Military Review

Ho Chi Minh trail. Vietnamese road of life. Part of 2

69
The first article is here.


The 1968 year was a watershed year for both the Vietnam War and the trail. A year before, in 1967, the Vietnamese forces of the Vietnamese People’s Army conducted a series of powerful ground attacks against South Vietnam from the territory of Laos — the so-called border battles of the 1967. They showed that quite large forces could be deployed along the “trail” and be supplied in a volume sufficient to conduct an all-arms battle. Although these battles were lost by the Vietnamese, they succeeded in moving the American troops to the sections necessary for the Vietnamese — the latter were forced to make a major redeployment to repel the North Vietnamese attacks to the south, and exposed some territories.

According to the results of these events, the CIA concluded that there was a major attack ahead of the North Vietnamese, but no one knew the details.

"Trail" by that time has seriously grown.

If 1966 had 1000 kilometers of highways in its structure, by the beginning of 1968 of the year it was more than two and a half, and approximately one fifth of these roads were suitable for moving cars in any season, including the rainy season. The whole "path" was divided into four "base areas", with a huge network of disguised bunkers, warehouses, bunkers, parking lots, workshops and so on. The number of troops on the "trail" was estimated in tens of thousands of people. The power of the air defense trail has grown. While at first, its structure was almost exclusively the machine guns of the DShK and the trash left over from the French era, by 1968 many areas and logistic bases on the “trail” were covered with a dense network of anti-aircraft batteries, their number in some of the “base areas” was in the hundreds. True, at that time they were mostly 37-mm guns, but when attacking from low altitudes they presented a serious threat to Americans. Slowly but surely, “seepage” of guns with a caliber of 57 millimeters, dangerous for airplanes at medium altitudes, began on the trail.

The latter acted along with the guidance radars and artillery anti-aircraft fire control devices, which made them much more efficient than even old large-caliber guns.

The very "path" by the time "sprouted" through Cambodia. Prince Norodom Sihanouk, who ruled this country since 1955, at some point believed in the inevitability of the victory of communism in Southeast Asia and broke off diplomatic relations with the US in 1965 (really - for a lot of reasons). Since then, Vietnam has received permission to use the territory of Cambodia for the delivery of supplies in the same way as used the territory of Laos. "Trail", passing through the territory of Cambodia, allowed to deliver people weapon and materials right in the "heart" of South Vietnam. The Americans, who knew well about this route, called it the “Path of Sihanouk”, although for Vietnam both the Lao and Cambodian parts of the “path” were part of a single whole.

As the American bombing of the trail grew, the losses of the sides on it grew - more and more Vietnamese and Laotians perished under the American bombs, more and more often the Vietnamese anti-aircraft gunners shot down some American aircraft. He suffered losses and American special forces on the trail.

Thus, by the beginning of 1968, the trail was an extremely serious logistical route, but the Americans could not even imagine how serious and large-scale everything was.

30 January 1968, Vietnam launched a full-scale military offensive to the south, which entered the US military history as “Tet offensive” - “Tet offensive”, by the name of the Tet holiday, Vietnamese New Year. Whereas Vietkong fighters attacked most sections of the front, a regular army attacked the city of Hue. During the offensive were used Tanks and artillery.

Ho Chi Minh trail. Vietnamese road of life. Part of 2

US marines during the Khe San battles, "Tet offensive"


Heavy fighting cost the sides huge losses. Although the United States and South Vietnam won an overwhelming victory on the battlefield, there was nothing much to rejoice in: it was clear that the losses inflicted on the northerners would not make them abandon the continuation of the war, but the offensive on US public opinion had a crushing effect. The picture of the vast masses of North Vietnamese and Viet Cong, operating in South Vietnam, literally amazed the American public at home. One of the outcomes of this offensive and its subsequent sequels (“mini-Tet” in May of 1968, and the attack of 1969) was the election of Richard Nixon as president of the United States with his policy of “Vietnamization” of the war, which ultimately led to the defeat of the Americans and their allies.

A crushing "surprise" for the US military and the CIA was not only the offensive itself, but also what huge masses of troops, military equipment and ammunition allows to transfer the "path".


Transfer BTR-40 on the trail.


With this, it was necessary to urgently do something.

At 1968, almost simultaneously with the Tet offensive, the United States launched Operation Igloo White, which had been prepared before that for two years. The content of the operation was scattering networks of seismic sensors created on the basis of marine radio-hydroacoustic buoys on the “path”. Initially, the scattering was carried out by the re-equipped anti-submarine aircraft "Neptune" from the Navy, and later, due to the risk of loss, they were replaced by specially retrofitted fighter scouts RF-4 Phantom and transport C-130. The data from the sensors was collected by specially equipped EU-121 aircraft. A little later, they were replaced by small-sized OQ-22B Pave Eagle.


EC-121


The evaluation of the operation as unsuccessful is often found, but it is not so: in fact, the sensors gave a lot of information, and the computers used by the Americans could already process these data files. It would be correct to say that the operation was not as successful as the Americans would have liked. But the operation has expanded their ability to attack the "path". This mainly concerned the detection of well disguised and moving at night and in adverse weather conditions truck columns.

Now it was necessary to have the strength and means to attack them. Previously used tactical aircraft, both jet in the areas bordering South Vietnam and the piston Skyraders and Counter Intruders in Northern Laos, simply could not technically destroy the trucks in the required quantity.

This could have been done successfully tested over the path “Ganshipy” AC-130. But they needed to be converted from C-130 transport “Hercules”, but these planes were not enough. The first “combat” “ganship” based on C-130 was received in the middle of 1968. Since the planes were needed urgently, the Americans again had to go to half measures, however successful ones.

In parallel with the АС-130 program, by the middle of 1968, the Americans were able to transfer a couple of experimental AC-123 Black Spot experimental attack aircraft to the Vietnam - C-123 Provider vehicles equipped with additional radar systems, night vision systems, a computerized aiming system for dropping bombs and, for one of a pair of airplanes, a system for detecting electromagnetic bursts arising from the operation of the ignition system of a gasoline engine (and all the trucks on the “path” were gasoline).


AC-123 Black Spot


At the same time, a program of reworking of large-scale obsolete C-119 piston transport airplanes in the “Ganships” was launched.

Efforts succeeded by early next year. The AU-123 allowed them to “roll in” the search and aiming equipment, which later became used on the AU-130, AU-119K with automatic guns and night vision systems immediately began to be used over the path and “closed the” equipment in the American Air Force, which was not managed to close the AC-130. K 1969-m and AC-119K and AC-130 began to appear over the "path" all in large and large quantities.

