Stories about weapons. 8,8-cm Flugabwehrkanone

48
We have been thinking for a long time about whether to talk in detail about the world-famous German anti-aircraft gun, which was noted in many wars, in various armies of the world and at the same time remained one of the best in its class.





We apologize in advance to all those who are accustomed to the millimeter gauge, but we decided that it is necessary to use a centimeter gauge, as it was with the Germans. The bottom line is still the same as 8,8-cm, which is 88-mm.

So, we will talk about "aht-comma-aht", 8,8-cm anti-aircraft guns, more precisely, a whole series of Flak 18 / 36 / 37 and Flak 41 / 43 guns. World fame implies a huge amount of materials on this instrument, and hence a huge number of opinions and judgments.



But, on the other hand, can the T-34 tank get bored? Or the U-87 plane? Is everything written about “Willis” or BTR “Universal”? Are there any limits to the understanding of the genius of the designers of weapons and military equipment? The fact that, in our opinion, the German anti-aircraft 8,8-cm gun is the most famous weapon of the Second World War, undoubtedly. The fact that this gun is really a brilliant weapon is also, but we, naturally, could not help but uncover a couple of nuances.

In general, German designers already in the First World War realized the importance of anti-aircraft artillery for a future war. Therefore, they began to develop semi-automatic anti-aircraft guns of "serious" (from 7,5 to 10,5 cm) calibers. Lost in the war prevented the work. Germany, according to the Treaty of Versailles, was practically deprived of the army and fleet, military production and forced to stop developing new types of weapons and equipment.

Today, in many publications one can read the complaints of the authors that it was the Soviet Union that revived the military power of Germany. It was at the Soviet factories and in the Soviet design offices that the future strength of the German army was forged. However, the example of a truly great instrument shows that the next accusations, though they have some ground, but in many ways (if not mostly) are invented by Western propagandists.

German designers and industrialists worked after the First World War in many European countries. Almost all. There was no need to even look for traces of German developments, everything was in plain sight. Sweden and Holland were especially different. They were almost openly developed by Krupp. The fig leaf covering these designs was the numbers in the designation. All the new guns were "model 1918 of the year", that is, had the number 18 in the designation.

In fact, such weapons not only existed, they still calmly fought two world wars. These were naval 88-mm universal (that is, having the ability to fire on both air and surface targets) 8.8 cm SK L / 45 and 8.8 cm SK L L / 35 cannons of the 1906 and 1916 models, respectively.

These guns stood on dreadnought, cruisers, destroyers and submarines of both the Kaiser fleet and the Kriegsmarine.

Stories about weapons. 8,8-cm Flugabwehrkanone

In the service of Kriegsmarine





Universal guns of the cruiser "Konigsberg", which became in the 1946 "Admiral Makarov"






But the heroine of this material is not the successor of these shipboard anti-aircraft guns. They are related solely to the caliber, in fact they are completely different tools.

To develop the 8,8-cm anti-aircraft gun company Krupp began only in 1931 year. Just in Sweden. The pace of work is impressive, even taking into account many minor flaws. From the beginning of the design (1931 year) to deliveries to the troops (1933 year), Krupp managed not only to design the gun, but also to start mass production in Essen (1932 year). This is how the old development of the 8,8-cm Flak 18 anti-aircraft gun appeared.

The question arises of such a large caliber for anti-aircraft guns. Why make a deliberately difficult tool, if with the existing aviation did the smaller calibers manage well?

The thing is that the designers from the Krupp company closely followed the probable adversary. Simply put, the development of aviation. They saw the prospects of high-speed high-altitude bombers even then.

And the second. By 1930, Krupp, in cooperation with Bofors, had already developed quite a good gun, the m29. 7,5 caliber, see. However, this caliber is clearly not enough for high-altitude purposes. The military demanded to increase the caliber to 10,5, see. But in this case, the projectile was quite heavy, and the loader could not provide the necessary rate of fire and a high rate of fire. So the 8.8 caliber cm was in its own way a compromise between the rate of fire and the range.



