"Star Wars" and the Soviet response. Combat Orbital Skif Laser

In March, 1983, a former actor who changed work in the film industry for a political career, announced the start of work on the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) program. Today, the SDI program, which was described by 33 th US President Ronald Reagan, is better known under the cinematic name "Star Wars". The speech of the American president in the wake of another surge of tensions between the United States and the USSR during the Cold War years predictably led to a reaction from Moscow.


The Soviet Union was involved in another round of the arms race in space. In response, the USSR worked on the creation of various orbital means that could be launched into space with the help of a new launch vehicle of the super-heavy class “Energy”, as well as the reusable spacecraft “Buran”. Among the new developments were various combat orbital vehicles, called Cascade, Bolid, but today we will talk about another spacecraft — the Skif combat orbital laser.

Soviet IDF


As soon as mankind discovered the cosmos, the military raised their eyes to the stars. Moreover, the most obvious and the first task, which was solved by practical cosmonautics, was the possibility of using outer space for various military purposes. Corresponding projects existed and were considered both in the USA and in the Soviet Union already in the 1950-s. The visible result of such projects was anti-satellite. weapon, only in the USSR in the 1960-80-s conducted dozens of tests of anti-satellite weapons, including fighter satellites. The first maneuvering satellite in the Soviet Union, called the “Flight-1”, turned out to be 1 in November, 1963, and “Flight-1” was a prototype of the interceptor satellite.



The last launch of such a device was successfully carried out on 18 on June 1982 of the year as part of large-scale exercises of the strategic nuclear forces of the Soviet Union, in the West these exercises were included history under the name "Seven-hour nuclear war." During the USSR exercise, it launched intercontinental ballistic missiles, both sea-based and land-based, launched interceptor missiles and launched military satellites, including the satellite fighter. The American leadership was greatly impressed by the teachings of the Soviet nuclear forces. A month after the completion of the exercise, Reagan made a statement about the deployment of the American anti-satellite system, and in March of the following year he publicly announced the Strategic Defense Initiative (SOI), which quickly received the unofficial and spectacular name "Star Wars", of course, the name was directly connected with the popular artistic the movie.

But do not think that the US military and engineers began working on the SDI program after the president’s statement. In the United States, such research and research and development activities were developed already in the early 1970-s. At the same time, American designers considered a large number of projects, among which there were also exotic ones, but the main ones involved the deployment of laser, kinetic and beam weapons in space. In our country, research work in this direction also began in the middle of the 1970-s, employees of the Scientific-Production Association Energia were working on creating variants of impact space weapons. The tasks that the leadership of the Soviet Union set for the specialists of NPO Energia resembled the same tasks that Ronald Reagan voiced in March of 1983. The main goal of the Soviet Star Wars was to create space assets that would destroy military spacecraft of a potential enemy, an ICBM during the flight and hit ground, sea and air objects of special importance.

Work on the creation of the Soviet PIO was mainly to consider different scenarios of combat operations in Earth orbit, scientific research, theoretical calculations, determining the advantages of certain types of weapons that can be placed on board the spacecraft. At the same time, in the specialized literature it is noted that over the entire period of development in the USSR of spacecraft necessary for the confrontation of the American PIO, such work has never been so well coordinated, not so targeted, and did not have such funding as in the United States.



As a means of destroying space stations and military equipment, a single space platform was considered, which would be equipped with a different set of airborne weapons: rockets and a laser installation. Two new combat spacecraft were created by engineers of NPO Energia. As a base platform, Soviet engineers chose the well-known orbital station 17K DOS, moreover, the research and production association had extensive experience in operating spacecraft of this type. On the basis of a single platform, two combat complexes were developed, designated 17F111 "Cascade" with missile weapons and 17F19 "Skiff" with laser weapons.

