Military Review

Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Part of 9. Germanic effigii

48
Praise to husband and wife
When they live in love.

Their soul and body are on par with
For each hour, Lord, bless!
And in full happiness let their life pass.
Doubt not, blessed and he
Who honors virtue in himself
As in the one who chose one,
And who, to the joy, took a wife,
Girlfriend in life and fate.
(Walter von der Vogelweide, translated by Wilhelm Levik.)


In the Soviet historical film “Black Arrow” (1985) according to the novel by R. Stevenson there is a touching scene, which, by the way, is not in the novel itself: the minstrel performs a song for the bride and groom, Lord Gray and Joanna Sedley: “Praise to her husband and to my wife ... ”Although, apart from music and poems, almost nothing happens in the frame, this scene makes a very strong impression. It was written on poems of the 13th century German minnesinger by Walter von der Vogelweide “Desires and languor of the days ...” and is very characteristic of the knightly poetry of those years. It is significant that so many knight effigy pair. They show both spouses. That is, the words "to be together in life and death, in illness and in health ...", which the Catholic priest uttered during the marriage sacrament, for many were not at all empty and in their wills they indicated to create an effigy not only for himself, but also his spouse. Or on the contrary, the spouse after the death of the knight-husband wanted to be immortalized in the sculpture lying next to him.

Because of this, we know a lot not only about men's but also women's attire of that time, although in this case we are interested in the first ones. And not English, not French and not Spanish effigy, with which we got acquainted quite often, but with German effigy. And not just Germanic (in part, we also considered them in some “knightly articles” on “VO”), but the effects of the 1050 period - 1350.

In the preceding material, a certain “backwardness” of German knighthood from English and French was noted. But effigii, and immediately paired, appeared in Germany even earlier than in England and France. And then they spread very widely and became an obligatory attribute of the burial of any representative of the nobility. Therefore, there are a lot of them. It is also important that, in contrast to France, nobody destroyed them in Germany, although many effigy were seriously injured and were destroyed during the Second World War. Many effigies in Germany were decorated with cathedrals, in particular, such were Ekkehard (Eckhard) II — marquis of Meissen and Earl of Hutzi from 1032 of the year, and Margrave of the Saxon Oriental mark from 1034 of the year, in 1038 of the year became the sole ruler of Meisen, and his wife Uta Ballenshte. . Their sculptures are located in the Naumburg cathedral in the center of the German town Naumburg (Saxony-Anhalt) and, according to art historians and historians, are perhaps the most memorable example of art of the early Middle Ages.


Uta and Ekkerhard (large).

Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Part of 9. Germanic effigii

Uta and Eckerhard. Sculptures in Naumburg Cathedral. Pay attention to the very typical sword, on which Eckerhard relies, and a very small triangular shield, not at all characteristic of this time. The fact is that he died on January 14 1046 of the year, and his spouse - October 23 ... of the same year!

Among the early effigy is the famous sculpture of St. Maurice in the Cathedral of St. Catherine and St. Maurice in Magdeburg. And the most interesting thing is that this saint is portrayed with black and Negroid facial features ... only in Germany! History its it is this: in 287 AD Emperor Maximian (c. 250 - c. 310 AD) ordered the Theban legion of Roman Christian soldiers in Egypt, led by Maurice, to go to Agaunum, now modern Saint-Maurice-en-Valais in Switzerland. The fact that the emperor ordered the Maurice’s legion to be made there is disputed: they either had to participate in pagan rites or persecute and kill local Christians.

Being a faithful Christian, Maurice refused to obey the orders of the emperor. In response, the legion was punished with a decimation, and some legionaries were supposed to kill others. Everyone refused to do this, and then, by order of the emperor, the entire legion was executed. The earliest written reports of this incident appeared almost 150 years later, when the Church declared Maurice saint for disobeying imperial orders. Later, Maurice became the patron saint of the Holy Roman Empire, and an altar dedicated to his memory was erected in the Vatican.