Despite the almost open production of anti-aircraft guns, the Germans continued to play the role of conscientious performers of the Versailles Treaty. And the countries of the West, respectively, the role of blind-deaf-mute observers. Until 1935, there were no anti-aircraft units in the German army! There were movable battalions (Fahrabteilung). But this is so, on the question of preparing for a war of Europe against the USSR.

After more than a brief excursion into history creatures begin to feel, watch and twirl.

By the way, if we consider all modifications of anti-aircraft guns, model 1918 of the year, sample 1936 of the year, sample 1937 of the year, and sample 1941 of the year, it may surprise someone, but the changes will be minor.

Probably because of this feature of the guns, all German 8,8-cm anti-aircraft guns had one unofficial nickname from their caliber “Acht-acht” (Eight-eight) or, as mentioned above, “Acht-Komma-Acht”. Although another version of the unofficial title looks more beautiful. From the word "Achtung", which means "attention" or something like "nix!" The Germans had no less such notions than the Russians. A soldier from either side of the front is a soldier. And the humor is similar, soldier's.

Let's start with the trunk. The barrel of the gun consists of three parts. Free pipe, casing and breech.

Recoil devices. It consists of a spindle-type hydraulic brake and a hydropneumatic knurling brake. The recoil brake is equipped with a compensator. Rollback length is variable.

Lafet Longitudinal beam, which in the traveling position was a gun carriage. The side frames were at an angle of 90 degrees to the wagon. In the stowed position stanitsy climbed up. Thus, the carriage had a cruciform shape.

On the base of the carriage installed the cabinet. Above, already on the cabinet, a swivel (upper machine) is installed. Moreover, the lower end of the pin swivel was inserted into the slide leveling mechanism.

Lifting and turning devices had two pointing speeds. The balancing mechanism is spring, pulling type.





















Interestingly solved the problem of transporting guns. The tool itself had no wheels. For transportation, two single-axle trolleys (Sd.Anh.201) were used. Carts or moves when casting guns in a combat position are disconnected. And it, perhaps, a lack of this system, carts are not interchangeable. Front sloping, rear dual slope.



Now it is worth talking about upgrades. More precisely, about what and why changed in the design of the gun. So, the following modification of 8,8 cm Flak 36. Small details omitted, we will talk about significant changes.

First of all, the design required the unification of move-rolling carts. The presence of two different moves significantly reduced the viability of the guns. Therefore, the designers went to unification. Creating a cart that is used both in front and behind. A Sd.Anh.202 trolley with dual wheels was created.



Such a unification naturally caused a change in the mast. I had to unify the front and back of the gun carriage. Another way to ensure the interchangeability of carts was impossible.

Two more changes are caused by the requirements of mass production of guns and cheapening of the gun. Let's start with the second paragraph. Costly brass is replaced by steel. It seems to be a trifle, but the cost of the gun is quite noticeably reduced.

But the main change, precisely in terms of mass production, occurred in the production of barrels. The gun received detachable front. And it is very important to understand that this change had no effect on the structure of the gun itself and its ballistics.

It is still possible to visually distinguish Flak 36 from Flak 18. Much more difficult with the following modification - Flak 37. The fact is that the modernization of the gun in this case did not affect the mechanical part, but the display of the direction of fire. Visually, the gun looks like a Flak 36. If we discard the details, the upgraded cannon was improved by the SIPS associated with the fire control device with a cable.

Very often there is an erroneous opinion that the 8,8-cm Flak 18/36/37 anti-aircraft guns began to be used as anti-tank guns only after the outbreak of war with the USSR. Alas, this decision is not connected with the Soviet Union and ours tanks. Germany began to use these guns precisely as anti-tank ones during the French campaign. But more about that below.

Gun received the baptism of the gun already in Spain in 1936 year. It was these weapons that were in service with the Condor Legion. It was in Spain that there was an understanding that aviation would snap back in the future. That is, to actively work on the suppression of anti-aircraft artillery. The result of the Spanish campaign was the appearance of armor at Flak.