Combat Orbital Skif Laser


Quite quickly in the Soviet Union found the fight against intercontinental ballistic missiles difficult task. For this reason, the main customer of the project of the USSR Ministry of Defense decided to focus on creating effective models of anti-satellite weapons. This is a pragmatic and understandable decision, given that it is more difficult to detect and then destroy the ICBM or the warhead separated from the missile than to disable the enemy’s satellite or space station. In fact, in the USSR they worked on the “anti-SDI” program. The main emphasis was placed on the destruction of American military spacecraft, their decommissioning was to deprive the states of protection against Soviet ICBMs. Such a decision was fully consistent with the Soviet military doctrine, according to which the American stations and the PIO devices were originally to be destroyed, which would allow launching ballistic missiles at targets located in the enemy’s territory.

On the new spacecraft was planned to install an existing laser. The benefit of a suitable sample of a megawatt laser in the USSR at that time was. Naturally, the laser still needed to be tested in space. The creation of an airborne laser installation in our country was carried out by specialists from one of the branches of the Institute of Atomic Energy named after Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov. The engineers of the institute created a working gas-dynamic laser. A developed laser facility designed to be placed on board an IL-76MD aircraft and operating on carbon dioxide has already passed flight tests by the year of the 1983. The possibility of placing such a laser in the earth's orbit appeared thanks to the creation of the Energia launch vehicle, which had a suitable payload removal rate.

The first orbital laser received the designation "Skif-D", the letter "D" in the name meant a demonstration. It was primarily an experimental spacecraft, on which the Soviet military expected to test not only the laser itself, but also a specific list of standard systems (motion control, power supply, separation and orientation) intended for installation on other satellites, which were also developed as part of the Soviet analogue of "Star Wars".



The first unit "Skif-D" had the following design features. The orbital laser station consisted of two modules: the CM — the target module and the FSB — a functional service module. Between themselves, they are connected tight coupling. The FSB module was used for additional acceleration of the spacecraft after separation from the launch vehicle. To reach the reference low Earth orbit, the module added the necessary speed 60 m / s. In addition to the pre-overclocking function, the FSB also served as a repository for all major spacecraft service systems. To provide the ship's systems with electrical energy, solar modules were placed on the module, the same ones were used on the Supply Ship Ship (TKS). In fact, the FSB itself was a ship of supply for orbital stations of the Salyut type, well mastered by the Soviet industry.

Unlike the module described above, the target module of the combat orbital laser had no prototypes. The CM consisted of three compartments for different purposes: ORT — a compartment of working bodies; OE - energy compartment and OCA - special equipment compartment. In the first, the designers placed the cylinders filled with CO2, the main purpose - the power supply of the laser system. In the energy compartment it was planned to install two electric turbogenerators with a total capacity of 2,4 MW at once. As you might guess, in the last remaining compartment there was a combat laser, here was the place to place the SNU, the guidance and restraint system. The head of the OCA module was made rotatable relative to the rest of the spacecraft, as the Soviet designers took care of facilitating the guidance of the laser system at the target.

A great deal of work was done in the Soviet design offices, one of the developments was a round head fairing that protected the functional unit. For the first time in the Soviet Union metal was not used for the production of the head fairing, it was carbon-fiber. The first Skif-DM, the demo model, was distinguished by the same overall weight characteristics that a combat orbital laser would have received. The maximum diameter of the device was 4,1 meters, length - 37 meters, weight - about 80 tons. It was Skif-DM that turned out to be the only spacecraft launched into space that was developed in the Soviet Union under the program to create a Skif combat orbital laser, the same event was the first launch of an energy-carrying super-heavy launch vehicle.



The first launch of "Energy"


The rocket "Energy" became the personification of the power and achievements of the Soviet space program. It remained forever the most powerful in the line of Soviet launch vehicles, and in the Russian Federation there was not a single launch of the rocket that could come close in its capabilities to Energia, which could bring low-Earth orbit to 100 tons of payload. Neither before nor after it have the superheavy class missiles been built in the USSR and Russia yet.