Until the middle of the XIII century, St. Maurice was depicted as a white-skinned warrior dressed in armor of the relevant era. But after the reconstruction of the Magdeburg Cathedral in 1240 – 1250, when it was damaged by fire, it suddenly turned into an African. Why an unknown artist intentionally changed the racial identity of Maurice is unknown. It is possible that since he and his people were from Thebes in Upper Egypt near Nubia, they were considered to be “Ethiopians” who, as believed in the medieval European world, lived on the African continent, and all “Ethiopians” are ... negros! Whatever the reason, this change was the first artistic image of a black African in medieval Europe. Interestingly, the "Negro" he is only in Germany. In the churches of Switzerland, France and Italy, he is depicted as white.


Interestingly, St. Maurice is shown in multi-layered mail armor, and the chain mail cap is worn separately from the hauberg, and it is equipped with a breastplate. On top of the chain mail, he wore not a surcoat, but something like a cape with a slab of metal plates for which the heads of rivets indicate. Chainmail gloves are woven to the sleeves.


Effigiyu Heinrich the Younger, mind. 1298 Propulsion Magdeburg, Germany. Please note that it has a typical coat of arms, but its rectangular-shaped ellet do not have stamped images, which does not correspond to their purpose at all!


Plane gravestone on the stove. Before us is Grafen von Leuchtenberg, mind. 1300 Baden Cathedral, Germany. As you can see, this knight was quite satisfied with purely mail armor, over which he wore a surcoat with numerous sewn wedges along the hem.


Berthold V von Saringen, mind. 1218 Efigiya made in 1354 (City Museum Freiburg-in-Breisgau, Germany) Very characteristic for the German knights of the time armament: detachable nathnik-bretash, chains going to the sword, dagger and helmet, pleated "skirt" and bulging knee pads on top of chainmail chassis.


Heinrich Bayer von Boppard, mind. 1355 (Museum of Bode Art Museum in the ensemble of the Museum Island in Berlin). On the deceased fully mail armor, and with wide sleeves and surcoat, also with wide sleeves. Very well visible is the sword band and the dagger basilard.


Johann II von Kazenelnboden, mind. 1357 Abbey Ebermach, Germany. Obviously rich was a knight and watched fashion. On it is a helmet-bascinet with a visor on the top loop (an early version of the fastening was taken on knight's helmets), and on the day of the spear strike a completely closed “large helmet” with a large wing — a “crest”, which also showed its coat of arms. The torso gracefully fits the mail and a short Jupon on top of it, on which there are only two functional chains - one to the handle of the dagger and one - with a “button” used to fasten the “big helmet” behind him. Knee pads and greaves are all-metal, but the sabatons are still chain mail. The rich belt and the finish of the jupon and the armor indicate that it was not alien to the decorations.


And finally, one of the twin effects: Goudarda d'Estable with his wife, 1340, Abbey de Marsili, Yonne, Burgundy, France. As you can see, his armor is very similar to the German samples, or rather, the German samples are similar to his armor. One-piece forged greaves have already appeared, but the sabatons are still chain mail.


Sculpture "Sleeping Warrior" approx. 1340-1345 “Warriors at the Holy Sepulcher”, Museum of Notre Dame, Strasbourg, France. He is wearing a bascinet helmet with a detachable barmica, a “big helmet”, temporarily abandoned behind his back. The torso still protects the chain mail, but metal bulging shoulder pads and knee pads have already appeared. Gloves - worn, with riveted on the skin plates. The shield is round. Apparently for action as an infantryman.


Another "sleeping" and, apparently, a rank lower than the first, or poorer. Above the knees, only quilted pantaloons, a helmet — an “iron hat” (“caphel-de-fer”) with a cross-shaped reinforcement of a dome, a chain mail with short and wide sleeves. As weapons massive felchen (falchion). It is interesting that on his left hand, under his shield he has a tubular bracer, but on the right - clearly from strips of thick plantar skin. For some reason, he lacked two identical means ...