Let us return to the already mentioned use of anti-aircraft guns as anti-tank guns. Again, it happened in France. And the main factor, in our opinion, for making such a decision was ... an excess of anti-aircraft guns from the Germans and the "unemployment" of anti-aircraft gunners.

And the presence in the French army of tanks S35, armor which was too tough for the standard 37-mm anti-tank guns of the Wehrmacht.

German aircraft in France completely suppressed the French. The work of anti-aircraft guns on airplanes was a rare phenomenon for the Wehrmacht. But if for the Reich air defense it was, in principle, the norm, then for the army air defense such a situation is unnatural. Tools must work. It was at the level of the army air defense that the idea of ​​using air defense weapons as TCP was born.



But in the next campaign, in North Africa, 8,8-cm anti-aircraft guns have already been used against armored vehicles in full. In this respect, the Eastern Front was only a continuation of the scheme already worked out in Europe and Africa.



Where 37-mm guns did not cope (and the Red Army had equipment of such a level), anti-aircraft guns came to the rescue.

Be sure to mention the following 8,8-cm guns in this series - Flak 41.

The fact is that, paradoxically, here it is necessary to debunk another myth about this series of anti-aircraft guns. In their performance characteristics, the Germans do not surpass similar instruments of other states. See the Soviet 85-mm 52K anti-aircraft guns or the British 3,7-inch anti-aircraft guns. German guns do not surpass their competitors.

This is understood and the designers of Germany. Therefore, already in 1939, the Rheinmetall company began designing a truly new weapon - the Gerat 37. The goal is to create a weapon against high-altitude targets. It was necessary to create an anti-aircraft gun with improved ballistic characteristics.

It was Gerat 37, more precisely, the first prototype of this tool, called 8,8 cm Flak 41.

To conduct military tests in 1942, the guns were sent to North Africa. However, it was not possible to deliver all the guns to Tunisia. The transports were attacked and sunk. Thus, 44 is left from the 22 sent guns.



This tool, in our opinion, is the best medium-caliber anti-aircraft gun of the Second World War period. The high-explosive fragmentation grenade had an initial velocity in 1000 m / s. The ballistic ceiling of the gun is almost 15 000 meters. According to other data - 14 700 meters, which, in general, does not matter. Such characteristics largely provided the barrel length in 74 caliber.

Alas, until the very end of the war, Flak 41 was produced in limited quantities. Not only because of the complexity of the design of the gun itself, but also because of the impossibility of using ammunition from other anti-aircraft guns of the same caliber. In addition, attempts were made to use the old carriage from Flak 37. But the carriage simply could not withstand the increased load. It was then that muzzle brakes appeared on the 41's.

In general, the German anti-aircraft 8,8-cm guns Flak 18 / 36 / 37 turned into a legend not designers and engineers, but soldiers and officers. More precisely, an extraordinary tactic of using these guns by personnel. Probably only Flak 37 can be called a clear anti-aircraft gun. The remaining guns are rather versatile.



Interesting further fate Flak 41. In 1943, the gun entered the troops and became the "grave-digger" of the Krupp model 8,8-cm Gerat 42. More precisely, the grave digger of anti-aircraft guns of this option. But 8,8-cm Gerat 42 has become quite well known in the new quality. As an anti-tank and tank guns.

It is this weapon that was used by Krupp to create an 8,8-cm anti-tank gun 8.8-c RAC 43. Just installed the gun on the new Sonderanhänger 204 carriage. After some time, the carriage changed in the direction of simplification. So another weapon appeared - 8,8-cm PAC 43 / 41.

The fate of good guns emerges from the logic of motorized war. Guns are transplanted to the chassis.

The first was the self-propelled gun "Rhino" (Nashorn). Tank destroyer, medium in mass. Mounted on the chassis of the tank T-IV.



The next tank destroyer was called the Elephant. One of the most heavily armed and powerfully armored German cars of the war period. We are better known by another name - "Ferdinand". The tank destroyer, which proved itself well on the Kursk Bulge, “spoiled” only the meager amount of units produced.



Another representative of tank destroyers is Jagdpanther.



The machine is outstanding. Very similar to the Soviet SU-85. True with genetic defects that have passed from the father - tank "Panther".