The account of the destroyed trucks went sharply into the thousands.



AC-119K Stinger


The Americans, true to themselves, drove the “ganships” into a squadron of special operations and used them from bases in Thailand. So all the AU-130A were summarized in the 16-th squadron of special operations.

If in 1966, A-26, flying from a Thai airbase, could destroy a hundred trucks a month, and even set a record, now, with the appearance of "sighted" Ganships "and a network of sensors, giving them indicative zones, where there was a sense to search for the enemy, a hundred trucks were destroyed overnight by a couple or a trio of aircraft. The Ganships turned the roads on the “path” into authentic “death tunnels”. Today, it is impossible to accurately assess the losses they have inflicted - the Americans overestimated the number of trucks they destroyed at times. But in any case we are talking about thousands of cars a year - every year. In one month of combat use alone, the AU-130 was usually destroyed by several hundred cars and several thousand people. “Ganshipi” became a real “scourge of God” for Vietnamese transport units, and every morning, when the trucks that came out of the flight counted the control trucks that the Vietnamese put between the crossings on the “trail”, dozens of cars were usually missed. Winged death collected a terrible harvest every day ...

“Ganships” were also involved in the destruction of numerous anti-aircraft batteries. Flying with RF-4 Phantom, AC-130 "Ganships", using external guidance from the "Phantoms", massively destroyed at night the anti-aircraft weapons on the trail, after which they wielded new cannons .

Despite the extreme success of the "Ganships" in the destruction of trucks, the main point of application of the efforts of their flights were not. In the air, the Americans continuously increased bomb strikes to completely destroy the infrastructure of the "trail", and increased the proportion of carpet bombing from B-52 bombers. The number of combat sorties over Laos after 1968 has consistently exceeded ten thousand per month, the number of bombers in one attack, as a rule, was more than ten, sometimes amounting to several dozen vehicles. The traces of these bombardments the land of Laos bears on itself so far and will carry dozens more, and in places hundreds of years.

Usually, when intelligence determined the approximate location of the “base” of the Vietnamese (and it could only be found “approximately,” all structures on the path were carefully camouflaged and removed under the ground), the area of ​​its location was covered either with a series of massed air strikes or “carpets” from strategic bombers . The number of bombs in such raids was in any case in the thousands, and the covered strip was several kilometers across. The possible presence of near civilians was not taken into account. After striking the spot, special forces were being deployed, whose task was to record the results of the attack.

The same was done against bridges and crossings, intersections, sections of roads on the slopes of mountains and all more or less important objects.

Since 1969, the Americans have decided to start bombing the Cambodian part of the trail. To do this, first, ground reconnaissance revealed areas where the main Vietnamese transshipment bases were located in Cambodian territory, after which a series of “Menu” operations was planned with a limited number of Pentagon officers.

Its meaning was as follows. Each identified base in the Cambodian part of the trail received a code name, for example, “breakfast”, “dessert”, etc. (hence the name of the series of operations - “Menu”), after which the operation of the same name was carried out to destroy it. It was necessary in absolute secrecy, without taking any responsibility and not telling the press anything, to erase these basic areas from the face of the earth with powerful carpet bombing blows. Since there was no Congress sanction for such use by the US Air Force, a minimum of people were devoted to the details of the operation. The only strike weapons used over Cambodia were the B-52 Stratofortress strategic bombers.


Above Laos, 1966 year.


17 March 60 bombers launched from the US Air Force Andersen Air Base on the island of Guam. In their flight missions, targets were specified in North Vietnam. But when approaching Vietnamese territory, 48 of them were retargeted to Cambodia. During the first strike on Cambodian territory, he dropped 353 with the American code name Breakfast (“Breakfast”) 2400 bombs on the base area of ​​353. Then the bombers returned several times, and when the strikes on the 25000 area ended, the number of bombs. dropped on it, reached 353. It should be understood that the area 1640 was a strip of several kilometers in length and the same width. The estimated number of civilians in the area at the time of the beginning of the bombing is estimated as XNUMX people. It is not known how many of them could survive.

Subsequently, such raids became regular and were carried out until the end of 1973 in an atmosphere of absolute secrecy. Strategic aviation the US Air Force command carried out 3875 raids on Cambodia and dropped 108 tons of bombs from the bombers. Over a hundred kilotons.

Operation Menu itself ended in 1970 year, after which a new operation “Freedom Deal” - “Freedom Deal”, which had the same character, began. In 1970, a coup d'état took place in Cambodia. Right-wing government headed by Lon Nol came to power. The latter supported the actions of the Americans in Cambodia, and not only in the air, but also on the ground. According to some contemporary researchers, the massacres of Cambodians during the American bombardment ultimately generated the support of the Khmer Rouge in the countryside of Cambodia, which allowed them to later seize power in the country.

The secret air war over Cambodia remained secret until the 1973 of the year. Earlier, in 1969, there were several leaks to the press about this, but then they did not cause any resonance, as well as protests at the UN by the government of Sihanouk. But in 1973, Air Force Major Hal Knight wrote a letter to Congress that the Air Force, without the knowledge of Congress, was waging a secret war in Cambodia. Knight did not object to the bombing, but was against the fact that they were not approved by Congress. This letter caused a political scandal in the United States, led to several broken careers, and during the impeachment of Nixon they tried to impute this war as another article on which he was to be dismissed, but as a result, this particular charge was not brought against him was

The government of North Vietnam, interested in concealing the fact of the presence of Vietnamese troops in Cambodia, never commented on these strikes.

Massive (including carpet) bombardment of the “trail”, raids of attack aircraft and “ganships” from Thai air bases, search operations of special forces on the trail continued throughout the war and only after 1971 of the year they began to decline, and stopped completely only after the United States left the war . Attempts to continually introduce various innovations did not cease, for example, in addition to “hunting”, an assault variant of the B-57 tactical bomber — B-57G, equipped with a night vision system and 20 mm guns, was created specifically for hunting trucks. This was very opportunely, because since 1969, all the A-26s were finally removed from the Air Force due to concerns about the strength of the fuselage.


B-57G.