15 May 1987, the extra-heavy rocket Energia, broke away from the launch pad at the Baikonur cosmodrome. It is worth noting that just two launches were made. The second became much more famous as it was carried out as part of the tests of the Soviet space shuttle Buran. The successful launch into space of the Soviet launch vehicle of a super-heavy class for world cosmonautics was sensational, the appearance of such a rocket opened up attractive prospects not only for the Soviet Union, but also for the whole world. In the first flight, the rocket launched the Polyus apparatus into space, as it was called in the media. In reality, the Pole was a dynamic mock-up of the Skif military orbital platform (17Ф119). The payload was impressive, the dynamic layout of the future orbital laser weighed more than 80 tons.

The overall weight model of the future station launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome fully corresponded in mass and size to the orbital laser being created. Initially, Energia with a payload in the form of a Skif-DM mockup was going to be sent into space back in September of 1986, but the launch was postponed several times. As a result, the Skif-DM complex was docked with the rocket and fully prepared for launch only in April of the following year. As a result, an important for the history of the national cosmonautics event occurred 15 May 1987, the delay on the launch day was 5 hours. In flight, two stages of the extra-heavy launch vehicle Energia worked in normal mode, the Skif-DM dimensional weight model successfully separated from the launch vehicle 460 seconds after launch, this happened at an altitude of 110 km. But then the problems started. Due to the switching error of the electrical circuit, the reversal of the dynamic layout of the combat laser station after separation from the rocket lasted longer than the scheduled time. As a result, the dynamic model did not reach the specified near-earth orbit and fell along the ballistic trajectory to the surface of the Earth in the Pacific Ocean. Despite the failure, the report, which was compiled after the launch, said that 80 percent of the planned experiments were successfully completed. It is known that the flight program of the Skif-DM apparatus provided for the conduct of six geophysical and four applied experiments.

"Star Wars" and the Soviet response. Combat Orbital Skif Laser


There was no launch of a full-fledged combat station with a laser on board into Earth orbit. Even Energia itself managed to make only two flights. In the midst of perestroika, the collapse of the country and the collapse of the economy was not up to "Star Wars." In 1991, the program, which was a response to the US Strategic Defense Initiative, was completely discontinued. Overseas, work within the framework of the PIO project was finally stopped by the 1993 year, and the efforts of American designers and engineers also did not lead to the creation of space-based laser or beam weapons.
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  1. NEXUS 11 May 2019 04: 59 New
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    It is not at all a fact that the Skiff project will not be returned in the near future or in the near future. Given the developments on this project, and taking into account today's technologies, it may very well be that the same heavy Angara project will include the launch of a combat laser into orbit. Who knows?
    1. Same lech 11 May 2019 05: 10 New
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      With the current state of our cosmonautics and the economy of Russia as a whole, it is still too early to threaten the production of heavy and super-heavy rockets ...
      why build them? ... why do we need them? ... there should be a clear and understandable goal justifying their construction and use ... so far there is no such thing ... and for Ponte to build them, only the navel will ruin its economy.
      1. Cowbra 11 May 2019 06: 02 New
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        Exactly. Everything rests on rationality. Can we seriously weaken the massive blow? No, you need too dofig expensive satellites. Is it guaranteed to catch a single one? No - you need a network of expensive satellites. Well, why do we need it?
        A superheavy rocket should be built only if you did agree with China on a joint lunar program. Then we will build together - then we will fully pull
        1. mark1 11 May 2019 06: 50 New
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          With the current state of our cosmonautics and the economy of Russia as a whole, it is still too early to threaten the production of heavy and super-heavy rockets ...

          Quote: Cowbra
          Well, why do we need it?

          Not very smart reasoning, I would say - harmful. We buried the Soviet Union to such songs - ... here we’ll eat sausages and then ...
          1. Cowbra 11 May 2019 07: 02 New
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            Similar songs AND SURVIVED the Soviet Union - when they began to throw money on projects that the country did not draw, and which she didn’t need, and one of these projects was exactly the answer to the PIO
            1. mark1 11 May 2019 07: 07 New
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              Quote: Cowbra
              Similar songs AND SURVIVED the Soviet Union - when they began to throw money on projects that the country did not draw, and which she didn’t need, and one of these projects was exactly the answer to the PIO

              Another persistent delusion. And you do not get sick, a fighter of Perestroika and Glasnost!
              1. Cowbra 11 May 2019 08: 04 New
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                Another unfounded slogan. Fight further with the mind.
                1. mark1 11 May 2019 08: 11 New
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                  Quote: Cowbra
                  Fight further with the mind.

