Nuclear rocket engine РД0410. Bold development without prospects

In the past, leading countries were searching for fundamentally new solutions in the field of engines for rocket and space technology. The most ambitious proposals concerned the creation of a so-called. nuclear rocket engines, the basis of which was a reactor with fissile material. In our country, work in this direction gave a real result in the form of an experimental engine РД0410. Nevertheless, this product did not manage to find its place in promising projects and to influence the development of national and world cosmonautics.


Proposals and projects

Already in the fifties, several years before the launch of the first satellite and the manned spacecraft, the prospects for the development of chemical-fueled rocket engines were determined. The latter made it possible to obtain very high characteristics, but the growth of parameters could not be infinite. In the future, the engines had to "rest against the ceiling" of their capabilities. In this regard, for the further development of space-rocket systems, fundamentally new solutions were required.

Nuclear rocket engine РД0410. Bold development without prospects
Built but not tested RD0410 type YARD


In 1955, academician M.V. Keldysh took the initiative to create a rocket engine of a special design, in which a nuclear reactor would act as a source of energy. The development of this idea was entrusted to NII-1 of the Ministry aviation industry; V.M. Ievlev. In the shortest possible time, specialists worked out the main issues and proposed two options for a promising NRE with the best characteristics.

The first engine variant, designated as “Scheme A”, proposed the use of a solid-phase reactor and solid heat exchange surfaces. The second option, Scheme B, provided for the use of a reactor with a gas-phase active zone — the fissile material had to be in the plasma state, and the thermal energy was transferred to the working body through radiation. Experts compared the two schemes and found the variant "A" more successful. In the future, it was he who worked most actively and even reached the full-fledged trials.

In parallel with the search for optimal designs of NRE, there was a study of the creation of a scientific, industrial and testing base. So, in 1957 year V.M. Ievlev proposed a new concept of testing and refinement. All basic structural elements had to be tested at different stands, and only after that they could be assembled into a single structure. In the case of Scheme A, such an approach implied the creation of full-scale reactors for testing.

In 1958, a detailed resolution of the Council of Ministers appeared, determining the course of further work. MV were appointed to be responsible for the development of the NRE. Keldysh, I.V. Kurchatov and S.P. Korolev. In NII-1 a special department was formed headed by V.M. Ievlev, who had to deal with a new direction. Also dozens of research and design organizations were involved in the work. Participation of the Ministry of Defense was planned. Determined the schedule of work and other nuances of an extensive program.

Subsequently, all project participants actively interacted in one way or another. In addition, in the sixties, conferences were held twice devoted exclusively to the subject of NRE and related issues.

Test base

As part of the NRE development program, it was proposed to apply a new approach to testing and testing the necessary units. In this case, experts are faced with a serious problem. Testing of some products was to be carried out in a nuclear reactor, but such measures were extremely difficult or even impossible. The tests could have been hampered by difficulties of an economic, organizational or environmental nature.


Fuel assembly diagram for IR-100


In this regard, new methods of testing products without the use of nuclear reactors were developed. Similar checks were divided into three stages. The first involved the study of processes in the reactor on models. Then the nodes of the reactor or engine had to undergo mechanical and hydraulic "cold" tests. Only after that the nodes should be checked in high-temperature conditions. Having separately worked out all the components of the NREs on the stands, it was possible to proceed to the assembly of a full-fledged experimental reactor or engine.

For carrying out three-stage testing of nodes by forces of several enterprises, they have developed and built various stands. Of particular interest is the technique for high temperature testing. During its development, new gas heating technologies had to be created. From 1959 to 1972, the research institute 1 developed a whole range of high-power plasma torches that heated gases to 3000 ° K and allowed high-temperature tests to be carried out.

Especially for testing "Scheme B" had to develop even more complex devices. Such tasks required a plasma torch with an output pressure of hundreds of atmospheres and a temperature of 10-15 thousand degrees K. By the end of the sixties, a technology of heating the gas based on its interaction with electron beams appeared, which allowed to obtain the required characteristics.

Resolution of the Council of Ministers provided for the construction of a new facility at the Semipalatinsk proving ground. There should have been built a test bench and an experimental reactor for further testing of fuel assemblies and other components of the NRE. All the main facilities were built by 1961 year, and at the same time the first start-up of the reactor took place. Then polygon equipment was refined and improved several times. For the placement of the reactor and personnel were intended several underground bunkers with the necessary protection.