By the time the air defense "trails" has reached significant power. Being unable to bring down Americans in large quantities, air defense nevertheless frustrated many attacks on base areas and trucks. The DShK and 37-mm guns were supplemented with 57-mm guns, often Soviet C-60, which formed the basis of North Vietnamese air defense systems, or their 59 Type Chinese clones, and later 85-mm anti-aircraft guns were added to them, and a little later - 100-mm KS-19 with radar guidance. And with the 1972 of the year, the Vietnamese finally had a means to protect the columns of trucks - Strela MANPADS. At the beginning of 1972, the Vietnamese were able to isolate the C-75 air defense system to protect the paths, which made it difficult for Americans to bombard them. 11 January 1972, the United States intelligence service recorded the transfer of the air defense system to the "path", but the Americans continued to operate by inertia. 29 March 1972 calculation of MANPADS "Strela" over the "path" was able to bring down the first AC-130. His crew managed to jump with parachutes, and later the pilots evacuated the helicopters.

And 2 on April 1972, the C-75, showed a new facet of reality in the sky over Laos - another AC-130 was shot down by a rocket, and this time none of the crew survived. After that, the “ganships” never flew over the trail, but the tactical jet attacks continued.

In general, of the thousands of trucks destroyed on the trail, the share of the “huts” is an impressive 70%.
In turn, the fire of the Vietnamese air defense from the ground led to the loss of hundreds of American aircraft and helicopters. Only by the end of 1967, this number was 132 machines. This number does not include those cars that, being damaged by fire from the ground, could then “hang on” to their own. Giving an estimate of this number of downed aircraft, it is worth remembering that the “path” was not included in the unified air defense of North Vietnam and that most of the war was defended by extremely outdated small-caliber anti-aircraft guns, something more or less modern started to arrive there in the middle of the war. , and the air defense system - at the very end.

We should also mention the air operations of the Navy against the "path". They were limited. Deck Naval Aviation attacked, jointly with the Air Force, the objects on the trail during the previously mentioned operations Steel Tiger and Tiger hound, in the area of ​​their conduct over the central and southern parts of Laos. Later, when these operations were combined into a general “Commando Hunt”, joint strikes with the Air Force on the areas mentioned continued. But the Navy had another “problem” place - the Mekong Delta.

The Mekong River originates in Cambodia and flows from there to Vietnam and further to the sea. And when the flow of goods for the Viet Cong went through Cambodia, the Mekong River was immediately included in this logistics network. Cargo for partisans were delivered to the river in various ways, after which they were loaded onto boats of various types and delivered to Vietnam. The importance of river routes increased particularly during the rainy season, when ordinary roads became impassable, often even for cyclists.

The Navy naturally took action. In the 1965 year, during Operation Market time, they cut off the supply of the Viet Cong by sea, and then, using fairly numerous and well-armed river flotillas, began to “crush” river routes.

In addition to river armored boats, the Americans used the floating bases of the river forces converted from old tank-landing ships that could support the actions of both small tanks and several helicopters. A little later, after the appearance of light attack aircraft OV-10 Bronco, the Navy began to use over the river and them too. Boats and squadron VAL-10 "Black pony" reliably blocked the movement of boats on the river in the daytime, but at night it was impossible to do.

The response of the Navy were their own "ganships" - heavy strike aircraft. In 1968, four anti-submarine aircraft P-2 Neptune were converted into a shock version. The aircraft installed a night vision system and radar similar to those used on deck-mounted A-6 attack aircraft, added radar antennas on wingtips, installed six 20-mm automatic guns built into the wing, one 40 mm automatic grenade launcher and wing-mounted hanger units. The magnetometer was dismantled, and a stern gun mount with twin 20-mm automatic guns was installed instead.


AP-2 Neptune



Stern rifle installation - against the boats, oddly enough.


In this form, the aircraft flew to search for boats and conducted patrols over the “paths” adjacent to the Mekong River. The main area of ​​"patrol" was the border of South Vietnam with Cambodia.

From September 1968 to 16 on June 1969, these aircraft made about 200 combat missions, roughly 50 per vehicle, which was 4 departure aircraft per week. Unlike the Air Force, Navy aircraft were based only in Vietnam, at Kam Run Bay (Cam Ranh) airbase. In the future, these operations of the Navy recognized as ineffective and "Neptune" went to storage.

Air strikes along the “trail” continued until the very end of the war, although after 1971, their intensity began to fall.

The last component of the US air war against the “path” was the spraying of a defoliant - the infamous Agent Orange. The Americans, who began to spray defoliant in Vietnam, quickly appreciated the benefits of the destroyed vegetation and over the "path" too. From 1966 to 1968, the United States Air Force experienced specially upgraded C-123 Provider aircraft, modified to spray sprays from the air. The aircraft were equipped with tanks for the sprayed composition, hp pump power 20. and underwing sprayers. There was a valve emergency drain "cargo".

From 1968 to 1970 year, these aircraft, adopted as UC-123B (later, after upgrading UC-123K) sprayed defoliants over Vietnam and Laos. And although basically Vietnam was the area of ​​dispersion, the territories of Laos, along which the “path” passed, also got what they called. The number of people affected by defoliants is unlikely to ever be accurately calculated.




They did not know...


However, the Americans' attempts to destroy the Vietnamese logistics route were not even close to an air war.

Congress did not give permission to invade Laos or Cambodia, but the American command and the CIA always had various workarounds. The Americans and their local allies made several attempts to disrupt the work of the “path” by ground forces. And although the participation of US troops in these operations was expressly prohibited, they were still there.

The ground battles for the “path” were quite brutal, although they began later, as a result of air strikes. And it was in these battles that the Americans managed to achieve serious success.

To be continued ...
Author:
Photos used:
primeportal.net, dc3dakotahunter.com, Smithsonian Channel, military.com, nationalmuseum.af.mil, worldatlas.com
Articles from this series:
Ho Chi Minh trail. Vietnamese road of life. Part of 1
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  1. Aerodrome
    Aerodrome April 13 2019 18: 14
    15
    The United States must be destroyed, this is pure evil.
    1. timokhin-aa
      April 13 2019 18: 27
      11
      Sometimes I also wonder how IT can exist in the world.
  2. andrewkor
    andrewkor April 13 2019 18: 36
    +2
    The same Third World War, which lasted from 1945 to 1991!
    1. timokhin-aa
      April 13 2019 18: 53
      +2
      This is yes. I also rate the Cold War exactly that way.
  3. widower
    widower April 13 2019 19: 18
    +2
    Congress did not give permission to invade Laos or Cambodia, but the American command and the CIA always had various workarounds.