                  With a sick mind.
                2. CCCP 2 October 2019 09: 15 New
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                  How is it to be a traitor to the motherland? Do you sleep well?
            2. HAM
              HAM 11 May 2019 07: 58 New
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              The answer can only be:
            3. Shopping Mall 11 May 2019 11: 24 New
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              Quote: Cowbra
              Similar songs AND SURVIVED the Soviet Union - when they began to throw money on projects that the country did not draw, and which she didn’t need, and one of these projects was exactly the answer to the PIO


              The USSR buried a stupid betrayal, and nothing more. All the rest is excuses for his excuse.

              Interesting - the collapse of the country, industry, theft and removal of everything and everything and nothing, the country survived, and would it have died without collapse? Are we, IMF loans saved?

              Begin the government of the USSR tough reforms in 1985-1990 year and everything could be normalized for 5-10 years. To crush the crime, completely destroying all the "blue", several tens to hundreds of executions of especially notorious corrupt officials, redistribute the defense order in favor of reducing the number of the same tanks, but increasing the share of high-tech equipment, and redistributing the capacity for civilian production - tractors, excavators, passenger cars etc.

              And to allow private business in the field of food and light industry. But only from scratch, and with high taxes, and not to privatize the factories to the bandits.
              This is an example ...
              1. Cowbra 11 May 2019 17: 49 New
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                No need to climb into the distance. For the fact that the Communists ended with the arrival of Khrushchev and others. Kafka really was a prophet, it's all clear. But if not decisive, then at least the significant role played by projects that do not pull us. The answer to the PIO and the fleet - our economy and finished off. Sailors now spit me from head to toe, but why should a land carrier aircraft carrier? Their objections are based mainly on the fact that the aircraft carrier will be based on friends (they will not betray, yes!). Not in Sevak or in the Baltic, where he is like a mouse in a bank, not in the Northern Fleet, where he could be threatened by bears and Norway, and the exit from there will be blocked by NATO anyway, and navigation there is limited in time.
                . And this is not an expensive toy. Frigate how many there? 18 billion? Not bad as well. For how many reinforcements, for example, would the reinforcement be enough ?!
                Head think, "sausage"! I suggest that all officials be transplanted to the Ferari Racing - well, they are faster. and the rest - pohren. That's what you say. gentlemen fighting mind
                1. ksv36 12 May 2019 13: 03 New
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                  why land country aircraft carrier?


                  The land country is Uzbekistan, and our country in the north and east is washed with water. Here, sorry, canoeing is indispensable. Yes, and campaigns in Cuba and India should not be forgotten. We need him at least for prestige.
                  1. ccsr 12 May 2019 18: 07 New
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                    Quote: ksv36
                    We need him at least for prestige.

                    Once again, are you afraid of being without pants?
                2. Shopping Mall 12 May 2019 15: 45 New
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                  Quote: Cowbra
                  No need to climb into the distance. For the fact that the Communists ended with the arrival of Khrushchev and others. Kafka really was a prophet, it's all clear. But if not decisive, then at least the significant role played by projects that do not pull us. The answer to the PIO and the fleet - our economy and finished off. Sailors now spit me from head to toe, but why should a land carrier aircraft carrier? Their objections are based mainly on the fact that the aircraft carrier will be based on friends (they will not betray, yes!). Not in Sevak or in the Baltic, where he is like a mouse in a bank, not in the Northern Fleet, where he could be threatened by bears and Norway, and the exit from there will be blocked by NATO anyway, and navigation there is limited in time.
                  . And this is not an expensive toy. Frigate how many there? 18 billion? Not bad as well. For how many reinforcements, for example, would the reinforcement be enough ?!
                  Head think, "sausage"! I suggest that all officials be transplanted to the Ferari Racing - well, they are faster. and the rest - pohren. That's what you say. gentlemen fighting mind


                  It is not necessary to rest against frantic communism. As the experience of the PRC shows, one can be a completely capitalist country under the communist system. But it is possible to build Swedish-style socialism under formal capitalism, and in general to flexibly adjust the parameters of the economy and political system of the country without revolutions, we are not in the game “Civilization”. The change of order in the USSR is one of those far-fetched reasons for justifying the fact that someone in the nomenclature was not enough that could be obtained from the state, wanted everything to be “their own”.