In fact, the project of a promising YARD was one of the most daring undertakings of its time, and therefore led to the development and construction of a mass of unique devices and devices for testing purposes. All these booths made it possible to conduct a lot of experiments and collect a large amount of data of various kinds suitable for the development of various projects.

"Scheme A"

In the late fifties, the most successful and promising option was considered to be a type “A” engine. This concept proposed the construction of a nuclear reactor based on a reactor with heat exchangers responsible for heating the gaseous working fluid. The release of the latter through the nozzle should have created the desired thrust. With all the simplicity of the concept, the implementation of such ideas was associated with a number of difficulties.


Fuel assembly mockup for the IR-100 reactor


First of all, the problem of choosing materials for the construction of the core was manifested. The design of the reactor had to withstand high thermal loads and maintain the required strength. In addition, it was supposed to pass thermal neutrons, but it did not lose its characteristics due to ionizing radiation. Uneven heat release in the core was also expected, which made new demands on its design.

To search for solutions and to refine the structure, a special workshop was organized at SRI-1, which was to do model fuel assemblies and other components of the core. At this stage, various metals and alloys, as well as other materials, were tested. Tungsten, molybdenum, graphite, high-temperature carbides, etc. could be used to fabricate fuel assemblies. The search for protective coatings preventing the destruction of the structure was also carried out.

In the course of the experiments, optimal materials were found for the manufacture of individual components of the NRE. In addition, it was possible to confirm the fundamental possibility of obtaining a specific impulse of the order of 850-900. This gave the advanced engine the highest performance and a significant advantage over chemical fuel systems.

The reactor core was a cylinder with a length of about 1 m and a diameter of 50 mm. In this case, the creation of 26 variants of fuel assemblies with various features was envisaged. Following the results of the subsequent tests, they chose the most successful and effective ones. The fuel assembly design found included the use of two fuel compositions. The first was a mixture of uranium-235 (90%) with niobium or zirconium carbide. This mixture was molded in the form of a four-beam twisted rod with a length of 100 mm and a diameter of 2,2 mm. The second composition consisted of uranium and graphite; it was made in the form of hexagonal prisms 100-200 mm in length with an 1-mm internal channel having a lining. The rods and prisms were placed in a sealed heat-resistant metal housing.

The tests of assemblies and elements at the Semipalatinsk test site began in the year 1962. In two years of work, the 41 reactor was launched. First of all, we managed to find the most effective version of the core content. All major solutions and specifications were also confirmed. In particular, all the nodes of the reactor coped with heat and radiation loads. Thus, it was found that the developed reactor is able to solve its main task - to heat gaseous hydrogen to 3000-3100 ° K at a given flow rate. All this allowed to start the development of a full-fledged nuclear rocket engine.

11B91 on "Baikal"

In the early sixties, work began on the creation of a full-fledged NRE based on existing products and developments. First of all, NII-1 studied the possibility of creating a whole family of rocket engines with different parameters suitable for use in various projects of rocket technology. From this family, it was first decided to design and build a low-thrust engine - 36 kN. Such a product could later be used in a promising upper stage suitable for sending spacecraft to other celestial bodies.


The IRGIT reactor during assembly


In 1966, SRI-1 and the Chemical Automation Design Bureau began collaborative work on shaping and designing the future NRE. Soon the engine received indices 11B91 and RD0410. Its main element was a reactor called IR-100. Later, the reactor was named IRGIT ("Research reactor for group studies of TVEL"). It was originally planned to create two different YARDs. The first was an experimental product for testing at the test site, and the second was a flight model. However, in 1970, two projects were combined with a view to conducting field testing. After that, KBXA became the leading developer of the new system.

Using the groundwork for preliminary research in the field of NRE, as well as using the existing test base, we were able to quickly determine the future look of the 11B91 and begin a full technical design.

At the same time, the “Baikal” stand complex was created for future tests at the test site. The new engine was proposed to be tested in an underground structure with a complete set of protection. Provision was made for the collection and settling of gaseous working fluid. In order to avoid emissions of radiation, the gas had to be kept in gas holders, and only after that it could be released into the atmosphere. Due to the particular complexity of the work, the Baikal complex was built for about 15 years. His last objects were completed after the first tests began.