These are the effects of the Holy Roman Empire, and you see how much they have told us today ...


P.S. But this photo appeared here not by chance. It’s just that a whole number of VO regulars suggested in their comments to put along with the articles also the photos of the authors of certain materials ... “at work”. Well then - here is the first such photo. You will see such a person in one of the cathedrals of Europe this year, do not hesitate - this is the author of “knightly articles” busy searching for effigy!

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Part of 8. Knights of the Holy Roman Empire
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Part of 7. Knights of Spain: Leon, Castile and Portugal
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Knights of Spain: Aragon, Navarre and Catalonia (part 6)
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. CH 5. Knights of France. Central and southern areas
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Knights of Ireland (part 4)
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Knights of Scotland (part 3)
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Knighthood and knights of England and Wales. Part of 2
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Knighthood and knights of northern France. Part of 1
48 comments
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  1. tlauicol
    tlauicol April 5 2019 18: 15
    +2
    and when is the pair effect of spouses made? something too cool for the 11th century hi
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 5 2019 18: 57
      +3
      In general, I agree with you. However, I wanted to inquire about your criteria for "toughness"?
      1. tlauicol
        tlauicol April 5 2019 19: 46
        +1
        Yes, what are the criteria? I don’t even remember a single sculpture of the 11th century, more or less like a person. Only Indians, maybe
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave April 5 2019 20: 00
          +1
          I agree. Probably a renaissance replica of an earlier effigy
          1. Undecim
            Undecim April 5 2019 21: 01
            +2
            This is not a renaissance copy. The Naumburg Cathedral began to be built at the beginning of the XNUMXth century, two hundred years after the death of Ekkehard II and his wife Uta. Accordingly, all the reliefs, sculptures - all this is the middle of the XIII century.
            This is not effigy. These are two of the twelve sculptural images of persons considered the founders of the cathedral.
            There is another married couple. Maybe the author was too lazy to go around the cathedral.

            Herman I (Margrave Meissen) and his wife Regelinda Polska, daughter of the Polish prince Boleslav I the Brave.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave April 5 2019 22: 17
              +2
              I think the author simply did not have enough time to go around the cathedral.
              1. Undecim
                Undecim April 5 2019 22: 22
                +2
                This is inevitable when traveling at a gallop through Europe.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave April 5 2019 22: 33
                  +2
                  Who can ... How we see the car, but the author doesn’t, for medical reasons. And his wife is aerophobic. On the other hand, 6-7 hours on the bus - yes, I would have died on the first stage! But the Shpakovskys, they’ll endure anything.
                  1. Undecim
                    Undecim April 5 2019 22: 41
                    +1
                    On the other hand, 6-7 hours on the bus - yes, I would have died on the first stage!
                    2700 km to Milan. 68 hours. And back.
                    After this trip, I cannot watch the bus without a shudder.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave April 5 2019 22: 52
                      +1
                      Nifiga yourself you are putting experiments on your own body!
                      1. Undecim
                        Undecim April 5 2019 22: 55
                        +1
                        Yes, one experience was enough, so I immediately dismissed the proposal to form a company in the same way in Lisbon.
                  2. kalibr
                    April 6 2019 07: 52
                    0
                    Hmm. In fact, everything is not so tragic! The bus is comfortable. The journeys do not last more than 5 hours. And with interruptions. Tea, coffee right by the bus ... everything else at the "stations" nearby. You can even lie on the grass. The move ends with the hotel. Shower (bath) and you can stretch out and sleep. In the morning - another shower and a good breakfast ... The windows are wide. Everything can be seen well. The guide sometimes tells interesting things. It happens (sometimes) that I change it too. I get, so to speak, pleasure from the sense of my own worth. Well, on the spot ... of course, 6 hours to Budapest is not enough. But 4 hours for the same Carcassonne is quite enough! This year, a general raid is planned: Warsaw, Berlin, Paris (two days), Carcassonne (we will stock up with hypokras), then a week-long vacation in Costa Bravo in Spain, and this is Girona and delightful small towns and castles, then the Cote d'Azur and Nice (two hours, but what's wrong with that?) then Italy, Venice, Vienna and ... back. Now I am making a plan for each city. What to see, how to get there, how long for this and that ... Up to what cafe and how much we will have lunch for. Then ... we usually do not participate in two-hour boat trips along the Danube and Seine with food and champagne , we do not eat together with everyone - it is expensive and tasteless. And we do everything ourselves. This saves tons of time and money. In addition, they let me into all museums free of charge. Granddaughter ... also ... "student". A wife ... considering ... often too. So it's not so "all bad".
        2. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master April 5 2019 21: 16
          +3
          Quote: Tlauicol
          Only among the Indians, can