                  And what about the PIO and the fleet, do you have data in figures for exactly the cost of them? You can also say that the economy killed 50000 tanks of the Warsaw Pact, or spending on the Soviet republics or anything else, but without accurate data on the costs all this is unsubstantiated.

                  If at a certain moment a strong leader would take tough decisions, right up to the repetition of events on Tiananmen Square, then there would be no collapse, regardless of either the fleet or the SDI.
              2. Karabas 12 May 2019 14: 18 New
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                Andropov began to implement all of the above, for which he was quickly killed.
          2. Errr 11 May 2019 07: 16 New
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            Quote: mark1
            With the current state of our cosmonautics and the economy of Russia as a whole, it is still too early to threaten the production of heavy and super-heavy rockets ...

            Quote: Cowbra
            Well, why do we need it?

            Not very smart reasoning, I would say - harmful. We buried the Soviet Union to such songs - ... here we’ll eat sausages and then ...
            There is a trench cut into exactly the black sausage. wassat
            Black milk, we seem to have sucked. laughing
        2. armata_armata 11 May 2019 07: 37 New
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          Can we seriously weaken the massive blow? No, you need too dofig expensive satellites. Is it guaranteed to catch a single one? No - you need a network of expensive satellites. Well, why do we need it?

          Yeah, Russia will get a couple of nuclear mushrooms more or less, it doesn’t give a damn. The main thing is expensive, the bosses of Urashechka will not be able to buy a yacht ....
      2. Shopping Mall 11 May 2019 11: 17 New
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        Quote: The same Lech
        With the current state of our cosmonautics and the economy of Russia as a whole, it is still too early to threaten the production of heavy and super-heavy rockets ...
        why build them? ... why do we need them? ... there should be a clear and understandable goal justifying their construction and use ... so far there is no such thing ... and for Ponte to build them, only the navel will ruin its economy.


        A super-heavy rocket is needed, and should become one of the priorities of the space program of the Russian Federation. Only it must be done at a new technological level, on methane engines and with a returnable, at least, first stage. If the BFR Mask flies, it will be essentially a fully reusable super-heavy rocket, and it will change the balance of power in space. 3D printing technology, inflatable modules, all this can very quickly significantly increase the role of space - orbital platforms, swarms of communications and reconnaissance satellites, and possibly space shipyards ...
        1. Karabas 12 May 2019 14: 20 New
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          A super-heavy rocket is needed, and should become one of the priorities of the space program of the Russian Federation. Only it must be done at a new technological level, on methane engines.

          Hydrogen + oxygen is the maximum heat release from all chemical reactions. Why is methane better?
          1. Shopping Mall 12 May 2019 15: 35 New
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            Quote: Karabas
            A super-heavy rocket is needed, and should become one of the priorities of the space program of the Russian Federation. Only it must be done at a new technological level, on methane engines.

            Hydrogen + oxygen is the maximum heat release from all chemical reactions. Why is methane better?


            Very expensive receiving, storage and infrastructure. If the launch was postponed, it is necessary to cool the rocket all the time.
            Methane - a compromise, cheap and gives little soot, which allows it to be used in reusable engines better than kerosene.
            1. Karabas 12 May 2019 16: 53 New
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              Very expensive receiving, storage and infrastructure. If the launch was postponed, it is necessary to cool the rocket all the time.
              Methane - a compromise, cheap and gives little soot, which allows it to be used in reusable engines better than kerosene.