In 1977, at the Baikal complex, a second workplace for pilot plants was commissioned, equipped with means for supplying the working fluid in the form of hydrogen. 17 September completed the physical launch of the product 11B91. 27 March 1978-th energy launch. 3 July and 11 August conducted two fire tests with the full operation of the product as a YARD. In these tests, the reactor was gradually brought to power 24, 33 and 42 MW. Hydrogen was heated to 2630 ° K. In the early eighties, two other prototypes were tested. They showed power up to 62-63 MW and heated the gas to 2500 ° K.

Project РД0410

At the turn of the seventies and eighties, it was about creating a full-fledged NRE, fully suitable for installation on missiles or upper stages. The final appearance of such a product was formed, and tests at the Semipalatinsk test site confirmed all the main design characteristics.

The finished engine RD0410 was noticeably different from existing products. It was distinguished by the composition of the units, the layout and even the appearance, due to other principles of work. In fact, the RD0410 was divided into several main blocks: the reactor, the means for feeding the working fluid, and the heat exchanger and the nozzle. The compact reactor occupied a central position, and other devices were placed next to it. The YARD also needed a separate tank for liquid hydrogen.



The total height of the RD0410 / 11B91 products reached 3,5 m, the maximum diameter was 1,6 m. The mass, taking into account radiation protection, was 2 t. The calculated engine thrust in the vacuum reached 35,2 kN or 3,59 tf. The specific impulse in the void is 910 kgf • s / kg or 8927 m / s. The engine could be turned on 10 times. Resource - 1 h. By some modifications in the future it was possible to improve the characteristics to the desired level.

It is known that the heated working fluid of such a YARD had limited radioactivity. However, after the tests he was defended, and the area where the stand was located had to be closed for a day. The use of such an engine in the atmosphere of the Earth was considered unsafe. At the same time, it could be used as part of accelerating units starting work outside the atmosphere. After use, such blocks should be sent to the burial orbit.

Back in the sixties, the idea of ​​creating a power plant based on YARDs appeared. The heated working fluid could be fed to a turbine connected to a generator. Such power plants were of interest for the further development of astronautics, since they made it possible to get rid of the existing problems and limitations in the field of electricity generation for onboard equipment.

In the eighties, the idea of ​​a power plant reached the design stage. Worked out a project of such a product based on the engine РД0410. One of the experimental reactors IR-100 / IRGIT was used in experiments on this topic, during which it ensured the operation of the generator with a power of 200 kW.

New furnishing

The main theoretical and practical work on the subject of the Soviet YARD with a solid-phase active zone was completed by the mid-eighties. The industry could begin the development of an accelerating unit or another rocket and space technology for an existing RD0410 engine. However, such work has not been able to start on time, and soon their start was impossible.

At this time, the space industry already did not have enough resources for the timely implementation of all plans and ideas. In addition, the notorious Perestroika soon began, putting an end to the mass of proposals and developments. The reputation of nuclear technology was seriously affected by the Chernobyl accident. Finally, at that time it was not without problems of a political nature. In 1988, all work on the YARD 11B91 / РД0410 was stopped.

According to various sources, at least until the beginning of 2000, some facilities of the Baikal complex still remained at the Semipalatinsk test site. Moreover, in one of the so-called. workplaces still housed an experimental reactor. KBXA managed to make a full-fledged RD0410 engine, suitable for installation on the future upper stage. However, the technique for its use remained in the plans.

After RD0410

Developments on the YARD found application in the new project. In 1992, a number of Russian enterprises jointly developed a dual-mode engine with a solid-phase core and working fluid in the form of hydrogen. In the rocket engine mode, such a product must develop 70 kN thrust with a specific impulse 920 s, and the energy mode provides 25 kW of electrical power. Such a NRE was proposed for use in interplanetary spacecraft projects.

Unfortunately, at that time the situation did not favor the creation of a new and bold rocket and space technology, and therefore the second version of the nuclear rocket engine remained on paper. As far as we know, domestic enterprises still show a certain interest in the NRE-related topics, but the implementation of such projects is not yet possible or feasible. Nevertheless, it should be noted that in the framework of previous projects, Soviet and Russian scientists and engineers were able to accumulate a significant amount of information and get the most important experience. This means that when a need arises and a corresponding order in our country, a new NRE can be created of the type tested in the past.

