Military Review

April 15 - 115 years to Russian EW troops

So, 3 of May 1999 of the year by order of the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation No. 183 established a holiday, called the Day of the Electronic Warfare Specialist, which is celebrated annually on April 15.

15 April, we celebrate the 155 anniversary of not even the creation of EW troops, but the first successful use of electronic warfare by Russian specialists. Although then even such a term as EW, did not exist.

But there was a Japanese squadron, which came to Port Arthur in order to continue the defeat of the Russian troops. And it was 15 on April 1904 of the year, two days after the tragic death of Admiral Makarov, the Japanese fleet began shelling Port Arthur.

But alas, the case was not crowned with success. The Japanese armored cruisers "Kasuga" and "Nissin", taking a successful position in the dead zone of the guns of the fortress and Russian ships, began to adjust the shooting of the main forces of the squadron by radio telegraph. The Japanese ships fired more than two hundred large-caliber projectiles along the harbor of Port Arthur, but they failed to make a single hit.

This was due to the work of the radio operators of the Golden Mount station and the battleship Pobeda, which were able to drown out the programs of Japanese cruisers with spark discharges.

Actually, this was the first recorded case of jamming communication systems. So began история EW troops.

It is clear that over the past 115 years from that time a lot of electrons have flowed. Although, if not very seriously, the principles are almost the same.

After all, the basis of electronic warfare is physics, and it has not changed very much since then. Why not say, of course, about the EW.

But the principles remain the same. And at the heart of all the work of the electronic warfare lies the principle of disruption of the electronic systems of the enemy.

In order to destroy something, it is something that must first be what? That's right, the enemy must be detected and classified.

It is radio intelligence - the first component of the EW. It is RTR that studies with all available means (and there are a lot of them) the area of ​​application, identifies objects and systems, assigns them importance, and then “on a platter” passes on to those who will directly work on them.

Most modern EW stations combine search and suppression capabilities.

In general, in the suppression of the object today there is actually no romance, as some are forcing. Everything is simple: the essence of any suppression is the creation of a noise signal at the input of the receiver, more than a useful signal.

Moreover, it does not matter at all what kind of receiver it is: a radar of an aircraft or a cruise missile, a staff radio station, or a radio-projectile fighter. The essence will be the same - the violation of the system that receives information over the air.

This is active interference. And there are passive, by the way, no less effective. Clouds of foil strips of a certain length and width are capable of permanently paralyzing the work of the radar of the range under which the foil was cut. Considering that the lightest strip of aluminum foil can hang in the air for a very long time, the radar calculations will have to be inactive for a rather long time, waiting for the wind.

And corner reflectors should not be written off. Because just by the principle of “cheap and angry”, the corners are capable of perfectly fooling the head, especially if the opponent has no time for the proceedings. This applies primarily to aircraft.

EW complexes today are a fairly wide range of devices that are able to make the enemy in trouble, you just need to clearly understand what actions are needed.

"Murmansk" is capable of disrupting radio communications between the ships of the carrier strike group in the Atlantic, at a distance of 5-6 thousands of kilometers from its base. This is the only system in the world capable (with a certain concatenation of radio wave transmission factors) to “sting” itself in the back. What will happen there, where the antennas of Murmansk will send their signals ...

"Resident" is much smaller, but not much more harmful. And it has a smaller radius of action, but in the “Resident” area of ​​operation you can simply forget about cellular communication. The second generation - Altaets-BM is even more mobile and no less harmful.

In general, as one EW specialist said, “we are pushing everything from geese to satellites.”

Satellites, by the way, is also not a question. It is even easier with them, they fly in certain orbits, and it is quite easy to reach our “partners” to the low-orbit satellites today. There is something.

A separate family of complexes is actually microwaves, burning out all elements of radio-electronic components with radiation.

“Radio” is a rather broad concept, but the second part, “electronic”, includes no fewer components. This, by the way, is the optical range, since laser processing of optical sensors of various guidance systems is the very thing that is interfering with the operation of equipment.

Not encountered, but heard about systems that can stun submarines suppressing their sonars. In principle, nothing fantastic, all the same physics, just another environment. Since the sonar (especially active) works in the same way as its surface counterpart, respectively, you can send something to the antenna as well.

Actually, there would be an antenna to which you can send a hindrance, and it’s definitely not a matter of hindrance.