Well, the crown of the career of this gun was the tank "Tiger" II, better known as the "Royal Tiger". There, too, though slightly modified, stood, but 8,8-cm RAC 43. This "Tiger" hit almost everything that was then used by opponents.



Naturally, the instrument, which initially did not show outstanding results, was gradually supplanted by more modern, more powerful, technologically advanced. This is the fate of any weapons or equipment.



The 8,8-cm Flak 18 / 36 / 37 guns and the Flak 41 are a great example of how fate can be, if a little bit of war will correct it. How can a talent appear where the military road has abandoned. Deserved fame and deserved fame.



TTX 8.8-cm anti-aircraft gun model 1918 / 1936 / 1937's:

Caliber, mm: 88
Manufactured, pcs: more 17400

Rate of fire, rds / min: 15-20

Weight in the stowed position, kg: 8200
Weight in the fighting position, kg: 5000

Dimensions in the traveling position
Length, mm: 5500
Width, mm: 1765
Height, mm: 2100

Firing angles
Angle VN, degrees: 85
Angle GN, degrees: 360

In the museum collections of our country, the 88-mm universal is a very rare guest. To see in such a way that it is pointed, they say, such an instrument appeared in the collection of the Vadim Zadorozhny Museum Alas, at the time of our visit he was not there. The photos shown in our case were taken by our colleague in the museum of the liberation of Kiev on the Lyutezhsky bridgehead.
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48 comments
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  1. +7
    April 16 2019
    Thunderstorm of Soviet tanks. They drank a lot of blood from both tankers and pilots.
  2. +6
    April 16 2019
    A very evil weapon. 88 this is a khan from T-34 to IS-2.
    1. +3
      April 16 2019
      Quote: alekc73
      A very evil weapon ....
      hi ... The gun itself had no wheels. For transportation, two rolling uniaxial trolleys were used (Sd.Anh.201). Carts or moves are disconnected when putting the gun into combat position.
    2. +1
      April 16 2019
      Not only.
      Episodes of the operation "Battlelex" ("Halberd") -
      On June 15, 1941 at 5 a.m., the Matild crews, ready to attack, holding their breath, awaited the first salvos of 40-pound howitzers. But ... artillery preparation for some reason did not start at the appointed time. However, at 25 o’clock, Major Miles, the commander of the C squadron of the 6th Royal Tank Regiment, ordered his subordinates to launch an attack. After a few minutes of movement, the tankers discovered the lack of infantry support, but this was quite familiar and not as discouraging as the silence of artillery. Alone, the tanks moved to the aisle and then came under the dagger fire of an 88-mm anti-aircraft gun.
      Squadron "C" was destroyed in a matter of minutes, one of the first killed its commander Major Miles. Of the 12 vehicles that went on the attack, only one survived, but her tower jammed and the transmission failed.
      The Indian infantry arrived in time, with the support of six “Matild” squadron “A”, attacked the German positions. Having quickly turned four tanks into soft bonfires, the Germans took up infantry, who considered it best to leave quickly. Halfway control remained with the Wehrmacht.
      ... The first rays of the sun illuminated the silhouettes of tanks, visible above the horizon; they walked, raising clouds of dust. A resounding shot of “eighty-eight millimetry” struck, and the tower of the head A9 flew into the air.

      So that the Germans have honed the fight against heavy and not very enemy tanks since the time of the battles in France!

      A German soldier inspects the remains of a heavy French tank B1bis. As a result of the hit of an 88-mm shell, the ammunition detonated on this machine. France, May 1940
      1. -1
        April 17 2019
        I can be mistaken, but it seems to me - that a lot of 8,8 were in the Caucasus after the war - like avalanche guns. Is there really not a single gun left for museums from there?
        1. BAI
          +1
          April 17 2019
          I think you are mistaken. They could not be used for a simple reason - the Soviet Union did not produce shells for these guns. Why German 88 mm when there are 85 mm?
          1. 0
            April 17 2019
            Quote: BAI
            Why German 88 mm when you have your own 85 mm?
            - why in Kushka in 1988 were Mauser divisions in the warehouses of the RAV - the same revolutionary ones? Why was there a Studebaker with a pair of Browning in the ZRP there? Why have they just started to write off bayonets (!!!!) to Mauser K-98 and German pistols from WWII?
            "pocket does not pull the stock !!" © military ... not for nothing that the epaulettes of warrant officers and generals differed only in the size of the stars fellow fellow