    then bypassed, now everything is done insolently and openly
  4. neri73-r
    neri73-r April 13 2019 19: 45
    +8
    Very interesting, in general, I knew about the topic, but not with such details and analysis. Thank you, I look forward to continuing.
  5. Harpoon
    Harpoon April 13 2019 19: 51
    +7
    The Vietnamese are great. Respect
    1. widower
      widower April 13 2019 21: 03
      -1
      Quote: Gorpun
      The Vietnamese are great. Respect

      fiercely hated felons
      1. sivuch
        sivuch April 14 2019 09: 00
        0
        As it turned out - not all. Especially in southern Vietnam
        1. widower
          widower April 14 2019 10: 31
          +2
          Quote: sivuch
          As it turned out - not all

          we also met GDP with a rafter. this does not mean that we love striped.
          Vietnamese shops are near me and I know what I'm talking about
    2. Sasha_rulevoy
      Sasha_rulevoy April 13 2019 23: 55
      -7
      Quote: Gorpun
      Vietnamese well done


      They dragged into the war and endangered the population of two neutral countries without asking for their opinion on this matter.
      1. timokhin-aa
        April 14 2019 17: 27
        0
        Why not ask? Quite a question.
        1. Sasha_rulevoy
          Sasha_rulevoy April 15 2019 04: 38
          0
          Quote: timokhin-aa
          They completely asked themselves.


          How so? It is known that no officially declared military alliances and obligations of the NE with Laos did not conclude. Otherwise, the Americans would have the opportunity to bomb them openly. Was there any secret agreement? Like, Laos leases such-and-such territory in exchange for a billion dollars. If it were, now over time, he would have somehow been declassified. Those. Vietnamese entered Laos without invitation. Did the local people approve of their presence? No, as we know, the local mountain population against the Vietnamese army partisan. They have some old scores there.

          Now Cambodia. In your article above, you said that Prince Norodom Sihanouk was simply intimidated. In three Cambodian provinces, the North Vietnamese behaved like real occupiers. The population from the areas where their bases were located were expelled, simply put into trucks, taken out of the control zone and thrown out onto the road. The local administration was also expelled and replaced with its own. The Cambodians gritted their teeth, but could do nothing with the "guests". Then they played really well on the Vietnamese population of Cambodia, already under Pol Pot.
          1. timokhin-aa
            April 15 2019 07: 18
            +1
            Did the local population approve of their presence? No, as we know, the local population of the mountainous regions against the Vietnamese army is partisan. They have some old scores there


            About Pathet Lao you forgot? Was it some Lao people? Partisans Hmongi-Miao, who were the lures in the US with 50-x, in this case. Not everything was so simple there.

            In your article above, it is said that Prince Norodom Sihanouk was simply intimidated. In the three Cambodian provinces, the North Vietnamese behaved like real occupiers.


            Well, in general, Sihanouk was not shy, read the biography. He made a rational choice. Adjusted for the Khmer Rouge, the choice was correct. And do not be amerskih bombings and raids 1970 th, do not be Lon Nol, it is not a fact that Pol Pot would have received the support of the population, which he had. At the same time, it is not yet known whether the Americans were related to Lon Nol, it’s not a fact that they did not help him come to power. Etc.

            I do not want to say that the Vietnamese were angels with wings, but you greatly simplify the situation.
  6. doktorkurgan
    doktorkurgan April 13 2019 21: 13
    +4
    There are some doubts about this statement:
    If in 1966 the A-26, flying from a Thai air base, could destroy a hundred trucks in a month, and even set a record, now, with the advent of "sighted" Ganshipov and a network of sensors that give them indicative zones, where it made sense look for the enemy, a hundred trucks were destroyed during the night by a couple or three planes.
    ... we are talking about thousands of cars a year - every year. In just one month of combat use, one AS-130 usually destroyed several hundred cars and several thousand people. “Ganships” became a real “scourge of God” for the Vietnamese transport units, and every morning when the trucks leaving the voyage were counted at the checkpoints that the Vietnamese set between the stages on the track, usually dozens of cars were missing. Winged death gathered a terrible harvest every day ...

    This is what they write in the article about AC-130 ganships (http://airwar.ru/enc/attack/ac130.html)
    The main task of the AC-130A, as mentioned above, was the night hunt for transport on the Ho Chi Minh trail. All AS-130 were in service with the 16th Special Purpose Squadron, based at Ubon Air Base. Regular flights over the trail began in the dry season of 1969-1970, during this period only two AS-130s flew. As always, difficulties arose in determining the damage done to the enemy. Based on the combat experience gained during the 1969-1970 campaign, the Air Force developed the following criteria:

    - the vehicle is destroyed if it caught fire or received a direct hit from a 40-mm Bofors projectile;
    - the car is damaged if it was hit by a 20 mm shell or a 40 mm shell exploded in a radius of 3 m from it.

    ... The commander of American aviation in Indochina, Lieutenant General Clay, personally decided to make sure that the enemy's losses were estimated correctly. On May 12, 1971 near Bien Hoa, the AC-130 was demonstrated in action. Eight trucks were installed on the road, and three had their engines turned on. On commands from the ground, the plane went to the desired area and then acted independently. The trucks were located, clearly recorded by the IK system, with three engines running, and the remaining five were detected by other systems. General Clay ordered the first six trucks to be destroyed with 40mm cannons, the last two with 20mm guns. AS-130A opened fire on the first truck, the crew thrust shell after shell into the truck, but it never caught fire. The general ordered to transfer fire to the second car, from the third shell it caught fire, then it was the turn of the third. The fourth truck, like the first, did not catch fire, despite direct hits. When the fifth vehicle was fired upon, the shells fell within a radius of 3 m from it, that is, according to the criterion for hitting targets, the truck was seriously damaged. The sixth truck took a direct hit from the first shot. Bursts of 20-mm guns pierced the remaining two cars, but despite the direct hits clearly recorded by the crew, they also did not catch fire. According to the crew, five trucks were destroyed and three were badly damaged as a result of the attack. After a ground inspection of the convoy, it turned out that only two cars were irretrievably lost, two were seriously damaged, and three more could be repaired in a day or two, one could be started and driven right away. In general, the commander of the 7th Air Force was pleased with the demonstration attack. The crew of the "Hanship" was able to find and destroy the convoy at night, but the statistics of the damage caused was, as expected, somewhat overestimated.
    - i.e. in polygon conditions, the efficiency is slightly lower than calculated.
    Well, if you believe the claims for the victories of American pilots, then the entire fleet of the Vietcong was destroyed several times - "write more - why should you feel sorry for them, bastard!" (tse.)
    1. timokhin-aa
      April 14 2019 17: 28
      0
      Well, I write that at times overestimated, that is, if Americans wrote 10000-12000 for a year, then it really was 3000-4000. But it is also very much.
    2. LastPS
      LastPS April 28 2019 18: 03
      0
      Trucks on the trail were loaded, including ammunition, I can imagine what will happen if you get from the bofors on a guzovik with shells. It is possible that the efficiency was lower, but perhaps it would hardly have been better at all in those days, with such a high-tech. The heroism of the Vietnamese people, of course, is amazing. Fighting in such hellish conditions with such a technologically advanced enemy is simply a feat, to be honest.
  7. APASUS
    APASUS April 13 2019 21: 42
    +5
    There was one instructor of air defense systems from Vietnam working in our office. He said that the Vietnamese were masters of disguise. They installed the system in such a way that they hit the tail and put up a copy of the air defense system from improvised materials for the position at night and even painted it. That's how the Americans were caught.
    1. neri73-r
      neri73-r April 13 2019 21: 46
      +2
      Quote: APASUS
      There was one instructor of air defense systems from Vietnam working in our office. He said that the Vietnamese were masters of disguise. They installed the system in such a way that they hit the tail and put up a copy of the air defense system from improvised materials for the position at night and even painted it. That's how the Americans were caught.