Based on:
http://kbkha.ru/
https://popmech.ru/
http://cosmoworld.ru/
http://tehnoomsk.ru/
Akimov V.N., Koroteev A.S., Gafarov A.A. and others. Research Center named after M. Keldysh. 1933-2003: 70 years at the forefront of rocket and space technology. - M: "Mechanical Engineering", 2003.
Author:
Photos used:
Research Center named after M. V. Keldysh, KB Khimavtomatiki / kbkha.ru
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  1. Pessimist22 April 9 2019 05: 26 New
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    Interestingly, maybe someone will tell in more detail about nuclear turbojet engines?
    1. venik April 9 2019 08: 28 New
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      Quote: Pessimist22
      Interestingly, maybe someone will tell in more detail about nuclear turbojet engines?

      =====
      You can look here:
      https://www.popmech.ru/technologies/8841-verkhom-na-reaktore-atomnyy-samolet/#part3
      http://engine.aviaport.ru/issues/30/page22.html
      https://tech.onliner.by/2016/03/14/sovetskij-atomolet
      ---
      http://vfk1.narod.ru/JACU.htm
      http://vfk1.narod.ru/JACU2.htm
      -----
      From the Wikipedia article, you can look at other links:
      https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%90%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%BC%D0%BE%D0%BB%D1%91%D1%82
    2. san4es April 9 2019 14: 32 New
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      Quote: Pessimist22
      .... about nuclear turbojet engines who will tell in more detail?

      ..... A short video about the experimental thermal nuclear rocket engine .... hi
  2. 2329 Carpenter April 9 2019 07: 27 New
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    Surely this theme "in modern processing" was present at the creation of "Petrel".
    1. venik April 9 2019 08: 36 New
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      Quote: Carpenter 2329
      Surely this theme "in modern processing" was present at the creation of "Petrel".

      ======
      Of course. In technology - in general NOTHING is created "from scratch." There is always something to one degree or another that could serve as a “prototype” or “prerequisite” that served as a stepping stone to the creation of new designs!
      Why would the Petrel engine be an exception? The principle is the same as it was in nuclear turbojet engines - gas heating in the combustion chamber does not occur as a result of the combustion of the fuel-air mixture, but under the heating of the fuel elements!
      But the engine is no longer turbojet, but straight-through!
      Somewhere like that! drinks
      1. 2329 Carpenter April 9 2019 09: 17 New
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        Nothing...
        And von Ohain on the basis of what the turbojet engine developed?
        1. venik April 9 2019 09: 47 New
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          Quote: Carpenter 2329
          And von Ohain on the basis of what the turbojet engine developed?

          =======
          And then, steam turbines did not exist then? Now, if you want a kind of "prototype"! What to do in order to put a turbine on an airplane? First of all, get rid of the bulky and heavy steam generator, replace it with a combustion chamber and heat the air entering the turbine itself ... And to make the turbine work at 0 speed - put a compressor in front of it!
          By the way, Ohain was far from the first to deal with this topic: N.V. Gerasimov received the first patent for a turbojet engine prototype, in 1921 Maxim Guillaume received a patent for a gas turbine, in 1937 first working TRD introduced by Frank Whittle ....
          So von Ohain began, as it were, "not from scratch" .... Which does not detract from his merits!
          1. 2329 Carpenter April 9 2019 10: 28 New
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            Well, yes ... I agree.
            The cradle also began with a couple.
            And for the first time in 1912 a “jet” patent appeared. Coanda. Romanians (oddly enough request ) :))
            1. gridasov April 9 2019 17: 53 New
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              Coand was one of the first who paid attention to the sticking of water when draining from the tube. These are precisely the processes of ionization of the surface of the outflow and the use of such outflow to ensure the polarization vector from the Earth’s surface. The cradle used only a small element of the system and got a huge effect. I won’t explain too much close.
        2. Narak-zempo April 14 2019 12: 29 New
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          Quote: Carpenter 2329
          Nothing...
          And von Ohain on the basis of what the turbojet engine developed?