And the third component. Find, crush and ... protect!

Everything is logical, since the enemy also has its own EW assets. For about the same as ours. So there is something to work against.

In general, of course, the jamming station is a very vulnerable thing in the working cycle. For it has long been in all the armies of the world (normal) there is something to send, focusing on the signal.

But we are now talking about protecting our control systems from enemy repression. Therefore, a significant part of the efforts of EW system developers is also aimed at protecting their own. And this is not so much the development of countermeasures as the whole complexes of technical measures to counter foreign technical intelligence services and EW systems.

Everything is there: signal coding, using packet transmissions, the ability to operate at minimum power in the radio masking mode (this is more a method of organizational nature), various shielding methods, installation of arresters, locking systems (useful if the device is under the influence of enemy interference) and so on.

You should not think that EW jamming everything. It is clear that this is both inefficient (in terms of energy consumption) and cumbersome, since it would require fairly decent means of generating both electricity and signal.

If we talk about modern methods of data transmission, the development of which also does not stand still, then the picture is as follows. If we talk about modern communication systems, then the advanced armies of the world have long been armed with stations using the frequency hopping method (pseudo-random frequency tuning). This is a new communication religion that Bluetooth professes on your phone, for example.

Its essence is that the carrier signal transmission frequency varies in steps in a pseudo-random order. If it is simple - the signal does not “lie” on one particular carrier frequency, but simply jumps from channel to channel from several times to thousands of times per second. Naturally, within the specified frequency range.

And since the sequence of these jumps is known only to the receiver and the transmitter, it is difficult to detect such a signal. For someone who will listen / search on a specific channel, this program will look like a short-term increase in noise. Recognizing that this is a random noise or a transmission tail is a task.

To intercept such a signal is also not easy. To do this, you must at least know the sequence of transition between channels. And though it is “pseudo”, it is random. And "push" such a signal is also an ambush, because you need to know the set of channels. We add that the signal jumps between channels several hundred times a second ...

I hope that physics did not tire anyone. All this is solely in order to explain on the fingers that today the electronic warfare is not a beat on the head with a club, but rather, a precisely calculated stab with a sword. The work is for professionals, moreover, specialists of a very high category.

And if we start talking about future network-centric wars ...

In general, this model of war became possible precisely because the development of information technologies allows it. Including information exchange of all combatants, airplanes, helicopters, reconnaissance and attack UAVs, satellites in orbit, points of guidance and fighters in the trenches.

The United States is very active in running around some components of the network-centric war, and there are certain achievements, yes. It would be nice to introduce into the material an explanation of what “Boyd's Loop” is, but I think it will be quite cumbersome. Let us dwell on the fact that the whole idea of ​​a network-centric war is based on the exchange of information.

That is, it is the communication systems that go to one of the first (or maybe the first) places. Without a reliable and well-protected data exchange system, there will be no “war of tomorrow”.

Violation / suppression of communication systems will lead to paralysis. There is no navigation, there is no identification of "friend or foe", there are no marks about the location of troops, interactive maps do not work, guidance systems do not work ...

In general, not the 21 war of the century, but rather the middle of 20.

The emblem of the troops of electronic warfare depicts a hand in a lattice (in fact, a mail-gauntlet screened by the Tesla method) that squeezed a lightning bolt would have looked more correctly.

April 15 - 115 years to Russian EW troops

Well, in general, the correct approach, beautifully invented. Control over one of the main factors of war today. Control over the air. And the possibility of strangling thereof, if necessary.

Happy holiday, comrades experts of electronic warfare!

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  1. Theodore
    Theodore April 15 2019 04: 56
    In general, Bambarbia! Kergudu! Are there helmets required?
    1. Siberia 75
      Siberia 75 April 15 2019 07: 16
      What a creative standard, the Russian parts of electronic warfare. I hope for estonia, no relation whatsoever sad
    2. Civil
      Civil April 15 2019 14: 07
      "Resident" is much smaller, but not much more harmful. And it has a smaller radius of action, but in the “Resident” area of ​​operation you can simply forget about cellular communication. The second generation - Altaets-BM is even more mobile and no less harmful.

      It depends on whom it is harmful, but it is very useful for someone!) Happy Communion !!!)
    3. ksv36
      ksv36 April 2 2021 00: 15
      Are helmets required there?