      There really is a feat of the people, we need to return to these sources, capitalism - failed, justice is more expensive! hi
      1. boathouse
        boathouse April 13 2019 22: 14
        -6
        And it never occurred to you that CAPITALISM-this is-JUSTICE?
        1. neri73-r
          neri73-r April 15 2019 07: 33
          +2
          Quote: varadero
          And it never occurred to you that CAPITALISM-this is-JUSTICE?

          Yeah, you still write about the invisible hand of the market, which will settle everything. lol
    2. boathouse
      boathouse April 13 2019 22: 17
      +1
      The endurance and efficiency of these "little" people inspires great respect!
    3. Vivan
      Vivan April 14 2019 00: 43
      +7
      Here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Yu2-obH468 (13min05 - 15min42) a Vietnamese officer and an American pilot talk about this.

      A few years ago, I brought in a former Soviet military adviser, V.V. Skoryak to meet with the Vietnamese Colonel Hung (they fought together during the war) at the Museum of Vietnamese Air Defense. We walked around the museum and talked (I was a translator). Somehow I stopped at the Dvina S-75 complexes, and I asked the hero of the Vietnamese armed forces Hung: “Why are two absolutely identical complexes installed here?” Hung smiled and replied: “They are different. One is real and the other is from bamboo! ” I walked over, touched the bamboo complex and said: “Great! Just like a real one! ” Skoryak laughed: “I knew this a long time ago, and you only found out now. “You’re standing 4-5 meters away and you can’t tell the bamboo complex from the real one, then what is it like to American pilots?”
      1. Andrey NM
        Andrey NM April 15 2019 06: 32
        +1
        My father had a subordinate officer who served in Vietnam at that time, who said that their C-75 crew hit the battleship New Jersey with two missiles. He himself was part of that battery (apparently an adviser or instructor), and the calculation was apparently Vietnamese. The complex was modified for firing at surface targets, and the missiles themselves were "simple", so the missile warheads did not explode, the propellant components burned strongly. And they flew "otvetka", barely carried away their legs. After that, "New Jersey" went into repairs with subsequent conservation.
        For Vietnam, this officer was awarded the Order of the Red Star. Then there was a sharp turn in his service, after the academy (VIRTA) he was transferred to the Navy, changed into a black uniform and in the rank of captain of the 2nd rank he retired at the end of the 80s. Unfortunately, he died the year before last.
        I tried to find information on this case on the Internet, but there were only a couple of mentions without details. Yes, I myself am not an air defense specialist, so please do not judge strictly.
        1. LastPS
          LastPS April 28 2019 18: 11
          0
          It is quite possible, at least the Ukrainians say that their modification of the S-125 is capable of working on naval targets, and even ours shot a wasp from a Georgian boat. I do not think that this is all very productive, after all, air defense missiles are equipped with warheads weak for such purposes, but on lack of fish, as they say ...
    4. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I April 14 2019 10: 06
      +4
      Quote: APASUS
      Vietnamese master disguise.

      There was such a thing ... The S-75 was located in a grove "under the palm trees" ... At the right time, the Vietnamese grabbed the ropes tied to the tops of the palm trees and pulled with all their might .. it turned out a "corridor" along which the rocket was launched ...
  8. boathouse
    boathouse April 13 2019 22: 12
    +2
    Very interesting, detailed. He didn’t know much. Thanks to the author.
  9. Black joe
    Black joe April 13 2019 23: 19
    +1
    It is interesting to read such materials.
    And time has passed, and at the same time fresh ...
  10. Sasha_rulevoy
    Sasha_rulevoy April 13 2019 23: 26
    +3
    Whereas Vietkong fighters attacked most sections of the front, a regular army attacked the city of Hue. During the offensive, tanks and artillery were used.


    The North Vietnamese army, its tanks and artillery did not participate in the attack on Hue. And in general, no one stepped on him. The Viet Cong troops secretly entered the city and simply attacked a small garrison and police stations at the appointed time. The Americans knew about the time of the attack and shared information with ARVN, but they simply did not believe in it. Their naive minds did not fit the idea that someone would decide on such sacrilege - to fight on the holiday of the Chinese New Year. Forgot that the Communists - atheists and religious holidays do not recognize.

    Perhaps a respected author has confused Hue and the US Marine Corps base at Hee-Sen. The latter was indeed attacked by the forces of three regular divisions of NEA (with 120mm mortars, though without tanks). The idea was this: the Viet Cong secretly penetrates the three main cities of SE - Saigon (the capital), Danang (the second largest), Hue (had symbolic significance, like the ancient capital of the Vietnamese state). There, they simultaneously speak out and impersonate the rebellious citizens, they say, it’s not the partisans from the distant forests who came with foreign weapons, and the local proletarians are so indignant, well, so indignant that they simply can no longer tolerate the capitalists and the exploiters. So it should have been served by propaganda, so the participation of the NEA was considered undesirable. Even in disguise, they could betray themselves by some sort of talk. Further, the defeat of the remote American garrison was to become the second Dien-Bien-Fu. According to the plan, American public opinion would be so shocked that it would require the withdrawal of American troops from Vietnam.