              So you can fly on the wood. Cheap, convenient to store, the infrastructure of a leaky shed, you can not cool. laughing True, a rocket of 500 tons of 10 kg of cargo will be removed, so it does not matter, economically the same ...
              PS: On wood it is real, if they are crushed into dust, like gunpowder will be. Every joke has a fraction of a joke.
    2. Civil 13 May 2019 07: 55 New
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      It will be just that, but already with new technologies, that is, it will no longer be necessary to build a heavy rocket, there will be enough medium, and maybe even light. Laser installations are already much easier.
  2. arkadiyssk 11 May 2019 09: 37 New
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    ... Skif's separation occurred at an altitude of 110 km for 460 seconds of flight ... 7.5 minutes super rocket flew to an altitude of 110 km? :) I understand that the author is quoting Wikipedia, but damn it is common sense - it's just 230 m / s rocket rate ROCKET !!! In the SU-27 in a gentle flight, the rate of climb is one and a half times greater.
    1. Blackmokona 11 May 2019 10: 20 New
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      You load 80 tons on the Su-27, a full supply of fuel and more. And let's see how fast the Su-27 flies. All aviation records are set with zero cargo, dismantling of all non-critical equipment and minimum fuel reserves
    2. AlexTss 12 May 2019 01: 21 New
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      The point is not the height that the rocket climbed, but the speed that it reported to the payload. sad
      The speed was slightly less than the "first space" winked
      If the “Skiff” had worked normally, and got it over, it would have remained in orbit.
      And so - fell like an ordinary warhead ICBM request
      Only ooooooo big fellow
      hi
  3. Operator 11 May 2019 12: 07 New
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    The Energia launch vehicle, the Buran reusable spacecraft and the Skif laser space station were the sawnings of the Soviet defense budget — the simplest anti-satellite weapon is the 1 (one) megaton-class nuclear charge detonated in near-earth orbit, the cost of which even taking into account orders of magnitude less than the cost of the American or Soviet Star Wars programs.

    The reason for sanctioning such programs in the USA and the USSR was the complete inadequacy of the political leadership of these countries in matters of science and technology because of professional incompetence and senility - the actor Reagan, the Komsomol Andropov, and the combiner Gorbachev spread local sucker budgets.
    1. KVU-NSVD 11 May 2019 17: 51 New
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      Quote: Operator
      the simplest anti-satellite weapon is 1 (one) megaton-class nuclear charge

      From a megaton antibiotic in orbit, not only the stranger will die, but all his own. Sometimes surgery is also needed .. And it’s so cheap and cheerful, of course, you can clean the orbits during the threatened period - in our army there are still compasses, a compass and optical rangefinders, thank God, it’s quite an honor.
      1. Blackmokona 11 May 2019 17: 59 New
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        Only one enemy satellite will die from a megaton antibiotic, and that is not a fact, you still have to get there. In space, plus or minus 10 km is not a distance at all
        1. ccsr 11 May 2019 21: 13 New
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          Quote: BlackMokona
          Only one enemy satellite will die from a megaton antibiotic, and that is not a fact, you still have to get there. In space, plus or minus 10 km is not a distance at all

          In fact, their work will be stopped with the help of ground or spaceborne electronic warfare equipment, suppressing satellite control channels.
          1. Blackmokona 12 May 2019 08: 59 New
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            They laugh at it there, thanks to the pointed transmitters
            1. ccsr 12 May 2019 09: 57 New
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              Quote: BlackMokona
              They laugh at it there, thanks to the pointed transmitters

              What will they laugh at - at low orbit or geostationary?
              By the way, narrowly directed radiation patterns even at units of degrees, when working with geostationary satellites, cover vast territories on Earth. What is the problem of clogging the receiving paths?
              Even in Ukraine there are "Systems for creating interference-frequency-sensing navigation equipment for consumers of GPS / GLONASS systems."
              https://topwar.ru/35564-obzor-tehniki-radioelektronnoy-borby-reb-ukrainskogo-proizvodstva.html
              Do you think Russia does not know how to do this with respect to other satellites?
              1. Blackmokona 12 May 2019 10: 05 New
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                Yes, but it’s still less than the zones that can be controlled by NATO forces, and thus all control can be carried out from safe zones.
                Well, GPS jamming is carried out in a very local area on Earth, absolutely without affecting the satellites themselves
        2. Karabas 12 May 2019 14: 22 New
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          Only one enemy satellite will die from a megaton antibiotic, and that is not a fact, you still have to get there. In space, plus or minus 10 km is not a distance at all