      If Romaentsev wrote, then yes.
  2. Reptiloid
    Reptiloid April 15 2019 05: 26
    Happy Holiday, fellow electronic warfare experts!
    Celebrate this day at a good table, as it should be on a holiday!
  3. asar
    asar April 15 2019 07: 31
    Happy Holiday, EW fighters! drinks
    1. asar
      asar April 15 2019 09: 45
      There is no way in a modern war without you!
      Good luck in the service! soldier
  4. venik
    venik April 15 2019 08: 08
    Happy Holidays, men!!! All who serve and who served !!! And who else is just getting ready - too! drinks
  5. iury.vorgul
    iury.vorgul April 15 2019 08: 22
    URA! URA! URA !!!!! I congratulate all comrades who served in the military of the EW with a holiday !!!!!
    1. ksv36
      ksv36 April 2 2021 00: 17
      Who called Donald Quack ???
    SERGEY SERGEEVICS April 15 2019 08: 50
    Congratulations to all involved on the holiday !!! Good luck in the service. And worthy to celebrate your holiday drinks
  7. Undecim
    Undecim April 15 2019 09: 16
    If we talk about modern communication systems, then the advanced armies of the world have long been armed with stations that use the frequency hopping method (pseudo-random tuning of the working frequency). This is a new religion of communication

    In the photo, Austrian and then American film actress Hedy Lamarr. It is not surprising, but it is precisely her idea of ​​using the frequency hopping method in radio communication systems in its modern sense.
    Moreover, she also owns the first practical embodiment of this method. In August 1942, Lamarr, together with composer (!) D. Antal, received a patent numbered 2 292 387 "Secret Communication System" - an anti-ship torpedo anti-jamming radio control. In the proposed device, the movement of the torpedo was corrected from the aircraft by transmitting signals from the frequency hopper and storing the reference signal. Synchronization of the transmitted and received frequencies was achieved by two drums, one of which was placed on the torpedo, and the second on the plane, on which a paper tape was wound with the same ciphered slots.
    Due to the complexity of the implementation on the elemental base of that time, the system did not find application; to a limited extent, the method began to be used from the beginning of the 60s. And the official award for the invention of Lamarr received in 1997.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim April 15 2019 09: 25

      Picture of Patent No. 2 "Secret Communication System".
      1. Undecim
        Undecim April 15 2019 13: 21
        Who put a minus under the comment. I wonder what kind of radiation this minus signer was exposed to.
        1. Vladimir Ter-Odiyants
          Vladimir Ter-Odiyants April 15 2019 16: 17
          Quote: Undecim
          Who put a minus under the comment

          Do not be so worried!
          Quote: Undecim
          I wonder what kind of radiation this minus signer was exposed to.

          Under the name "life circumstances." The ability to anonymously "express themselves", to each his own!
        2. venik
          venik April 16 2019 09: 47
          Quote: Undecim
          Who put a minus under the comment. I wonder what kind of radiation this minus signer was exposed to.

          Don't worry like that! I, too, someone 2 "-" soldered, just because they congratulated the peasants on the holiday (those hundred SERVES, has already SERVED and is still preparing for service in the electronic warfare!) ...
          So what? Are there not enough "powder locks" on the site? Eastern wisdom: "The dog barks, but the caravan - GOES!" drinks
  8. Gennady
    Gennady April 15 2019 11: 31
    The frequency hopping system is perfectly suppressed by broadband, the only thing is to coordinate your frequencies with the electronic warfare service in order not to be left without communication.
  9. Marat79
    Marat79 April 15 2019 11: 39
    By the way, not only radio was invented in Russia, but also radio jamming. Interesting fact
    1. Undecim
      Undecim April 15 2019 12: 57
      Radio jamming was not invented in Russia.
  10. Undecim
    Undecim April 15 2019 12: 55
    Paradoxical as it may seem, the history of the Russo-Japanese war contains not only the fact of the first purposeful use of electronic warfare equipment for military purposes, but also the fact of the first ban on their use, which still causes conflicting estimates.
    At 02:28 on May 14, 1905, on the approach to the Tsushima Strait from the auxiliary cruiser Shinano-Maru, the signal lights of the hospital ship Orel were found. At 04:28, Captain 1st Rank Narukawa began broadcasting a report: "Enemy in square 203." When negotiations of the Japanese fleet began to be heard on the air, the commander of the auxiliary cruiser Ural Istomin approached the commander with a proposal to use the powerful Ural radio station Telefunken to jam the enemy, but Rozhestvensky replied: "Do not interfere with the Japanese telegraphing."
    A rare case when the civilian application of an invention overtook the military.
    The first case of a full-fledged application of the idea of ​​electronic warfare was received in the United States in 1901, when engineer John Ricard used his radio station to "jam" the information broadcasts of competing media. The whole story concerned the broadcasting of the America's Cup yacht regatta on the radio, and Rickard himself worked for the American Wireless Telephone & Telegraph news agency, which wanted to retain the "exclusive rights" to broadcast at any cost.
  11. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I April 15 2019 13: 02