    It is interesting to note here that the commander of the North Vietnamese army, Vo Nguyen Ziap, and with him a large group of generals were against the plan of the operation, and considered it an ill-conceived adventure. Therefore, Ziap was quietly removed from the leadership of the operation and all subsequent ones, the leadership passed into the hands of the more complaisant General Shi Tan, who led from his headquarters in Cambodia. In general, everything happened, as Ziap predicted, the offensive failed at all three points.
    1. timokhin-aa
      April 14 2019 17: 30
      0
      Well, in general, I wrote from American sources, it will be necessary to double-check.
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA April 15 2019 12: 03
      0
      Quote: Sasha_rulevoy
      Perhaps a respected author has confused Hue and the US Marine Corps base at Hee-Sen.

      She is Kheshan / Khesan. An unsuccessful attempt by North Vietnam to repeat Dienbienfu. But she made an impression on the Americans, and the siege of the base was remembered for a long time.
      Had a brother at Khe Sahn
      Fighting off the Viet Cong
      They're still there he's all gone
      © Born in the USA
      Quote: Sasha_rulevoy
      The latter was indeed attacked by the forces of three regular divisions of NEA (with 120mm mortars, though without tanks).

      They write that the Vietnamese had tanks - PT-76. But they did not take part in the assault on the base itself.
  11. Sasha_rulevoy
    Sasha_rulevoy April 13 2019 23: 51
    +3
    Congress did not give permission to invade Laos or Cambodia, but the American command and the CIA always had various workarounds. The Americans and their local allies made several attempts to disrupt the work of the “path” by ground forces. And although the participation of US troops in these operations was expressly prohibited, they were still there.


    The Americans conducted a ground operation in Cambodia in 1970, the ARVN that same year in Laos, this was no secret. The Americans had a request for military assistance from the government of Colonel Lon Nol. Moreover, Lon Nol himself struck the rear of the North Vietnamese with his army and met with the Americans, cutting off the path of retreat to the Communists. Probably the author refers to special forces raids in Cambodia until 1970.

    More precisely, the Cambodian trail was not originally a continuation of the Lao Ho Chi Minh trail. The Cambodian trail ran from the port of Sihanoukville, where Soviet ships calmly entered with a cargo of the necessary ammunition and other things. From the port, everything was transported calmly and openly on trucks to the border, across the border the partisans carried supplies on their shoulders to the area of ​​the so-called. "iron triangle" in the vicinity of the city of An Tkhe. In November 1967, the Americans cleaned out the "iron triangle", so the Viet Cong decided to continue to place warehouses with weapons in Cambodia in the so-called "parrot's beak." In August 1969, Prince Norodom Sihanouk, in the face of threats of US airstrikes on Sihanoukville, ordered the port to be closed. The Viet Cong had to urgently build a highway from Laos to Cambodia. Thus, in 1969-1970, the Americans acted not so much against roads as against warehouses with accumulated weapons.
    1. timokhin-aa
      April 14 2019 17: 36
      0
      In general, the invasion of Cambodia is not the only case when the Americans participated in the hostilities, it was still a raid on Laos in the open, with American units in 1968, but this is in the next part.

      Cambodia, by the way, is their only significant success in disrupting logistics on the "path".

      Thus, in 1969-1970, the Americans acted not so much against the roads, as against warehouses with accumulated weapons.


      Well, in general, this is exactly what they tried to do throughout the war, so they plowed the base areas with "carpets" to cover warehouses, dugouts for l / s, etc. In Cambodia, for example, it was not a road network that was bombed and there was no truck hunt over it. It's just that the resources allowed them to simultaneously attack the road network itself and hunt trucks in Laos, so they did everything at the same time.

      Thanks for the edits.
  12. Lapunevsky
    Lapunevsky April 14 2019 08: 10
    0
    Thanks for the article and the continuation, very informative!
  13. 112-17
    112-17 April 14 2019 08: 24
    +2
    [/ quote] The crushing “surprise” for the US and CIA military was not only the offensive itself, but also what huge masses of troops, military equipment and ammunition the “trail” allows to transfer. [quote]
    there is an opinion that the attack on the Tet holiday was in the hands of everyone, the United States was able to inflict damage on the South Vietnamese communists in a short period of time, and the leadership of the United States, by the hands of the United States, knocked out the top of the South Vietnamese communists at once, protecting itself from any fermentation in the future.
    1. timokhin-aa
      April 14 2019 17: 37
      0
      Although the USA destroyed all attacking forces, but strategically it was a failure. In principle, this could not happen, controlling the course of events by the Americans.

      This offensive made a great contribution to anti-war hysteria in the United States.
      1. 112-17
        112-17 April 14 2019 17: 48
        +1
        the strategic failure was not in Vietnam, but in the USA. The war was senseless, reporters worked expeditiously, negativity poured on the heads of the Americans.
        1. timokhin-aa
          April 14 2019 23: 52
          0
          You cannot deny that this offensive has affected all of the above.
          1. 112-17
            112-17 April 15 2019 06: 50
            0
            no of course it was like a heavy stone on the scales of public opinion
            1. timokhin-aa
              April 15 2019 07: 19
              0
              Voooot.

              And he was just so heavy.
  14. Operator
    Operator April 14 2019 11: 57
    -8
    On the territory of Indochina in 1965-73, there was a war between the USSR and the USA, while the first enemy fought with the hands of local proxies (Vietnamese, Lao and Cambodians), and the other opponent with the hands of its own citizens.

    Within the United States, supporters of the war had political support only to protect the state of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), despite the open aggression from the state of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). Laos and Cambodia also participated unofficially in the aggression against the RVs by providing their territory for the DRV transport infrastructure.

    The United States had the opportunity to completely suppress aggression against the RV by occupying the DRV, Laos and Cambodia, but did not do it for a simple reason - participation in the war of the USSR by means of its readiness to deliver a nuclear strike against the United States. Therefore, stories about the Vietnamese "victorious" in the war read as humorous literature.

    Moreover, after 1992, the memoirs of the former Soviet military advisers were published - those who served in the air defense units of the DPR about heart-to-heart talks with Vietnamese political leaders (who know Russian) with drinking alcoholic beverages, during which the Vietnamese unequivocally called Soviet citizens occupiers / colonizers and promised to expel them from Vietnam at the end of the war with the United States.