          This is true, in addition there is no shock wave, which reduces efficiency by several times.
        3. g1washntwn 13 May 2019 07: 42 New
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          The flash itself is not so scary and this is not a local area. From the American tests, Starfish Prime formed a region stretched in orbit and "floated" the entire radiation belt of the Earth. What will happen to him if tens of megatons start to explode there in different orbits? I think there is nothing good either for those living under it, or for spacecraft flying through.
          1. Blackmokona 13 May 2019 10: 33 New
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            Now the spacecraft hold radiation belts without problems
            1. g1washntwn 13 May 2019 14: 04 New
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              Quote: BlackMokona
              Now the spacecraft hold radiation belts without problems

              The key word is now. SC are laid under a certain margin of radiation resistance. The countdown comes from fluctuations in the natural level and the studied data of the radiation belt. Military developments may last for some time, but the elemental base of commerce and microsatellites is degrading in a couple of dozen turns. But military satellites will begin to actively pull off from their orbits. Whatever protection is laid, it will not be possible to completely neutralize the consequences. It is as if (a little exaggerating) the plane flew over the sea and withstood rain and hail, but no waves were raised.
      2. Operator 11 May 2019 19: 10 New
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        And what about us, our satellites after the start of a nuclear war with NATO? After the exchange of nuclear strikes, the ionized areas of air will cover the entire Northern Hemisphere, after which all radio communications (including ground-based and satellite earth-to-space link) and radar will be blocked for about a month.

        For the incapacitation of single satellites of every small thing, a pot-bellied type of Israel would be enough for ground / aviation Peresvet without attacking the “space wars” a second time.

        Beads, compasses, optical and laser range finders, as well as paper / electronic maps of terrain and gravity anomalies - the very post-nuclear world.
        1. ccsr 11 May 2019 21: 11 New
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          Quote: Operator
          After the exchange of nuclear strikes, ionized regions of air will cover the entire Northern Hemisphere, after which all radio communications (including terrestrial and satellite in the earth-space link) and radar will be blocked for about a month.

          As for all radio communications, you obviously got excited, if only because, firstly, HF radio communications on certain routes will work, and secondly, the surviving radio relay stations can also be used for control, and tropospheric stations will also be able to work over time.
  4. Old26 11 May 2019 21: 58 New
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    Quote: NEXUS
    It is not at all a fact that the Skiff project will not be returned in the near future or in the near future. Given the developments on this project, and taking into account today's technologies, it may very well be that the same heavy Angara project will include the launch of a combat laser into orbit. Who knows?

    Forget about the "Hangar". The heaviest option - "Angara A5V" - will raise 38 tons. The minimum that the analogue of Skif can raise (and this is at least 77 tons) is the Yenisei, which will raise 100 tons.

    Quote: arkadiyssk
    ... Skif's separation occurred at an altitude of 110 km for 460 seconds of flight ... 7.5 minutes super rocket flew to an altitude of 110 km? :) I understand that the author is quoting Wikipedia, but damn it is common sense - it's just 230 m / s rocket rate ROCKET !!! In the SU-27 in a gentle flight, the rate of climb is one and a half times greater.

    You can not try to climb the aircraft to the rocket.
    1. Starover_Z 12 May 2019 13: 23 New
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      Quote: Old26
      Forget about the "Hangar". The heaviest option - "Angara A5V" - will raise 38 tons. The minimum that the analogue of Skif can raise (and this is at least 77 tons) is the Yenisei, which will raise 100 tons.

      Wait, do not rush. First let the options of “Angara” and “Yenisei” rise themselves, and only then loads on them. Indeed, the latest forecasts here, at VO, are only about postponement of launches of these LVs for at least 25-30 years!
  5. Operator 11 May 2019 22: 40 New
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    Quote: ccsr
    HF radio communication on certain routes will work, and secondly, the surviving radio relay stations can also be used for control, and tropospheric stations can also work with time

    Everything will work over time - after the deionization of air.
    1. ccsr 12 May 2019 10: 03 New
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      Quote: Operator
      Everything will work over time - after the deionization of air.

