “Macedonian” has a completely different meaning than what you use. Kaiser has already pointed out to you that on the territory of Macedonia (although in the Middle Ages Macedonia was also called East Thrace for a time. Vasily Makedonyan was born there, and not in ancient Dardania), many lived. But contemporaries of Alexander the Great were no longer there. And before the creations of the Comintern with the Serbian secret police - 1000 years. When writing about “ancient Macedonians” keep in mind that Macedonian and Macedonian are often not the same thing.
        And another cliche about “the essence of spiritual contradictions was a conflict between Catholics and Orthodox.” sometimes a very large pitfall. Bulgaria from 1204 to 1235 was a Catholic country. How did they conflict inside Bulgaria?
        Your materials are very interesting, but do not rely on the same sources. Political correctness and national mythology sometimes play very bad jokes in terms of science.
        About the article of course - a plus.
        I look forward to hearing about East Balkan knights! soldier
  7. kalibr
    23 May 2019 21: 22
    +2
    Quote: Keyser Soze
    immediately get the Hero of Northern Macedonia and a donkey loaded with silver ...

    Actually, it would be nice ...
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 24 May 2019 12: 56
      +2
      Better yet, three and "no bread"!
      Good afternoon, Vyacheslav! hi Thanks to you, I have already begun to understand at least something (not to get involved) in such a topic, far from my interests.
  8. kalibr
    23 May 2019 22: 10
    +4
    Quote: Mac Simka
    however, do not rely on the same sources. Political correctness and national mythology sometimes play very bad jokes in terms of science.

    Totally agree with you. But ... there is a big problem with the sources!
    1. Mac Simka
      Mac Simka 23 May 2019 22: 21
      +1
      That's right. But master Serbian and Bulgarian sources, I am sure. There are many cranberries of course, but eliminating it is not a problem.
  9. Alexander Trebuntsev
    Alexander Trebuntsev 24 May 2019 06: 26
    +1
    Still, taking into account the specifics of this Balkan cauldron, it is impossible, probably, in such a generalized and simplified way to "gallop" over such a large time space. There will be too many inconsistencies and inaccuracies. Here you need to be more careful.
    1. Edward Vashchenko
      Edward Vashchenko 24 May 2019 07: 40
      +2
      Vyacheslav Olegovich thanks for the article and illustrations,
      But here, regarding the Balkans, I’ll support the opinion that Nicoli has very wide masks.
      Of course, the influence of the western neighbors on Dalmatia, Albania is obvious, but not about any "knighthood" as a system in the XI-XII centuries. there is no need to speak, the Western weapon was used undoubtedly, there were horsemen, but there were no “knights”.
      Regarding the number of troops that Albania can put up - this is a hypothetical assumption from the memoirs of Philip de Kamin, which was used for the agitation of a new campaign against the Turks, after the capture of Constantinople.
      And the latter, the term itself — stradiotas — stratiots of Byzantium, speaks of a free peasantry participating in military service. Their transition to the state of “service people” did not happen in Byzantium, but what about Albania.
      Incidentally, this was the problem of Byzantium, Bulgaria and the Balkans, which remained under the political and ideological influence of Byzantium. They could not create a "feudal" system, in the Western style, and could not mobilize the broad masses of the population in the "war against the infidels" in the Turkish model, which in the end led to their seizure by Porto.
      1. kalibr
        24 May 2019 08: 18
        +3
        Dear Edward! Here you are an expert and the cards are in your hands. And you very well noticed that Nicolas has "wide strokes". Yes, sometimes too wide !!! And I have to narrow them down. Therefore, write your articles further and, if possible ... "finish this work for him"! As well as I, too, I simply cannot take very deeply here. By the way - your last paragraph of the commentary is simply brilliant, although also a "broad brushstroke". I tried to say all this, but ... I couldn't. Like that Pavlov's dog that talks everything with his eyes, but cannot bark. You succeeded - thanks!
        1. Edward Vashchenko
          Edward Vashchenko 24 May 2019 08: 22
          +3
          I will try where I can)
          Thanks for the topic!
  10. kalibr
    24 May 2019 08: 21
    +1
    Quote: Alexander Trebuntsev
    Here you need to be more thorough.