            GUIDING DOCUMENT
            ORGANIZATION AND CARRYING OUT OF AN EMERGENCY WORKS
            Date introduced 2013-12-31

            6.2.1 AB on snow avalanche processes is carried out:
            a) from stationary air defense units, which should be located on specially selected and concreted areas (guns KS-19, BS-3, systems "GAZ.EX", "Snow arrow");
            b) mobile (mobile) AB means installed on special railway platforms (KS-19 or BS-3 cannons) or moved with the help of special vehicles (BS-3 cannons) or by helicopter (DAISYBELL system);
            c) portable means - a manual pump-action grenade launcher GM-94;
            d) explosive charges.

            also, to put it mildly, "fresh" gun
            Z.Y. I don’t find - but I remember an article at the beginning of 90 in some of the magazines such as Youth Techniques specifically about the fact that after the war 8.8 was used in the Caucasus. Later they wrote that anti-aircraft guns were used by all the warring parties of all the Caucasian wars of the beginning of the 90's
            1. 0
              April 20 2019
              There were our 85s, they were used as proto-grape ones, with reagent shells they fired them from 88 you won’t mistake it - a muzzle brake.
    3. 0
      April 17 2019
      Considering that more than 70% of hits on tanks were in the lateral projection (and hitting any tank on the side of the PAK40) and the dimensions of the gun, the niche for the gun was in long-range shooting from a distance of> 2 km.
  3. +1
    April 16 2019
    It seems like at the beginning of the war all Akht-aht were subordinate to Goering. But, faced with the "non-worming" of Soviet tanks, the ground commanders demanded (and received) the support of anti-aircraft gunners, and rather quickly, despite the "departmentalism" that took place. Then no one wanted to get a hack from the Fuhrer. And the communications worked, which allowed the Germans from the air, in which they dominated at this stage, to notify in advance about the advance of our tanks.
  4. +5
    April 16 2019
    But the main change, precisely in terms of mass production, occurred in the production of barrels. The gun received detachable front. And it is very important to understand that this change had no effect on the structure of the gun itself and its ballistics.
    The change in barrel design was caused by the following reasons.
    During the operation of 8,8 cm Flak 18, it turned out that the survivability of the liner (the internal replaceable part of the barrel) has a survivability of no more than 900 shots, moreover, the liner wears out most immediately after the charger and at the muzzle end.
    Therefore, a liner design consisting of three parts was developed, which significantly accelerated the replacement of the worn part and saved a significant amount of steel.
  5. +2
    April 16 2019
    Let us return to the already mentioned use of anti-aircraft guns as anti-tank guns. Again, it happened in France. And the main factor, in our opinion, for making such a decision was ... an excess of anti-aircraft guns from the Germans and the "unemployment" of anti-aircraft gunners.

    And the presence in the French army of tanks S35, armor which was too tough for the standard 37-mm anti-tank guns of the Wehrmacht.

    And also B1bis, for the fight against which they also had to attract anti-aircraft guns.
    Well, do not forget about the British "Matilda" - to stop the British counterattack at Arras, Rommel had to urgently build an anti-tank defense system based on 88-mm and 105-mm guns. For the fire of ordinary "mallets" "mochi" simply did not notice.
  6. +3
    April 16 2019
    I remember when I was a child I was struck by the film "At Your Threshold", about Soviet anti-aircraft gunners - anti-tank gunners. The main role is 85 mm anti-aircraft gun 52-K, a worthy competitor to "Akht-Akhta".
    1. -1
      April 16 2019
      Quote: andrewkor
      52-K, a worthy competitor to Akht-Akhta.

