Mikhail Lermontov. Combat officer. Part of 5. Final

The last six months of Lermontov's life are full of myths, discrepancies, and all sorts of theories of Lermontov scholars. Therefore, the author will try to isolate from this pile of opinions only evidence and a number of striking facts describing the incomprehensible proud nature of the great poet and brilliant military officer Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov.


After the end of hostilities in Chechnya, 1840, due to the onset of winter cold, Lermontov left for Pyatigorsk for some time, and from there, at the insistence of the authorities and the emperor’s personal demand to “be in the regiment, there was” he went to the village of Ivanovskaya (east of Temryuk and Slavyansk-na-Kubani ). Lermontov already then realized more clearly that the imperial court was ready to rot him in the barracks. Even the controversial "freedom" to fight in mountain battles in Chechnya, they are trying to take away from him. All this affected the mental health of Michael.

Mikhail Lermontov. Combat officer. Part of 5. Final


This is how Nikolai Ivanovich Lorer, a member of General Velyaminov’s glorious military campaigns, describes the meeting with him:
“He seemed cold, jaundiced, irritable, and a hater of the human race in general, and I should have seemed soft to him kindly, if he noticed my peace of mind and oblivion of all the evils that I endured from the government. I still can’t give myself an account of why it was somehow embarrassing to me, and we parted politely but coldly. ”


Later they become friends - such paradoxes are more likely to be for the Caucasus. In the barracks of the regiment Lermontov slowly began to sink into the oppressive routine of the military life of the provincial outpost of the immense empire. Along with all the officers, he was on duty at the headquarters of the regiment, conducted inquiries and wrote reports. In order to somehow diversify the routine, Lermontov even noted a humorous poem written in defense of the officers, who complained about the village administration for their love to visit friends in the garden fence, so as not to drown in the mud of the village roads.

Despite the fact that the poem was instantly loved by his colleagues, the relations between the officers and Lermontov were strained. His resentment for well-deserved orders, which he will never receive, for his hatred of his person on the part of the imperial court, turned into sharp phrases, secretiveness and general nastiness. However, Lermontov will meet the last New Year of his life in the circle of Tengin officers of the Ivanovo stanitsa. At the same time, Konstantin Danzas, exiled to the Caucasus for participating in the duel of Pushkin as a second by Alexander Sergeevich, got Lermontov to be assigned to one of the mouths of his battalion. 31 December 1840 of the year by order of the regiment No. 365 Mikhail Yuryevich was enlisted in the 12 th musketeer company.



Finally, on January 14, Lermontov received permission to appear for a while in St. Petersburg. The poet himself believed that this permission was given to him thanks to the intercession of his grandmother. True, Elizabeth Alekseevna Arsenieva begged forgiveness to her grandson, but the emperor did not give her consent. Most likely, Lermontov received permission to arrive in the capital thanks to a number of factors: here both the grandmother's petition, and the endless representations of the Caucasian command for awarding Michael, and the poet's literary fame, which continued to grow.

Here is how Lermontov himself described his misadventures in Petersburg in his letter to Dmitry Sergeyevich Bibikov, a workmate in the Caucasus, with whom he lived in Stavropol under the same roof (reduced):
“Dear Bibi. Violence was going to write to you; I will begin by explaining the secret of my vacation: my grandmother asked for my forgiveness, and I was given a vacation; but I’m going to visit you again soon, and I don’t have any hope to stay here, because I did such misfortunes: when I arrived here in St. Petersburg at half carnival, I went to Ms. Vorontsova's ball the very next day, and found it indecent and cocky. What to do? If only I knew where the straws would fall would be ... Under 9, from March I leave here to deserve my resignation in the Caucasus; I was struck out of the Valerik representation here, so even I will not have the consolation of wearing the red ribbon when I put on a civilian coat. I was yours the other day, and they all complain that you do not write; and, having taken this into consideration, I no longer dare to reproach you. Meshcherinov, it is true, before I come to Stavropol, for I do not intend to hurry too much; So, do not sell amazing fishing gear, neither beds nor saddles; true, the squad will not perform before 20 on April, and by that time I will certainly be. I buy for our common use Lavater and Galya and many other books. ”


In St. Petersburg, Lermontov eventually stayed longer than what was permitted — not two, but three months. Perhaps, judging by the letter, he managed to achieve his return to Chechnya. Thus, on May 9, the lieutenant arrived in Stavropol. Here it was officially confirmed that Mikhail was sent to the left flank of the Caucasian line, i.e. the poet returns to General Grabbe. And, God sees, if he came to Grabbe, joining the ranks of another military expedition, according to the paradoxical laws of the Caucasus, he would have a better chance of surviving the 1841 year. But everything turned out differently ...