      According to the theory, the loss of HF radio communication can be from several minutes to several hours, which in my opinion is not so significant, taking into account the general damage and taking into account its range.
      1. Operator 12 May 2019 12: 34 New
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        The theory of using 2000 nuclear warheads over North America and 2000 + nuclear warheads over Europe? bully
        1. ccsr 12 May 2019 18: 06 New
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          Quote: Operator
          The theory of using 2000 nuclear warheads over North America and 2000 + nuclear warheads over Europe?

          I have not heard of such a theory, especially given the fact that unacceptable damage to the United States was determined in 200 nuclear charges of the megaton class back in Soviet times. Now, as far as I know, they already recognize that 100 nuclear charges are enough for the US economy to collapse and the country to lose control.
          1. Operator 12 May 2019 18: 16 New
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            I simply counted all the strategic nuclear charges in service with the Russian Federation, the United States, Britain and France.

            But the parties still have tactical nuclear charges in the amount of 10000 + for use in the European theater bully
  6. Karabas 12 May 2019 14: 08 New
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    It was planned to install an existing laser on the new spacecraft. Fortunately, at that time there was a suitable example of a megawatt laser in the USSR.

    How shoud I understand this? That we then soar with different armatures, install one on an armored personnel carrier, one of them will defeat all enemies. laughing
  7. Old26 13 May 2019 15: 16 New
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    Quote: Starover_Z
    Quote: Old26
    Forget about the "Hangar". The heaviest option - "Angara A5V" - will raise 38 tons. The minimum that the analogue of Skif can raise (and this is at least 77 tons) is the Yenisei, which will raise 100 tons.

    Wait, do not rush. First let the options of “Angara” and “Yenisei” rise themselves, and only then loads on them. Indeed, the latest forecasts here, at VO, are only about postponement of launches of these LVs for at least 25-30 years!

    And I'm not in a hurry. This is just a statement of fact. The carrying capacity of the Angara A-5B will be 38 tons, and the starting weight of the Skif was 77 tons. That is, the carrying capacity is half that. Therefore, the "Hangar" can be forgotten as the carrier of "Scythian-2" (if you dream)
  8. Svetlana 13 May 2019 15: 58 New
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    Quote: NEXUS
    It is not at all a fact that the Skiff project will not be returned in the near future or in the near future. Given the developments on this project

    A neutron beam generator based on a Bogomolov linear microwave backward accelerator is more relevant for the destruction of satellites in space in comparison with the Skiff laser and its analogs, lasers with optical pumping by LED radiation. The following reasons:
    - Greater efficiency ~ 70% of the fast neutron beam generator compared to ~ 30% of the optical laser.
    - The optical radiation range is easily shielded with thin (<1cm) ablative heat-protective coatings. And from neutron radiation you need a screen with a thickness of at least several tens of centimeters of a solid-state hydrogen-containing substance (ceresin, paraffin, polyethylene).
    - There is already a project for a megawatt-class space nuclear power plant to power a fast neutron beam generator.
    - The backward wave accelerator itself is a trolley-sized car that fits in the dimensions of the Polyus spacecraft.
    1. Mityay65 15 September 2019 13: 17 New
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      All true.
      In tactical terms, an orbital particle accelerator (beam weapon) promises more prospects for destroying adversary satellites in near space than a laser system.
      Only while the Bogomolov accelerator is a semi-mythical idea. The state did not finance the work on accelerators in the return wave (info for 14 g.).
      And it will turn out not "the size of a trolley", but an installation of 800 meters in length ...
      "It will require GeV proton beams of a megawatt (and higher) power level, operating in continuous mode ... such a linear accelerator ... is approximately 800-meter installation!" - Academician Sergey IVANOV, Deputy Director of the State Research Center Institute for High Energy Physics Research Center "Kurchatov Institute" (IHEP, Protvino).