    The Vietnamese also refused to recognize Soviet military assistance during the Sino-Vietnamese war of 1979 in the form of the readiness of the Soviet Army to strike at the north of China.

    The duplicity of the Vietnamese was fully revealed at the end of the 1980, when they began to close the Soviet bases on their territory under the pretext of insufficient rent (ignoring the cost of free Soviet military aid several decades before). After that, they reoriented their military and economic ties with the United States - long before the Russian Federation began building partnerships with China (the current opponent of Vietnam in Southeast Asia).

    In Vietnam itself, the decisive contribution of the USSR to the victory in the war with the United States is hushed up, emphasis is placed on the actions of the DPR armed forces in the north (air defense forces) and south (land forces) of Vietnam. Russian business initiatives supported by the Russian government, such as the development of hydrocarbon production on the Vietnamese shelf, are hampered by local authorities.

    For the Russian Federation, it makes sense to clear the brains of the initially bewildered Vietnamese, for example, supporting China’s opinion on the ownership of the Spratly island archipelago.
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon April 14 2019 13: 21
      -1
      And to be sent by the Vietnamese forever.
    2. Vivan
      Vivan April 14 2019 13: 21
      +2
      “Moreover, after 1992, memoirs were published of former Soviet military advisers - who served in the DPR air defense units about intimate conversations with Vietnamese political instructors (knowing the Russian language) with drinking alcohol, during which the Vietnamese unambiguously called Soviet citizens occupiers / colonialists and promised to expel them from Vietnam at the end of the war with the USA ”(?)

      1) Give a link to these “memoirs”, the existence of which I doubt very much;
      2) Why I doubt it? Yes, simply because even now (50 years later) no normal Vietnamese think so, and then all Soviet military advisers for citizens of the DRV were almost holy gods!

      “The Vietnamese also refused to recognize the military assistance of the USSR during the Sino-Vietnamese war of 1979 in the form of the readiness of the Soviet Army to strike at the north of China” (?).

      Recently, in connection with the 40th anniversary of the Sino-Vietnamese conflict, Vietnamese media have written so much about the enormous role of Soviet assistance (urgent mission to Hanoi of the USSR military delegation led by Army General Obaturov, organization of an air bridge for the transfer of military equipment to Vietnam, organization of transportation of several VNA divisions from Cambodia to the border with China, the concentration of the 600th group of the Soviet army in Mongolia and on the border with China), so for what purpose are you going blindly against reality?
      1. Operator
        Operator April 14 2019 13: 47
        -7
        I will not look for the link for the prescription of time - believe in the word.

        Articles in the Vietnamese media about the friendship of Vietnam with the USSR / Russian Federation - waste paper (you would remember 1939-41 articles about the friendship of the German and Soviet peoples), be guided by the facts about the expulsion of the Soviet / Russian military bases from Vietnam and obstacles for the Russian oil and gas business in Vietnam .
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ April 14 2019 15: 33
          +5
          About Vietsovpetro, which was organized in 1981 and continues to work to this day. In Parshev's book Why Russia Is Not America, she is cited as an example of a model joint venture. This is the question of "obstacles" to joint business. And about Cam Ranh - we left this base (together with the Cuban base in Lourdes) under Putin, who performed this action in the early XNUMXs. And the MIR station was flooded at the same time.
          1. Operator
            Operator April 14 2019 16: 47
            -1
            The Russian base in Kamrani was eliminated because of the rent (as if the cost of Soviet military weapons donated and the amount of written off Soviet loans did not pay back the rent for 100-200 ahead).

            The interstate enterprise "Vietsovpetro" looks very original: all geological exploration, material resources and the contingent of workers were / are provided by the USSR / RF, but the produced products are divided in half. In other words, the Vietnamese tax is exactly half the cost of each barrel of oil, which is not found anywhere else in the world. We have a lot to invest in oil production on more favorable terms both abroad and domestically.

            Until 2014, the Soviet / Russian conciliation with Vietnamese Wishlocks looked like a counterweight to the influence of China in Southeast Asia, but now it's the year 2019.
            1. timokhin-aa
              April 14 2019 17: 44
              +1
              In other words, the Vietnamese tax is exactly half the cost of each barrel of oil, which is not found anywhere else in the world. We have much to invest in oil production on more favorable terms at home and abroad.


              An example of an agreement with the participation of the Russian Federation, more profitable than a barrel in half, please. They are very little in fact.
            2. Aviator_
              Aviator_ April 14 2019 22: 55
              +3
              Rent is an excuse, no more. For some reason, questions about Camrani, Lourdes and the MIR station were resolved at the same time, after the GDP came to power. I have vague suspicions that at that time he was trying to prove to the USA that he was going to such actions and expected the same from them. Well, just like Bakatin with the wiretap system of their embassy.
              1. Alexey RA
                Alexey RA April 15 2019 12: 11
                0
                Quote: Aviator_
                For some reason, questions about Camrani, Lourdes and the MIR station were resolved at the same time, after the GDP came to power.

                Everything is clear with the Mir station - there were no other options. The crews of the last expeditions were more involved in repairs than research.
                According to the plan, the station was supposed to be changed in the first half of the 90s - but it did not grow together, and by 2000 the Mir station had already been released for two terms and went to the third. Its further exploitation could lead to disaster.
                1. Aviator_
                  Aviator_ April 16 2019 08: 01
                  0
                  Come on, with him, with "Mir", but then everything went very densely: saving money at one moment, Bakatin immediately reminded him. And to make a new station then, as now, is already unrealistic. That civilization is over. The new one is not capable. Some projects from "Soyuzmultfilm".
        2. timokhin-aa
          April 14 2019 17: 47
          +3
          I will not look for the link for the prescription of time - believe in the word.


          If you take his word for it, then you will have to admit that Poseidon can be "released into the ocean so that he floated to America, and then withdrawn" that an angular velocity and acceleration sensor with a maximum overload of 16g ​​can be used in weapon systems, and in general, as a result mentally fall into the world of pink ponies.