The road to Pyatigorsk

On the way to the headquarters of General Grabbe, Lermontov became seriously ill with fever. The doctors who examined the lieutenant insisted that he stay for a while in Pyatigorsk. The command gave its permission to delay the officer for medical reasons. Pyatigorsk physicians were even more categorical in their conclusions after examining Mikhail Yuryevich - “obsessed with scrofulous thinness and thinness, accompanied by swelling of the tongue and broken legs”. Despite twenty hot mineral baths and other things, Lermontov didn’t get better. Doctors stated: "The suspension of treatment and adverse conditions of bivouac life could have detrimental health effects."

Lermontov stayed in Pyatigorsk for the summer. Taking advantage of a sudden rest, Mikhail Yuryevich plunged into poetry. In Pyatigorsk such poems as “Tamara”, “Dream”, “Sea Princess”, “The Prophet”, “I went out alone to the road” and others saw the light of day. Despite the fact that Lermontov is increasingly appearing in society, from the verses written during this period it is clear that he is extraordinarily alone. In addition, his wit did not fade away. Thus, the link, which had no end, at times permissible bravado and sharpness, loneliness - all this led to a tragic finale.

Nikolai Lorer described the future rival Lermontov in a duel - the former major Nikolai Martynov:
“Martynov served as a guard, moved to the Caucasus in a linear Cossack regiment and just left the service. He was very handsome and with a brilliant secular education. Wearing a Circassian costume for convenience and habit, he exaggerated the tastes of the highlanders and, it goes without saying, thereby incurring the mockery of his comrades, between whom Lermontov, according to his mentality, was more implacable than all. ”


Dressed in, and perhaps damned by genius and keen flair, Lermontov, who was also a brilliant military officer, could not pass by such a dandy, without feeling a bit of fake. Moreover, Mikhail Yuryevich himself commanded the “hunting” team, which also included the Highlanders, in order to have the right to a more personal look at such posturing.


Pyatigorsk in the XIX century

Thus, at a party in the house of the Versilins, Lermontov again began to jest about the look of Martynov, mockingly calling him “homme à poignard”, i.e. "Man with a dagger." Martynov, in fact, always carried a Caucasian Kama with him in his belt, be it a ball or a dinner. Fighting weapon in such a situation it seemed like a theatrical dummy, so such caustic remarks finally brought Martynov out of himself. The former major threw a phrase that he would find a way to silence the lieutenant. To this, Mikhail Yuryevich calmly replied that he should act better rather than shake the air, hinting also that he never ran from duels.

As a result, in the evening of July 15 (according to the old style) of the year 1841, at the foot of Mashuk mountain, Lermontov and Martynov met. The shot of the former major turned out to be accurate. The bullet went right through the heart, instantly killing the great poet.

The author will not delve into the details of the duel itself. After all, even the dates of the fight in different sources vary: Lorer indicates July 17, the Tengin Regiment in the Caucasus edition does indicate the month of June, etc. However, this does not change the essence. Russia's greatest poet did not fall in battle, but because of the “shame of petty offenses” and the cold indifference and even the vengefulness of the imperial court. This is confirmed by all that happened in Pyatigorsk and high society after the death of Lermontov.



This is how Nikolai Lorer recalled that tragic day when he learned about the death of the poet:
“If thunder had fallen at my feet, I would have been less affected then, I think, than this time. "When? Who? ”- I could only exclaim. We both of Wegelin went to the apartment of the deceased, and then I saw Mikhail Yurevich on the table, already in a clean shirt and head to the window. A man was fanning flies from a dead man’s face, and the painter Schwede was painting a portrait of him with oil paints. The ladies - both familiar and unfamiliar - and all curious people began to crowd in a small room, and the first appeared and decorated the lifeless brow of the poet with flowers ... Full of sad thoughts, I went to the boulevard. In all corners, in all the alleys, there was only talk about the incident. I noticed that before in Pyatigorsk there was not a single gendarme officer, but then, God knows where, there were a lot of them, and it seemed that there was one blue uniform resting on each bench. They, like black lies, felt a dead body and flooded into a peaceful shelter of healing in order to find out why, why, why, and then communicate on command, truthfully or falsely. ”




