Military Review

Little-known wars of the Russian state: the struggle of the Moscow state with Kazan and the Crimea in the first third of the XVI century.

Little-known wars of the Russian state: the struggle of the Moscow state with Kazan and the Crimea in the first third of the XVI century.

After the overthrow of Khan Abdul-Latif (Kazan Khan in 1497 — 1502) and his reference to Beloozero, his elder brother Mohammed-Amin was seated on the Kazan throne (ruled in 1484 - 1485, 1487 - 1496 and 1502 - 1518). ). He, despite the regular assistance of Moscow, which he had been given to capture the Kazan throne, went out of control in the last year of Ivan the Great, and in 1506, defeated the punitive army near Kazan, sent by the new Grand Prince Vasily III. In March, an agreement was signed between Moscow and Kazan, which confirmed the complete independence of the Khanate. In 1510 - 1511 with the mediation of Khansha Nur-Sultan and her stepson Sahib Giray (the future Crimean Khan), Mohammed-Amin signed a new treaty with Vasily III, in which he recognized the supremacy of the Moscow sovereign. Mohammed-Amin died on December 18 1518 g, leaving behind no sons. With his death, the dynasty of Ulu-Mohammed (the founder of the Kazan Khanate in 1438) stopped

December 29 to the Grand Duke Vasily III, the embassy of Kul-Derbysh arrived, reporting on the death of Khan and asking Kazan to be the new state. The closest relatives of Mohammed-Amin were his stepbrothers. However, one of them, Khudai-Kul, accepted Orthodox baptism and lost the right to the Kazan throne. Other stepbrothers of the deceased from the dynasty of the Crimean Gireys did not want to see Kazan from the Moscow government, which was afraid of realizing the dreams of the Crimean Khan Mohammed Giray (Mehmed I Gerai) about uniting all the Tatar khanates and steppe possessions under the rule of Bahchisarai. After the defeat by his father of the Great Horde, the task of uniting the Golden Horde by the time the Crimean Horde completely disintegrated by the time of the Crimean Horde seemed quite real. Therefore, Moscow has made a choice in favor of 13-year-old Kasimov prince Shah-Ali, grandson of Bakhtiar, brother of Khan Bolshoy Orda Ahmet. He was in 1516 after the death of his father received the Kasimov throne. In April, the Russian ambassador Fyodor Karpov and the voivode Vasily Yurievich Podzhogin attended the ceremony of setting the Kazan throne in April and arrived in Kazan with a military detachment. As a result, relations with Bakhchisarai, who insisted on the candidacy of his brother Sahib Giray, were finally spoiled. A big war was brewing. It began in 1519 year.

The situation in the southern Russian "Ukraine"

The situation on the southern frontiers was so tense. The Crimean Tatars in 1507, at the height of the next Russian-Lithuanian war, raided these territories, however, were defeated and fled. This forced the Crimean Khanate to abandon further attacks before 1512. At the end of 1511 - the beginning of 1512, a very dangerous alliance of the Crimean Khanate with Lithuania and Poland began to form. In May 1512, the sons of Mengli-Girey, Ahmed-Girey and Burnash-Girey, attempted to break through the defenses of the southern borders and invade deep into Russian territory. Vasily III sent troops to Seversk land to help the Starodub governor Vasily Shemyachich under the command of Mikhail Shchenyatev. However, the troops had to turn to the Ugra, because the Crimean detachments, passing the Starodub lands, came to Belevo and Odoevsky places. Moscow is sending another army under the command of Daniel Scheni. Trying to stop the further advancement of the Tatars, the Russian regiments moved not only to the Ugra, but also to Kashira and Serpukhov. The enemy detachments constantly changed their disposition, leaving the blows of the grand duke's troops. Separate Tatar detachments went to Kolomna, reached the vicinity of Aleksin and Vorotynsk. New regiments were sent from Moscow to Tarusa, headed by the specific prince Andrei Staritsky, okolnichim Konstantin Zabolotsky. The troops of Prince Yuri Dmitrovsky strengthened the defense of Serpukhov, Ivan Shuisky was sent to Ryazan. All these measures were in vain. Tatar detachments safely left the steppe, taking a huge full.