          If you remember, the creator of the Parsons steam turbine initially wanted to make a gas turbine engine, thereby getting rid of the cumbersome boiler plant, but after the experiments, it came to the conclusion that the existing steel systems did not even allow making a combined cycle turbine. The plug was only in the materials.
  3. tsvetkov1274 April 9 2019 07: 37 New
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    Igor Negoda will appreciate good
  4. gridasov April 9 2019 09: 30 New
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    We can definitely say that the basic concept of building a physical process and achieving high temperatures rests on a very particular choice. This means that there is a problem of sound scientific ideas that will allow us to create and quickly reproduce such engines, based on more rational solutions that have not yet been reached. In short, new ideas are that it is necessary to use not an external radioactive energy source in the form of a material with a high density of atomic-molecular interactions in the form of rad.mat, but the processes of transformation of the substance of the flight medium itself within the atmosphere. Therefore, such a method and method is reduced only to achieving speeds of rotation of engine parts to levels not achievable at the present stage. And this problem has been theoretically solved. The only question is how to form magnetic force interactions in order to change the polarization directions or to control the change in the polarization vector at certain necessary moments.
  5. igordok April 9 2019 11: 32 New
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    This concept suggested the construction of a NRE based on a reactor with heat exchangers responsible for heating a gaseous working fluid.

    Those. Are these rocket engines only for the atmosphere, without space?
    1. gridasov April 9 2019 12: 37 New
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      The work of the engine in space is carried out either through the creation of a super-powerful magnetic field generated as a systemic process of reactor operation in a closed cycle, remember the Magf effect or the Van der Graaf generator, as well as performing a complex of protective processes and at the same time the function of a mover. In any case, we will have an inexhaustible energy source because the physical process is cyclical and balanced. Moreover, on those substances that are life-forming for a person. T, e processes of life support and energy from the same.
      1. ser56 April 9 2019 17: 10 New
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        Quote: gridasov
        Van der Graaff generator

        and what does he have to do with it? bully
        Quote: gridasov
        through the creation of a heavy-duty magnetic field generated as a systemic process of reactor operation in a closed cycle

        pseudo-scientific nonsense ... request
        1. gridasov April 9 2019 17: 40 New
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          The VdG generator clearly shows that both the sphere and any closed form has an external and internal magnetic field. But the field is for those who say that it’s pseudo-scientific nonsense, and for normal people it’s magnetic fluxes that form a system of vectors and polarization. Therefore, the VdH generator is built on brushes and is low potential. I’m talking about a system that distributes voltage or charges from the movement of a liquid, which ionizes the entire surface of the outflow. In this case, so that there is no breakdown at ultrahigh voltages and currents, a device is created that creates the density of magnetic fluxes, and therefore does not allow breakdown to Earth. By the way, they cannot solve this problem at the collider. Heavy-duty electronic magnets pierce all the time in turns and to Earth. So a person needs to understand that a system of magnetic flux forms a space which is called the center of gravity or black holes. Mathematically, this is all simple, but I use the terminology of the wise men of science.
          1. ser56 April 9 2019 17: 46 New
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            Quote: gridasov
            The VdG generator clearly shows that both the sphere and any closed form has an external and internal magnetic field

            what nonsense! bully This generator confirms the fidelity of Coulomb's law and that’s it! bully
            Quote: gridasov
            Therefore, the VdG generator is built on brushes and is low-potential

            shame not knowing the principle of the generator ...
            Quote: gridasov
            which ionizes the entire surface

            what nonsense ... bully A charge accumulates on the surface ...
            Quote: gridasov
            , and therefore not allowing breakdown to Earth.

            for this there is a reference insulator, correctly calculated ...
            gridasov you carry pseudoscientific nonsense ... hi
      2. glk63 April 13 2019 02: 07 New
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        The power of your stream of consciousness is unlimited ...
    2. vadimtt April 9 2019 13: 12 New
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      Why the same. Gas from cylinders is a working fluid that is supplied to the reactor, where it is heated, expanded and discharged through a nozzle apparatus. Simply, instead of the chemical energy of fuel oxidation, nuclear energy is used for heating. The problem is only in structural materials, and the thrust and momentum of such an engine can have fantastic values ​​compared to conventional chemical ones.
      1. viktorish007 April 9 2019 13: 28 New
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        they cannot, everything depends on the inefficiency of the circuit with heating of the working fluid from an external source, high parameters of the expiration rate in the engine can be obtained only by mixing nuclear fuel in a plasma-like state with an additional working fluid, options with solid-state fuel rods in principle cannot give the required temperatures, in general, while we only have cartoons about a certain strategic cruise missile, I strongly suspect that the concept of this funderwaffe is to warm the working fluid and, as a result, high savings of quite ordinary fuel
        1. gridasov April 9 2019 14: 07 New
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          An excellent option. However, we are talking about the fact that the outflow surface itself can be made of radioactive material, and in this case we will be able to form radial radiation from the air stream, and linear with the possibility of polarization concentration on these surfaces. Then ultrahigh currents at high speeds will initiate the effects of thermoelectric emission. General analysis of such processes should be carried out at the level of electronic magnetic processes
        2. ser56 April 9 2019 17: 13 New
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          Quote: viktorish007
          and due to the mixing of nuclear fuel in a plasma state with