          Hindus people do not know how to count hands. Always perezharschivali.
          I understand that the history of the Namburg master did not leave us history. request
          I wonder what I need to do in order to put my sculptural image in full height in the central square of my hometown, and even with my wife? wink
          No, the sculptures are wonderful. Interestingly, is there a portrait similarity with the originals?
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave April 5 2019 21: 25
            +3
            Specifically, you, Mikhail, become, in retrospect, together with your wife, Heroes of the Soviet Union. There was such a tradition in the USSR, "a bust in the Hero's homeland", lifetime.
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master April 5 2019 21: 39
              +4
              Anton, so the bust. And he was put only twice to the heroes, one is not enough. But so that in full growth ... No, I will not pull. smile
          2. Undecim
            Undecim April 5 2019 22: 19
            +2
            I wonder what I need to do in order to put my sculptural image in full height in the central square of my hometown, and even with my wife?
            The citizens of Naumburg felt that it was enough to be a brave warrior and a fair ruler, which was Ekkehard II in their opinion.
            As for the wife, then the author is mistaken.
            The fact is that he died on January 14, 1046, and his wife died on October 23 ... of the same year!
            After the death of her husband, Uta, at the age of 46, went to the monastery of the abbey of Gernrode, which was run by her sister Haceh, abandoning the inheritance of her husband, which partially passed to the abbey and Empress Agnes. The date of the death of Uta has not been established, it is only known that this happened on October 23.
          3. Undecim
            Undecim April 6 2019 00: 01
            +2
            I understand that the history of the Namburg master did not leave us history.
            It is quite a rare case when the name of a sculptor known for his works has not survived, therefore in the literature he is called the "Naumburg master".
  2. Simon
    Simon April 5 2019 18: 21
    +1
    Interesting article. I have a question. And at the expense of mobility and maneuverability in the ranks, how do chained knights behave? It seems to me that chain mail is better in this regard.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 5 2019 18: 50
      +3
      Knights in the ranks behaved like knights! Namely - who is into the forest, who is by firewood. Therefore, well-organized infantry hung them regularly, somewhere from the middle of the 14th century. until the end of the era of chivalry. Yes, and organized cavalry, too, just remember the Magyars and the Mongols.
      1. sivuch
        sivuch April 6 2019 09: 16
        +1
        In fact, well-organized infantry in the 14th century was still in its infancy, and the rest of the infantry, not supported by their knights, were weighed out with enviable regularity.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave April 6 2019 09: 30
          +1
          Undoubtedly, the formation of a particular military doctrine takes time. The Battle of Curtre - The First Swallow
          1. sivuch
            sivuch April 6 2019 10: 12
            +1
            before this battle was Furne, and after - Ark, Mont-en-Pevel, Saint-Omer, Roosbeck
    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka April 5 2019 20: 34
      +3
      Quote: Simon
      Interesting article. I have a question. And at the expense of mobility and maneuverability in the ranks, how do chained knights behave? It seems to me that chain mail is better in this regard.