      Right. Even the shorter barrel of our gun did not give the advantage to the German ... In principle, the three medium-caliber anti-aircraft guns were about -8,8, 3,7 inches for the British and our 52К. The British remained an anti-aircraft gun, but 52K and 8,8 became generalists
      1. +2
        April 16 2019
        Quote: domokl
        Even a shorter barrel of our guns did not give an advantage to the German.

        Still gave ..
        The reach and effective fire range were noticeably higher at the aht-aht ..
      2. +2
        April 16 2019
        How Italy is usually forgotten -
        The Ansaldo Gun Mod 90mm / 53 anti-aircraft gun of 1939 was adopted in 1939 as a dual-use weapon: anti-aircraft and coastal defense, and, if necessary, was also used as an anti-tank weapon. In total, at least 540 guns were made in two versions: “41-P” - stationary and “41-C” - towed. The gun was also installed on railway platforms, trucks and self-propelled tracked vehicles. During the war, 315 guns were captured by the Wehrmacht, which received the designation "9,0-cm Flak-41 (I)." TTX guns: caliber - 90 mm; length - 7,6 m; width - 2,3 m; height - 2,5 m; barrel length - 4,7 m; weight in the stowed position - 8,9 tons, in combat - 6,2 tons; projectile weight - 10 kg; initial speed - 830 m / s; firing range - 12 km.
        Cannone da 90/53 could penetrate armor 190 mm thick from a distance of 500 meters, 150 mm from a distance of 1000 meters, 75 mm from a distance of 1500 meters and 62 mm from 2000 meters.
      3. 0
        April 21 2019
        52K 56 gauge long. Flak18 / 36/37 are the same 56. The trunks of the later versions are longer, but they, like PTP, if I do not confuse anything, were not used, because they went to the Pak 43/41 and 43 series. These were longer.
        So the difference in efficiency, and it was, was determined by the development of the design and the quality of manufacture of ammunition.
    2. 0
      April 16 2019
      I read briefly somewhere that our anti-aircraft gun and 88 relatives are constructive.
      How true is that?
      1. +1
        April 17 2019
        45 mm anti-tank gun direct descendant of 37 mm German guns
        1. 0
          April 17 2019
          Yes, I read it.
      2. +2
        April 17 2019
        Quote: Ural-4320
        I read briefly somewhere that our anti-aircraft gun and 88 relatives are constructive.
        How true is that?

        Relatives in the third generation. smile
        The 85-mm 52-K anti-aircraft gun grew from a 76-mm anti-aircraft gun mod. 1938 year. Which in turn was a 76-mm anti-aircraft gun mod. 1931, mounted on a 4-wheeled wagon.
        Well, who designed the 76-mm anti-aircraft gun mod. 1931 is well known - this is the same "Rheinmetall". smile
      3. 0
        April 20 2019
        Not 88, but 76 - German development, there are about 45.
  7. +3
    April 16 2019
    Here is the answer to this question in his memoirs, Major General von Mellentin (at that time he served at the headquarters of Rommel at the rank of Major): “In my opinion, our victories were determined by three factors: the qualitative superiority of our anti-tank guns, the systematic application of the principle of interaction military branches and - last but not least - our tactical methods. While the British limited the role of their 3,7-inch anti-aircraft guns (very powerful guns) to the fight against aircraft, we used our 88-mm cannons to fire both at tanks and aircraft. In November 1941, we only had thirty-five 88mm cannons, but moving with our tanks, these guns inflicted huge losses on British tanks. "

    The British military KNEW - anti-aircraft guns are only intended for anti-aircraft fire! The use of their anti-aircraft guns by the Germans to combat tanks "destroyed the settings" of British thinking! But the British "did not mature" to such use of their own anti-aircraft guns! Apparently they considered the number and capabilities of specialized anti-tank guns to be sufficient!
    1. 0
      April 17 2019
      In contrast, apparently, to the British Crown sailors, who also fired from planes of the main guns of the main caliber of battleships on planes (by interfering with the attacking torpedo bombers in the form of water pillars from the explosive burst on their combat course).
      1. -1
        April 17 2019
        (by installing interference to the attacking torpedo bombers in the form of water columns from a high-explosive burst on their combat course)