          what for? We need a source of energy - a nuclear reactor ... we need a plasma accelerator - i.e. ion source with charge compensation by electron guns ...
          such a scheme will allow you to have traction with a minimum consumption of substance ... it is now being implemented - recently there have been reports about testing a drip reactor cooling system ... hi
          1. viktorish007 April 9 2019 17: 45 New
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            Nain, you’re talking about a source-reactor + dvigun scheme, let's say a thermoelectric solid-state with drip cooling is the same space engine and the engine: ionic, plasma no difference,

            I’m talking about the scheme when the engine itself is nuclear, either slow and sad heating on the fuel rods, gas or any other working fluid, which is not particularly effective since the temperature of the fuel rods is limited as well as heat transfer - in terms of speed and max heating rate of RT,

            the only option that does not follow the principle: for xs what costs and xs what opsnost design we can fly slowly and sadly, but 30-40% further than on conventional engines

            is an option with direct injection into the plasma engine after an invasive microreaction, in fact it is a detonation nuclear engine with an open core, nothing else can really realize the potential of nuclear fuel in rocket technology
            1. ser56 April 9 2019 17: 54 New
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              Quote: viktorish007
              I'm talking about the scheme when the engine itself is nuclear,

              I understand, but this scheme is vicious in principle! as you remember, the momentum is the product of mass and speed ... you won’t take a lot of mass of fuel with you - so you need to increase speed request
              1. viktorish007 April 9 2019 17: 59 New
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                depends on the goals, if you want to make an acceleration block for accelerating interplanetary stations - then the reactor + plasma engine, it’s completely canal, if you need to take off from the ground - it’s only detonation, just without options, well, or someone can get a tokomak and make a compact fusion, which it would be possible to constantly suck the plasma at the focal point of the engine directly from the circuit

                ps in nature, there are no physical processes that could transfer thermal energy from a preheated body - TVEL to an unheated - working fluid, with a speed comparable to the transfer of energy through the release of the heated body itself - the release of plasma into the volume with the working fluid, just the rate of energy transfer for any engineering decisions are less by many orders of magnitude at least as pervert.
                1. ser56 April 9 2019 18: 01 New
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                  Quote: viktorish007
                  if you need to take off from the ground - then only detonation

                  don't you feel sorry for the earth? crying
                  Quote: viktorish007
                  so that the plasma can constantly be sucked into the focal point of the engine directly from the circuit

                  and pollute the atmosphere with tritium? request
                  1. viktorish007 April 9 2019 18: 14 New
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                    to select isotopes, and to produce them in reactors of a special design, or at accelerators, what is used in modern atomic energy or even what they are trying to adapt — the sacred cow tokomak of the holy martyrs ITER, is unsuitable for use in atomic engines from the word at all, this is the same how to design rockets for the combustion of coal with coal furnaces and stokers,