    C Dnyuhoy EW!
  12. NF68
    NF68 April 15 2019 14: 39
    Culprits celebrations with the holiday.
  13. Narak-zempo
    Narak-zempo April 15 2019 16: 08
    At our edge of the city where I live, there was a jammer at the edge of the forest. Already idle, from the guard only a plainclothes guard at the gate. He loved the small one through the fence, through the spiral from the thorn to look at how it was equipped there. It looks like in some sanatorium: one-story houses, paths, a couple of KUNGs and antennas between the posts are stretched. And the trees, there are especially many birches. A real park, only without garbage and bull-calves. Everything was going to wander over in the fall.
    And a couple of years ago they sold a plot for a new building, but to see the developer went bankrupt - one pit behind the fence remained.
    Then the fighters of jammers with "voices" did not cope, they lost the country. Hopefully, OneWeb will be dealt with now and the neighbors will be covered.
  14. midshipman
    midshipman April 15 2019 18: 50
    Yuri Illarionovich, I congratulate in your person the military forces of the Russian EW. And we urgently need to develop new approaches to this struggle. Cyber ​​attacks on the enemy are a promising type of airborne weapons.
  15. Alexvv
    Alexvv April 15 2019 21: 00
    Our EWs are the best in the world.
  16. AshiSolo
    AshiSolo April 15 2019 21: 07
    Ohoho :) In Motolyga it was so comfortable to sit all the time :) I clicked on the autonomy, it was blowing warmly. I clicked the lights above the racks, the tables there were still covered with plexiglass, and under them were instructions and notes. Eh. But the ensign does not want to sit on the exercises, dump home. As a result, you sit at home, everything is yours. You send the senior operator to the driver’s office to sleep, you put one ear on your own, you put the P-99 handset on the table to hear the company’s call. And you doze quietly, periodically on the PUF, tapping frequency scans ... R-330b, oh, I miss ...
    1. The comment was deleted.
  17. candidate
    candidate April 15 2019 23: 55
    Popov radio opened
    Communication foundation laid
    Served for the fleet
    The talent of a scientist and patriot
  18. AshiSolo
    AshiSolo April 16 2019 01: 25
    Damn, such nostalgia rolled over ... West-2009, a regular mate on the part of your officers on the air and just as regular suppression. And as soon as the frequency was "released" - even more obscenities and screams. It was fun. The 30-year-old captain is sitting and screaming from the tank that he will kill you. And you, a 23-year-old conscript, are sitting, pulling coffee from a mug, fading away and without touching the tangent you are pressing suppression. And silence. And a shift by a couple of megahertz and again mate. And again, silently, you drop the frequency into ROM and press suppression. Then your laughter could be heard. They made up, laughed together, people were also discharged to everyone, if they listened to the KP. It was fun...
  19. gridasov
    gridasov 15 June 2019 11: 33
    The author correctly noted that the fundamentals or fundamental principles of the formation of an electronic magnetic pulse or stream signal have the same principles as at the time of their discovery. Therefore, when one, then, the swing will be ahead in the use of attack and defense technology, they will remain until new element devices are invented that expand the parametric capabilities of the streaming signal. Therefore, even in the same range of electronic magnetic disturbances, but with a different parameter in amplitude with a shear element in the transverse plane or frequency with a certain algorithm, they will be unattainable for interference. Modern technology confrontation is based on a unified parity of those foundations that everyone uses. Therefore, new element devices with new parameters for the formation of a stream signal are important in the near future.