        The British did not have anti-aircraft shells for the main caliber, in the manner of the Japanese?
        1. 0
          April 19 2019
          They were ineffective from the word at all (although beautiful). Although, the gap of the GK shell also hardly appeared on time, so the only ones who were able to organize normal air defense of the battleships were Americans.
      2. 0
        April 17 2019
        So the Soviet commandants fired 130-mm guns B-13-1 at low-flying German aircraft!
  8. +1
    April 16 2019
    Quote: Ural-4320
    I read briefly somewhere that our anti-aircraft gun and 88 relatives are constructive.
    How true is that?

    Quite possibly. Since according to the agreement "On non-aggression" among the goods to barter from us were metal and alloying, and from Germany - motors and barrels for anti-aircraft guns. That is, the agreement on the moment of conclusion was so badly needed by the parties that both sides agreed to such "trifles". And from our side he was not a concession or stupidity. Therefore, Stalin refused to believe sources that claimed that Hitler would attack in 41. That he wants to attack - no one was especially delusional. But here's what's in 41 ...
    1. 0
      April 17 2019
      The German origin was the anti-aircraft gun of the 1931 sample with a caliber of 76.2 mm. She and the machine and the wheels were close to the German prototype. Later, modernization appeared - the 76,2-mm arr. 1938 with an integral four-axle trolley. Which a bit later, after applying a new 85-mm barrel to a three-inch anti-aircraft gun mount, became a 85-mm 52-mm anti-aircraft gun.
      1. 0
        April 17 2019
        Wo, thanks! Now it is clear.
    2. +1
      April 18 2019
      Stalin believed that Hitler would not attack the USSR, having behind him an undefeated England. But alas, Hitler was not a normal person, so he did this stupidity by attacking the USSR, having England behind him. A normal person would not do such stupidity.
  9. 0
    April 16 2019
    Good gun.
  10. 0
    April 16 2019
    The next tank destroyer was called the Elephant. One of the most heavily armed and powerfully armored German cars of the war period. We are better known by another name - "Ferdinand". The tank destroyer, which proved itself well on the Kursk Bulge, “spoiled” only the meager amount of units produced.
    Thanks to the authors! But not how much I know, the shortage of copper in Germany, the complexity of the electric transmission made it impossible to deploy the production of the Porsche Tiger tank, on the experimental chassis of which the Ferdinand self-propelled guns were created.
  11. +3
    April 16 2019
    The author is wrong. The transition from RaK 43 to RaK 43/41 was caused not by the "simplification of the gun carriage," but by the fact that the allies bombed the corresponding plant. The Germans found a way out using a carriage from a 15-cm field howitzer.
  12. +1
    April 16 2019
    Healthy as a gate. Digging it like a tank
    1. +3
      April 17 2019
      And when it was discovered, it was practically impossible to escape. The calculation is to hide and wait for the end of the shelling or destruction of the gun. It means if the gun was put on direct fire against tanks.
      1. BAI
        0
        April 17 2019
        Unfortunately not always. On the military album, this photo

        The comments were accompanied by the following story:
        I remembered reading the memoirs of a German artilleryman who witnessed this battle - Wilhelm Lippich "Acting as a fire spotter, I was in one of the bunkers of the still unfinished line of defensive structures and heard the sounds of powerful artillery shelling about half a kilometer away from me. With my usual curiosity, I settled down on the top of a cliff, from where I could observe the progress of the battle from a height of 50 meters. When I reached my observation post, a battery consisting of two German 88-mm anti-aircraft guns was placed next to me, although they were intended to destroy air targets. Their design also allowed them to fire horizontally. Soon seven KV-1 and KV-2 tanks appeared below, followed by infantrymen, who kept a close distance from them. Then several more Soviet tanks of the Czech production T-35 appeared. Meanwhile, anti-aircraft crews. quickly knocked out the leading tank. The rest of the armored vehicles, which did not have room for manner and unable to raise their guns up, found themselves in a helpless position. Within 20 minutes, anti-aircraft guns, one after another, knocked out Russian armored vehicles, trapped in the street. ".
  13. +3
    April 16 2019
    Roman, you can't treat so carelessly - the cruiser Nuremberg became "Admiral Makarov", and not like Koenigsberg .... At least read the wiki before writing ....
  14. Thank you for the article. Detailed and informative. But I wouldn't idealize Ferdinand so much. Especially the first options. It did not come about because of German genius, but rather because of the haste of industrialists. With all the resulting disadvantages ...
  15. 0
    April 17 2019
    The humorous author Acht Und Acht is the designation of the caliber is 8.8 cm and not some kind of Achtung.Acht in German is eight.
  16. BAI
    0
    April 17 2019
    The author accompanies the story about the first versions (modifications) of the gun with photographs of later versions.