          And become like you. laughing
      2. timokhin-aa
        April 14 2019 17: 41
        +2
        For the sake of justice, in the year 1979, the USSR coordinated and coordinated strongly. With disastrous consequences for his position in the world, and with unpleasant outcomes for Vietnam.
        There would be no fights at the border in 1984, no fights at sea for the archipelago (I don’t remember what you’re calling it), respond to the USSR properly.
    3. timokhin-aa
      April 14 2019 17: 39
      +3
      You as usual in your style.
      We should have offered to scare the Vietnamese with Poseidon, let him give a couple of laps around Vietnam.
      1. Operator
        Operator April 14 2019 19: 12
        -3
        How is the weather on the outskirts, freeze without Russian gas? laughing
        1. timokhin-aa
          April 14 2019 23: 53
          +3
          Do not fall into insanity, please. I understand that you are already in the seventh decade, but even in your case there are options.
          For example.

          http://psychiatry.ru/siteconst/userfiles/kolyahalov.pdf

          Try it, you will succeed. You have of course already begun irreversible processes poseidonish little by little, maybe relatives can see it, but you shouldn’t deprive yourself of all chances, because you can put the letters into words, strain.

          And yes, I am not Ukraine, I am from the Urals, if that. Of course, you don't give a damn, you cannot already distinguish the reality from your desires. This is me, for those who call upon them, made a reservation so that they would not think of anything about me.
    4. gsev
      gsev 3 May 2019 14: 00
      +1
      Quote: Operator
      For the Russian Federation, it makes sense to clear the brains of the initially bewildered Vietnamese, for example, supporting China’s opinion on the ownership of the Spratly island archipelago.

      Ho Chi Minh and his associates were smart people. They fought for a free and prosperous Vietnam, without foreign influence (French, Chinese, American, Soviet). They did not intend to build the Stalinist model in their country and saw its inferiority. In general, American citizens opposed the intervention in Vietnam worked for the greatness of the United States and increasing its international influence. The dirty war in Vietnam by Kennedy, Johnson and Nixon is just a waste of U.S. resources and the creation of new and consolidation of old U.S. enemies.I think even now in Vietnam they are wary of cooperating with the Russian oligarchs, seeing how they shamelessly exploit even their people.
  15. Aviator_
    Aviator_ April 14 2019 15: 26
    +1
    Good informative article. One thing is sad - they are based solely on American documents without critical analysis, hence the number of trucks destroyed by the Ganships, which exceeds their full presence in Vietnam. Just like our losses in the Kiev cauldron in 1941, when the Germans were in captivity more people than was in all our parts before the battle.
    1. timokhin-aa
      April 14 2019 17: 43
      +1
      I write that overestimated at times. But in any case, if Americans write 12000 per year, and really 4000 per year, then that is a lot.
      Vietnam year after year steadily imported 7000-8000 machines from the USSR and China in those years.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ April 14 2019 23: 00
        0
        Of course, many Vietnamese were killed there, no one argues. But orders and payments for combat sorties were paid regularly, and as with confirmation of the defeat of the target, especially at night - I suppose, the presence of a fire, which could be m. specially the Vietnamese bred fifty fifty meters from the highway?
        1. timokhin-aa
          April 15 2019 00: 03
          +1
          Ganship writes video from sighting cameras. Then it was probably kinofotomelemet, then VHS.
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ April 15 2019 08: 47
            0
            Naturally, a film camera. From the NVD of that time, any fire will give such a flare that you can record a couple of hundred trucks with fuel, and after returning to run to the ticket office and for the next order.
            1. timokhin-aa
              April 15 2019 10: 51
              0
              The joke is that 40 mm shells did not set fire to trucks. And I'm not sure that the kinofotomelemet worked in the night mode.
              1. Aviator_
                Aviator_ April 16 2019 08: 04
                0
                The film gun worked as usual. Fire, if it occurs, will be visible very well, at night even better than during the day. Even one 40 mm incendiary projectile could very well burn the cask.
                1. timokhin-aa
                  April 16 2019 12: 16
                  0
                  The commander of American aviation in Indochina, Lieutenant General Clay, personally decided to make sure that the enemy's losses were estimated correctly. On May 12, 1971 near Bien Hoa, the AC-130 was demonstrated in action. Eight trucks were installed on the road, and three had their engines turned on. On commands from the ground, the plane went to the desired area and then acted independently. The trucks were located, clearly recorded by the IK system, with three engines running, and the remaining five were detected by other systems. General Clay ordered the first six trucks to be destroyed with 40mm cannons, the last two with 20mm cannons. AS-130A opened fire on the first truck, the crew thrust shell after shell into the truck, but it never caught fire. The general ordered to transfer fire to the second car, from the third shell it caught fire, then it was the turn of the third. The fourth truck, like the first, did not catch fire, despite direct hits. When the fifth vehicle was fired upon, the shells fell within a radius of 3 m from it, that is, according to the criterion for hitting targets, the truck was seriously damaged. The sixth truck took a direct hit from the first shot. Bursts of 20-mm guns pierced the remaining two cars, but despite the direct hits clearly recorded by the crew, they also did not catch fire. According to the crew, five trucks were destroyed and three were badly damaged as a result of the attack. After a ground inspection of the convoy, it turned out that only two cars were irretrievably lost, two were seriously damaged, and three more could be repaired in a day or two, one could be started and driven right away. In general, the commander of the 7th Air Force was pleased with the demonstration attack. The crew of the "Hanship" was able to find and destroy the convoy at night, but the statistics of the damage caused was, as expected, somewhat overestimated.
                  1. Aviator_
                    Aviator_ April 16 2019 22: 09
                    0
                    I wrote about the fillers, it is clear that there were not too many of them in the columns, this is not Afghan.
  16. PavelT
    PavelT April 14 2019 22: 50
    0
    Quote: Gorpun
    The Vietnamese are great. Respect

    So do I. Especially for stamina.
    And one more strange fact: of all the countries that the USSR should have remained after its collapse, only Vietnam paid its debt in full! They got the most, but they paid everything to the end ... Respect.
    1. Town Hall
      Town Hall April 14 2019 23: 21
      +3
      Quote: PavelT
      Of all the countries that remained owed to the USSR after its collapse, only Vietnam fully paid its debt!


      List of countries to which Russia wrote off debts:

      Vietnam - $ 9,53 billion

      The first of the debts “forgiven” to foreign countries as early as the “Putin” time was in 2000. In total, Vietnamese debt at that time amounted to $ 11,03 billion, the balance should be paid by 2022. True, not directly, but through investments in joint projects with Russia in Vietnam
      1. PavelT
        PavelT April 20 2019 00: 44
        0
        Exactly, I checked this information - you are right. The sadder ...
        After all, no one on this scale has forgiven debts.
  17. Storekeeper
    Storekeeper April 20 2019 23: 30
    0
    I demand the promised continuation !!!! It is also very interesting with details, with details that you will not find in any source. To be continued we hope and believe !!!