    Yes, you need ... But ... there is no physical opportunity. Therefore, it is better this way than nothing ... My first book on this topic "Knights of the Middle Ages" in 1998 was once a revelation for many. Today I wouldn't even recommend it to children ... Everything flows ...
  11. Captainvp
    Captainvp 24 May 2019 08: 43
    0
    And this phrase
    Lower Lands, Outremer
    did not rush into anyone's eyes? Outremer literally means "overseas". What are the lower lands? And in the previous article too. Or is it about the Netherlands?
    1. kalibr
      24 May 2019 13: 01
      0
      And here you are wrong. This is the same thing in English historiography. So literally and re-rendered. Get used to it!
      1. Captainvp
        Captainvp 24 May 2019 16: 37
        0
        Of course, I cannot claim to have 100% coverage of all English-language studies and monographs, but in those with whom I got acquainted, I have never seen such a thing. That is, absolutely everywhere where County of Tripoli, Principality of Antioch and Kingdom of Jerusalem are collectively mentioned (yes, at least in the Britannica), they write in French - Outremer. But Flanders, English-speaking historians just universally call Low Countries (they are also low lands) - the lower lands. Could you give at least one reference to the "lower lands" in the context of the states of the Holy Land?
        1. kalibr
          24 May 2019 18: 09
          -1
          I won’t give it right now. Can you imagine how much I will have to look for?
          1. Captainvp
            Captainvp 24 May 2019 18: 24
            +1
            I think that it is infinite, because I am sure that such links do not exist. Outremer was never called "lower lands" anywhere. In theory, the term lowlands can be used to describe coastal lands in Palestine (Jaffa, for example), but not in the context of the entire territory. It would be strange to expect an English-speaking historian to call the lowlands Antiochus, for example.
    2. Mac Simka
      Mac Simka 24 May 2019 22: 34
      0
      In fact, Macedonia in Bulgaria was called “Lower Land”, and Mysia - “Upper Land”.
      Maybe about this and speech
      1. Captainvp
        Captainvp 25 May 2019 04: 51
        0
        This is a sensible idea, like Germany is upper and lower, or Normandy. Unfortunately, this practice is absolutely absent both in the sources and in the historiography for the Holy Land. Moreover, medieval cartographers place Jerusalem in the center of the universe. By definition, it could not be "Lower Earth".
  12. kalibr
    24 May 2019 13: 03
    +2
    Mac-Simka (Ivan Ivanich) Take care without fail. Thanks again for the help.
  13. pytar
    pytar 24 May 2019 17: 56
    +1
    The medieval Balkans were as fragmented as they are today. Most of the inhabitants of this region were Slavs, including Bulgarians, Macedonians Serbs, Bosnians, Dalmatians, Croats and Slovenes.

    Statiya interesting! We look forward to continue!
    Just one note:
    There were no mythical "Macedonians" - Slavs until 1946, when they were not invented in titular Yugoslavia. And the ancient Macedonians did not live to see the Middle Ages. During the periods of time described to the author, the population of the geographical region of Macedonia, in its majority, was Bulgarian. Moreover, this area is the main one in the structures of the then Bulgarian lands.
    1. kalibr
      24 May 2019 18: 07
      +1
      Dear Boyan, you certainly know better. Naturally, I do not know such subtleties. I used the work of the famous historian, author of 41 monograph on the military history of David Nicolas. The peoples were indicated there, and I copied them as it was written with him. It never occurred to me to clarify, because ... well ... it couldn’t even come! That is why the source is indicated at the end of each material. I do not give paginal links, then it will be simply impossible to read the article. The look will cling to the brackets all the time ...
      1. pytar
        pytar 24 May 2019 18: 11
        0
        Dear Vyacheslav, I understand ... Just the topic of "Macedonians" for Bulgarians, as a topic of "great Ukrainians" for Russians! The mountain immediately evokes emotions! I really liked your post as a whole! Nadeyus, there will be a sequel soon! good
  14. Seal
    Seal 28 May 2019 11: 08
    0
    Quote: kalibr
    we see knights precisely as warriors in armor and on horses.
    And apparently, without stirrups. None of the horses represented in the miniatures in the harness have stirrups. hi