    Above is an early trunk, below is a late trunk. (By the way, they were interchangeable).
  17. 0
    April 17 2019
    Well, the crown of the career of this gun was the tank "Tiger" II, better known as the "Royal Tiger". There, too, though slightly modified, stood, but 8,8-cm RAC 43. This "Tiger" hit almost everything that was then used by opponents.


    In addition to the upper straightened frontal part of the IS-2, the KWK-43 / Pak-43 caliber armor-piercing shells could not penetrate from a minimum distance, and the sub-caliber shells for these guns became very rare in the second half of WWII.
  18. 0
    April 17 2019
    Photo 88 from a personal archive, taken at the Rimini Air Museum


  19. +1
    April 17 2019
    Sometimes it is very interesting to "compare parallels"! In the Wehrmacht-88-mm anti-aircraft guns ... in the Red Army-85-mm anti-aircraft guns. In the late 30s. planned to adopt 100-mm anti-aircraft guns in the USSR ... for comparison, we purchased a battery of 105-mm Flak 38 anti-aircraft guns in Germany .. At the same time, the superiority of Flak 38 (in my opinion, except for weight ...) over the experienced Soviet anti-aircraft 100- mm with the L-6, 73-K guns ... But they still decided to refine their 73-K "hundred parts" for the Red Army! And 4 Flak 38s were used in 1941 near Moscow as part of an "experimental" anti-aircraft unit (domestic radars and British GL-MkII (SON-2) gun guidance radars were first used there ...) We also had to meet the statement that in 40-41. a small number of 88-mm anti-aircraft guns were purchased in Germany, which also fought against the Germans near Moscow ... As if in Manstein's book "Lost Victories" there is a mention of the capture of German 41-mm anti-aircraft guns by the Germans in 88 near Moscow ... But the reliability of such information gives me great (!) Doubts ... By the way, in 1930, the Red Army adopted a 20-mm anti-aircraft gun 2-K of German "origin" (future Flak 30 ...) But produced there were very few of them ...
  20. +1
    April 18 2019
    Quote: Nikolaevich I
    As if in Manstein's book "Lost Victories" there is a mention of the capture of German 41-mm anti-aircraft guns by the Germans in 88 near Moscow ...

    I read, but a very long time. Something I can’t remember such a passage about 88.
    1. 0
      April 18 2019
      Quote: Comrade Kim
      Something I can not remember such a passage about 88.

      So, and I about it!
  21. 0
    April 18 2019
    Quote: your1970
    - why in Kushka in 1988 were the Mausers — the very revolutionary ones — in the warehouses of the RAV division?
    Why don’t they lie? cartridges from TT heaps, for some sort of VOKhR will go. Suders are prototypes of our ZIS-151, and the Browning is likely to be re-sharpened under our patron, although there may be originals as an educational museum exhibit. I will say more, in our geology, until the mid-80s, I know that for sure, the Mauser and Walter carbine were widely used, until they were completely worn out. But with guns it doesn’t work out, it’s not cost-effective to run extra lines for the manufacture of ammunition.
  22. 0
    April 25 2019
    88 medium-sized anti-aircraft guns of medium caliber — why should she sing praises? —As the PT gun is actually stationary and visible in dimensions over many kilometers — yes, and how many of them were on Wehrmacht weapons?

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