                    everyone who was interested in the topic of atomic-powered vukers that back in the 70s it was said about the search for combined assemblies of short-lived isotopes, these niokir on this topic - SUPERDOROGY have not been carried out in the world since they require such awesome injections into experimental nuclear reactors and accelerators that all mate can simply be strangled, or rather they will be strangled if funding on these topics suddenly goes
                  2. viktorish007 April 9 2019 20: 53 New
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                    safe exhaust isotopes, fast chains of radioactive isotope conversions with a short half-life and a safe end product,
                    drown with uranium so that the half-life would be at the exhaust mash of 10K years and it’s not necessary at all, and it won’t work, standard nuclear fuel will not work
                    1. vadimtt April 10 2019 09: 13 New
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                      Yes, everything was invented long ago - matter + antimatter in the focus of the electromagnetic mirror on
                      a hundred tesla with a layer of sacrificial electrons / ions from a source of several tens of kiloamperes behind a cooled layer of lead / polyethylene / boron wassat
          2. gridasov April 9 2019 17: 47 New
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            Plasma processes are breakdowns on an electronic magnetic circuit. Only scientists take linear structures for a circuit, and in nature they are closed spatial formations. Therefore, a natural-type electromagnetic circuit can be created not only with sufficient breakdown energy, but also with a circuit forming the so-called induction coil with a complex of functions and a contour from an external potential into the interior of spaces or vice versa. I think that even this would require a special imagination
            1. ser56 April 9 2019 17: 57 New
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              Quote: gridasov
              Only scientists take linear structures as a contour

              Is it your core transformer - a linear structure in transient? laughing
              Quote: gridasov
              Plasma processes are breakdowns on an electronic magnetic circuit.

              what nonsense! bully just enchanting ... crying
              Quote: gridasov
              I think that even imagining this requires special imagination

              no, this requires a complete lack of knowledge ... bully
              1. viktorish007 April 9 2019 18: 17 New
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                do not read this thread, I fell out of bsod from the first post of the bot
              2. gridasov April 9 2019 19: 45 New
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                The core transformer operates on a dominant reciprocating magnetic flux disturbance. And apparently it is difficult to understand that in order to avoid dead spots like a pendulum, it is necessary to use rotating dominant magnetic fluxes and their break-in moments. Then the amplitude-frequency characteristics will be completely different and without blind spots, which means. Well, bot, so bot
                1. viktorish007 April 12 2019 17: 23 New
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                  Bulls are good at trolling
  6. Morgan April 9 2019 15: 44 New
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    Well, well, the “tsar” has already reported to the whole world that the rocket is flying, they even showed a cartoon, and suddenly “the implementation of such projects is not yet possible or expedient” - you can put a “party card” on it!
    1. viktorish007 April 9 2019 17: 49 New
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      the tsar reported on the reincarnation of the old Soviet project that in the ussr in the usa after manned aircraft with reactors, we were talking about automatic systems with hybrid systems, not pure nuclear traction but a combination, most likely it’s about those shams of 30-40% plus in range relative to similar engines but only on chemical fuel, another thing all this should fly very slowly and sadly, albeit for a long time.

      what is the point in a cruise missile with artillery speed at best, like a civilian Boeing - the question is not for children, but most likely the galosh should fly even slower
  7. Spiridonovich2 April 9 2019 18: 36 New
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    The author is not visible in the subject. Putin said our nuclear-powered rockets fly all over the world. And we believe our president unconditionally.
  8. Avior April 9 2019 23: 05 New
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    NERVA NRE, fully tested back in 1966, showed excellent results and full suitability for space flights.
    The states refused to use it so as not to force the space race and not spend extra money.


    Thrust in vacuum: 333,6 kN
    Specific impulse (in vacuum): 850 s (8,09 kN · s / kg)
    1. viktorish007 April 9 2019 23: 40 New
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      oh these tales, oh these storytellers
      1. Avior April 9 2019 23: 42 New
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        What did you mean?
        https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/NERVA
        1. viktorish007 April 9 2019 23: 48 New
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          yes I know this link, on wiki it is presented as a complete working engine with confirmed characteristics, which is very funny

          ps there is a moment it is an EMPTY engine completely unsuitable for atmospheric flight

          in a vacuum, a thermocouple reactor with a plasma or ion engine is many times more useful
          1. Avior April 10 2019 00: 01 New
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            did i write something else?
            full suitability for space flights

            its application is considered now.
            https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Project_Timberwind
            1. viktorish007 April 10 2019 12: 25 New
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              well, ok, it’s strange only if he’s so ready that he’s not used as the last return stage when putting into orbit, at least as an experiment
  9. Forest April 10 2019 08: 12 New
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    The most interesting article in recent times.
  10. gridasov 24 May 2019 14: 25 New
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    The lack of effective methods of analysis leads to the fact that humanity as a civilization is not effective, not because it is not able to develop, but because it spends a considerable resource on proving its unreasonable actions