This lesson was not in vain. Vasily III ordered to consolidate the defense of the southern "Ukraine", for which the troops under the command of Mikhail Golitsy Bulgakov and Ivan Chelyadnin were concentrated on the Ugra. The concentration of troops on the River Ugra and some other “Ukrainian” places proved timely: in 1512, the Crimean Tatars invaded the Russian borders three more times. In June, Ahmed Giray's detachments attempted to attack the environs of the Bryansk cities of Bryansk, Putivl and Starodub, but suffered a heavy defeat. In July, 1512 troops approached the borders of the land of Ryazan under the command of Mohammed Giray. However, having learned that Prince Alexander of Rostov was building with shelves on the river the Sturgeon, the Tatars hurried to retreat. The Crimean Tatars committed another attack in the fall, when the Russian commanders did not expect him. On October 6, the army of the Crimean “Tsarevich” Burnash-Girey suddenly came out to Pereyaslavl-Ryazan (Ryazan) and defeated Ryazan Posad. Tatars besieged the fortress, but could not take. A few days later, the Crimean detachments with full left in the steppe.

Later it turned out that all three raids were carried out at the request of the Lithuanian government. This led to the beginning of the new Russian-Lithuanian war 1512-1522. Moscow had to wage a heavy ten-year war with a constant eye on the southern border. It is possible that the first campaign against Smolensk took place in the winter of 1512-1513 for precisely this reason. Moscow’s plans for a quick victory and the capture of Smolensk did not materialize, the Russian ratians retreated. In the middle of March, 1513 was decided on a new march to Smolensk, at the same time considerable forces were sent to the south. In Tula, the regiments of Prince Alexander of Rostov, Mikhail Zakharyin, and Ivan Vorotynsky stood up, and on the Ugra — Mikhail Holitsa Bulgakov and Ivan Shevchina Telepnev. In addition, a significant detachment under the command of Ivan Ushaty and Semen Serebryansky sent to protect the Seversk land. But, despite the measures taken, the Tatars still managed to pass through the Putivl, Bryansk and Starodub sites. This delayed the Grand Duke in Borovsk until 11 September 1513, when he received news of the departure of the Crimean Tatars to the steppe. Only after that the Moscow monarch went under Smolensk, which he again could not take. Only during the third campaign of 29 in July of 1514 did they succeed in capturing the city. However, even during it, large forces had to be sent to the southern border. The troops were commanded by Prince Dmitry Uglitsky, his regiments stood in Tula and on the Ugra. Seversk land covered the troops Vasily Shemyachich and Vasily Starodubsky. In the autumn of 1514, they repelled the attack of the Tatar "prince" Mohammed Giray, in whose army there were also detachments of the Polish king.

In March, the Crimean and Lithuanian 1515 repeated the attack on the Seversk "Ukraine". Together with the Crimean detachments of Mohammed Giray, the troops of the Kiev voivode Andrey Nemirovich and Evstafiy Dashkevich acted. Crimean-Lithuanian troops laid siege to Chernihiv, Starodub and Novgorod-Seversky, but could not take it and retreated, seizing a large one. In an atmosphere of ongoing war with Lithuania, the Moscow government decided to resolve the conflict with Bakhchisarai through diplomatic channels. However, the death of Khan Mengli-Giray (Mengli I Gerai) on April 13 of 1515 of the year, further complicated the Russian-Crimean relations. On the Crimean throne ascended Muhammad Giray known for its hostility towards the Russian state. Basil III, alarmed by the news received, left with Borovsk with his chief warlords. There he was found by the Crimean Ambassador Yanchura Duvan. 1 September 1515 of the year he presented an ultimatum to the Moscow sovereign, in which the promise of "friendship and brotherhood" was accompanied by the demand to transfer the Seversk lands and cities to the Crimean "tsar": Bryansk, Starodub, Novgorod-Seversky, Putivl, Pochep, Rylsk, Karachev and Radogoshch. In addition, Moscow was supposed to release the Kazan Tsarevich Abdul-Latif to the Crimea and return Smolensk to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It is clear that these conditions were not acceptable, so Vasily Ivanovich pulled back with an answer. Only 14 November in the Crimea went Ivan Mamonov. The Moscow ambassador conveyed the consent of Moscow only to the award of Abdul-Latif to one of the Moscow cities for feeding and a proposal for joint actions against Lithuania. Despite a fairly firm refusal to comply with the requirements of Bakhchisarai, there was no immediate start of the war with Moscow. The new Crimean Khan tried to enlist the support of Moscow in the fight against the Nogai horde. Vasily Ivanovich managed to evade the fulfillment of this Khan requirement.