      The javelin’s spear as a “miserable hodgepodge” division, which excelled the enemy mainly in training and versatility. But as a single unit for mass use ......? Then I agree with Anton .... knights received lyuley from all who put tactics at the heart of their forces. However, one can compare the chivalry with our local cavalry as an example and admit that a regular army is a serious achievement in military art! However, as the uniformity of weapons, uniforms and tactics.
    3. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master April 5 2019 21: 22
      +2
      Quote: Simon
      And at the expense of mobility and maneuverability in the ranks, how are chained knights behaving?

      On YouTube there are a few videos shot by modern reenactors for mobility and maneuverability of a knight.
      For example, this: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FFvraS-rx0U
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave April 5 2019 22: 07
        +1
        Well, let’s say so, the reenactors are somewhat heartbreaking. For under their armor they have not linen and wool, but cotton with elastane.
  3. Ingvar 72
    Ingvar 72 April 5 2019 18: 26
    +3
    Thanks to Vyacheslav for the review. good
  4. Chichikov
    Chichikov April 5 2019 18: 47
    +1
    It is a pity that they do not see this photo dill! They would have already said that this is a sign, - Poroshenko with his wife.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 5 2019 19: 24
      0
      "Do you know Ishayak? Safsem is not good!"
      1. Chichikov
        Chichikov April 5 2019 20: 24
        -2
        From
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        Ishayak
        I hear! Learn "Great and mighty", Russian!
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave April 5 2019 20: 43
          +3
          And you, dear, besides being a hohlofob, still m outspoken hamlo!
          1. Chichikov
            Chichikov April 6 2019 02: 06
            -3
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            And you, dear, besides being a hohlofob, still m outspoken hamlo!
            Shirokoy dill immediately visible! At first he insults himself, but after receiving an answer to his rudeness, he appeals to decency.
    2. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master April 5 2019 21: 37
      +4
      Quote: Chichikov
      Poroshenko with his wife.

      They themselves come up with nonsense, they themselves replicate. Fomenko's favorite approach: "Traditional historians say ..." - then some epic stupidity and an equally epic refutation (this is a typo, but ... decided to leave laughing ), based on no less stupid things.
      Tomorrow on profile resources this photo will appear with the appropriate caption, such as "In Ukraine, they found that ..." and a long ukhaha dedicated to the stupidity of Svidomo.
      If it were not for the second boorish message, I would not put the first minus, and so ... it will be necessary.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave April 5 2019 22: 02
        +2
        By the way, I did not rate it. But, unfortunately, the growing population of "russian militari lemming's" makes my buffoonery more low-grade.
        1. Chichikov
          Chichikov April 6 2019 01: 58
          -1
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          By the way, I did not put an assessment.

          Grades do not bother me - I have been at VO, since its opening, not for the sake of grades! The answer was given to the insult, "Do you know Ishayak? Your further reasoning does not bother me!"

          Quote: Trilobite Master
          They themselves invent stupid things, they themselves replicate.

          It’s good to live far from events and draw conclusions! Try to live in the information garbage ukroSMI, which surrounds you every day and which is conducted not just by network users, but at the state level. Maybe then, your opinion will not be so categorical.
          1. Undecim
            Undecim April 7 2019 00: 36
            +2
            Try to live in the information garbage ukroSMI
            Why do you live in trash? Modern means of communication allow you to choose any information environment, even Honduran. It all depends on desire.
            1. Chichikov
              Chichikov April 7 2019 01: 03
              +1
              Quote: Undecim
              Why do you live in trash?
              Because five years ago, a handful of nationalists, with the support of a puppet government, turned Ukraine into a "garbage dump" where Western rats, oligarchs who have seized power and war criminals intoxicated with impunity feed themselves!
              You can choose resources, only changing clothes is not a panacea for the general plague!
  5. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master April 5 2019 20: 23
    +3
    Johann II von Kazenelnboden ... There is a feeling that he is not Johann, but Johanna - the proportions of the figure, the pronounced chest, the inviting posture and the ignorance of which side carry the sword ...
    Or is it by the end of the working week and (or) due to the spring some kind of aggravation ... smile
    Ekkehard and Uta are certainly impressive. To compare them with the rest of the effigies is like the poems of Su Dong-po (according to the book "Poems, Melodies, Poems" M., 1975) with "Song of Roland".
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, thanks, as always. hi
  6. Senior seaman
    Senior seaman April 5 2019 20: 50
    +3
    Pay attention to the very typical sword that Eckerhard rests on, and the very small triangular shield, which is not at all characteristic of this time. The fact is that he died on 14 on January 1046 of the year, and his wife died on 23 on October ... of the same year!