Relations between the two states were going to a big war. The number of Tatar raids multiplied. The border volosts were attacked by small Tatar detachments that went around the fortresses and cities, hurried to capture the "full" and go into the steppe. Only a constant demonstration of the power and military skills of the Russian forces concentrated on the border of the “Wild Field” could postpone a major invasion. For the time being, the Russian governors coped with this task: small detachments pursued and destroyed, larger ones drove away. In the middle of September 1515, the Azov detachment attacked Mordovian sites, hunting for the "full". The raid on the same land was repeated at the end of autumn - the beginning of winter. In June, the son of the Crimean Khan Bogatyr-Saltan attacked the Ryazan and Meshchersky lands. The campaign of the 1517 of the year became more extensive; it was paid for with Lithuanian gold. In addition, Bakhchisaray wanted to put pressure on Moscow due to disagreements over the inheritance of the Kazan throne - Khan Mohammed-Amin was dying in Kazan, according to the Crimea, Abdul-Latif was to inherit him. The Moscow authorities did not agree to release “Tsarevich” Abdul-Latif, who was held in Moscow under the honorary guards in Kazan or the Crimea. 19 November 1517, the "prince" died (it is believed that he was poisoned), his body was allowed to be taken to Kazan and buried there.

They knew about the impending invasion of the Tatars in Moscow, so they managed to prepare for the meeting of the Crimean troops. Crimean 20-thousand horde led Tokuzak-Murza. Russian regiments under the command of Vasily Odoyevsky, Mikhail Zakharyin, Ivan Vorotynsky and Ivan Telepnev were behind Oka, under Aleksin. In August, 1517, the Crimean army crossed the Russian border and began to "fight the land" around Tula and Besputa. Voevods Odoyevsky and Vorotynsky sent a detachment of Ivan Tutykhin and Princes Volkonsky against the Tatars. Tatar Murza did not accept the battle and began to retreat to the steppe. With the help of the “foot people of Ukraine”, the enemy suffered significant damage. Having suffered heavy casualties (from 20-thousand troops, about 5 thousand people returned to the Crimea), the Crimeans broke into the steppe. In this battle, the Russian commanders were able to recapture the entire Aleksin is full. In November, the Crimean detachments attempted to attack the Seversk land, but were overtaken and defeated by the troops of V. Shemyachich.

The defeat of the Tokuzak-Murza forces forced the Crimean Khan to temporarily abandon plans to prepare a major invasion against the Russian state. In addition, the strife that began in the Khanate prevented the start of a big war. Akhmat-Girey spoke against Mohammed Giray, who was supported by the beylik of one of the most noble Tatar princely clans - Shirin. The situation in the Crimean Khanate stabilized only in 1519, when the rebel was defeated and died.

The reason for the war and its beginning

The situation in the Kazan Khanate again became the reason for the next crisis in relations between Moscow and Bakhchisarai. After the death of Mohammed-Amin, the Russian government managed to put on the throne Kasimov prince Shah-Ali. The new Khan ruled the Kazan land under the control of the Russian ambassador. The restoration of the full Russian protectorate caused a sharp rejection of the Kazan nobility, who sought an alliance with the Crimean Khanate. Bakhchisarai believed that the legitimate heir to the Kazan throne was Sahib Giray, the half-brother of the dead Mohammed-Amin and Abdul-Latif. The extreme unpopularity of Khan Shah-Ali among the population played into the hands of the Crimean party. His commitment to Moscow, distrust of the local nobility, ugly appearance (weak physique, big belly, almost female face) showed that he was not suitable for war. As a result, a conspiracy arose in Kazan, at the head of which was Oglan Sidi. The conspirators sent an invitation to Prince Sahib Giray to take the throne of Kazan to Bakhchisarai. In April, 1521, the Sahib Giray, with a small detachment in 300, riders approached Kazan. The uprising began in the city. The Russian detachment was killed, the Moscow ambassador and the merchants were captured, Shah-Ali was able to escape.

Sahib Girey was the complete opposite of Shah-Ali, being a courageous warrior, an unshakable enemy of the "infidels." Having occupied the Kazan throne, he declared war on Moscow and agreed on joint actions with his brother the Crimean Khan Mohammed-Giray, who raised troops on a long march.

To be continued ...
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  1. ShturmKGB
    ShturmKGB 25 June 2012 11: 49
    Very interesting, thanks. Only in certain moments is the Nogai Tatars confused, but this error is not the author, in many historical sources they did not distinguish between Nogais and Tatars. rather, the Nogais were called Tatars ...