    Sorry, I did not understand.
    And if the wife died in a couple of months, would the shield be more characteristic?
    1. kalibr
      April 5 2019 21: 45
      +2
      Yes, of course, the phrase is unsuccessful.
  7. Torins
    Torins April 6 2019 00: 04
    +2
    Quote: Simon
    Interesting article. I have a question. And at the expense of mobility and maneuverability in the ranks, how do chained knights behave? It seems to me that chain mail is better in this regard.

    Even full plate armor does not constrain movements at all, it’s not difficult to run fast, but the armor increases the mass of your body and, accordingly, extends additional strength, and you get tired and tired much faster than in a tracksuit)
  8. Torins
    Torins April 6 2019 00: 08
    +2
    Quote: 3x3zsave
    Well, let’s say so, the reenactors are somewhat heartbreaking. For under their armor they have not linen and wool, but cotton with elastane.

    Lying! Today, the requirements for reconstruction are very serious, I personally have a linen counterclad in several layers and wool.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave April 6 2019 07: 24
      0
      I said "a little", and you immediately climb into the bottle: "Lies!" I really respect domestic reenactors precisely for their obsession and scrupulous approach to hobby. However, communicating with you is sometimes difficult.
      1. kalibr
        April 6 2019 07: 58
        +1
        Gorelik told me the following story. They invited him to a club of reenactors to give a lecture. Well he came. And at the entrance there is an announcement "CERTIFICATE ABOUT SCRAMASAX tomorrow. He - what is it for? He - well, what is it for, how they wore it, methods of work ... Gorelik - You all know this? They - yes, found out in the process of their reconstruction .. Gorelik "I also make replicas of weapons. But I can't say exactly how exactly they were used. I don't take such courage. Well, you take ... so I have nothing to do with you!"
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave April 6 2019 08: 07
          +1
          Here I am about the same.
  9. sivuch
    sivuch April 6 2019 09: 26
    0
    The previous material already noted some "backwardness" of German knighthood from English and French
    -------------------
    And where was it about it? It seemed to me that the German knights were no less warlike and no less rich than the French. Moreover, centers for the production of high-quality weapons were located in Germany - Passau, Regensburg, Augsburg, later Solingen. I don’t remember about horse breeding, but, it seems, this is also Germany.
    Those. , yes, some details talked about the backlog - say, salads were worn in Germany when the British and French switched to arme, but in general - I don’t think
  10. kalibr
    April 6 2019 13: 25
    0
    Quote: sivuch
    Augsburg, later Solingen. I don’t remember about horse breeding, but, it seems, this is also Germany.
    Those. , yes, some details talked about the backlog - say, salads were worn in Germany when the British and French switched to arme, but in general - I don’t think

    Later it became and came from Italy, and here is the final year of 1350!
  11. kalibr
    April 7 2019 15: 25
    0
    Quote: Chichikov
    a handful of nationalists, with the support of the puppet government, turned into a "garbage dump" where Western rats feed, oligarchs who have seized power and war criminals intoxicated with impunity!

    Again, all the same "A handful can do everything!" Where were the rest of the people? Picked in the nose and drank vodka?
  12. Torins
    Torins April 17 2019 20: 12
    0
    Quote: 3x3zsave
    Here I am about the same.

    Confident of 1000% in something not material, from what was several centuries ago, it is impossible in any case. But then there would have been no reconstruction as such, because not only weapons, but also life, culture are being reconstructed, and here, in principle, one cannot be 100% sure of anything)