Two days after the death of Lermontov, at the confluence of an unprecedented crowd in Pyatigorsk, a funeral began. At that moment, representatives of all the regiments were present in the city, in which Mikhail Yuryevich happened to serve or be “in business”. His coffin was carried by Nikolai Lorer from the “Tengians”, Alexander Tiran from the Life Guards Hussar Regiment, Alexander Arnoldi from the Grodno Regiment, and Sergey Bezobrazov from the Nizhny Novgorod Dragoon. They buried Lermontov in the foothills of Mashuk, dressed in the uniform of an officer of the Tenginsky regiment. Later, however, the dust at the request of the grandmother was reburied in Tarkhany.

Two weeks later, as if an evil mockery of the bureaucracy’s red tape, a notice came from St. Petersburg that the emperor refused to give Lermontov the award of the Order of St. Stanislaus 3 degree for the courage he showed in the 40 expedition and for the battle with Valerik.


The first grave of Lermontov in Pyatigorsk

Even more offensive fact was the "punishment" of participants in the duel. At that time, for participating in such a duel, especially entailing death, was punished extremely harshly. For example, Danzas, who was just a second in a duel, was sentenced to death by the first instance, and only later this measure was replaced with a Caucasian exile, in which he showed himself to be an excellent officer and honored the honor of his friend Pushkin until the end of his life. What was waiting for Martynov and the seconds? Actually nothing.

Nikolai Martynov, who was supposed to be executed by law, was demoted, sentenced to 3-month arrest in the guardhouse and exiled ... to Kiev. A couple of years later, this dandy married a pretty Polish girl and moved to his own house in Moscow, as if nothing had happened. They decided not to punish the seconds at all, having considered that the time they spent under arrest in the guardhouse would be considered a “punishment”. This, apparently, was the result of the intervention of the sovereign, whose phrase about the poet "there he is and the road" quickly became known among the people.


Mount Mashuk

Thus ended the glorious service of the great poet and officer Mikhail Lermontov. And now, few people know about the battle of Valerik, even less know about the brilliant flanking maneuver of the "Lermontov detachment" of cavalry in the Goytin forest and a desperate attack near the aul of Aldy. It would not be an exaggeration to think that Mikhail Yuryevich is one of the undervalued geniuses of Russian poetry and an absolutely forgotten Caucasian officer.
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  1. volodimer 20 March 2019 18: 14 New
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    Thank you so much for the article, read with great interest hi
    1. Grandfather 20 March 2019 18: 23 New
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      from school struck in memory: "... and it is boring and sad, and there is no one to give a hand in a minute of spiritual adversity, desire ... what is the use of wanting, in vain and forever, and the years go by ... all the best years .."
  2. GKS 2111 20 March 2019 18: 29 New
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    Thanks for the work to the author, it was interesting to read! Indeed, not only a great poet, but also a worthy officer was Mikhail Yuryevich, now few people will remember about it ...
  3. colotun 20 March 2019 21: 01 New
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    Prediction Author: M. Yu. Lermontov
    The year will come, Russia is a black year,
    When the kings crown falls;
    Forget the old love for them
    And the food of many will be death and blood;
  4. Kosya Queen 20 March 2019 21: 31 New
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    Barrels - this is not a weapon for a duel, too much depends on accidents. It would be better to cut them with swords and checkers; there, in most cases, skill decides more than chance, and you can control the situation so as not to kill, but to teach your opponent a lesson.
    1. Trilobite Master 21 March 2019 10: 37 New
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      Quote: Mowing Queen
      Barrels - this is not a weapon for a duel, too much depends on accidents. It would be better to cut them with swords and checkers; there, in most cases, skill decides more than chance, and you can control the situation so as not to kill, but to teach your opponent a lesson.

      You do not understand the essence of the duel. This is not a competition in the mastery of weapon possession, but a “court of God,” which is why such duel variants were practiced, either through a handkerchief, by lot or with one loaded pistol - to even the opponents' chances to level the difference in the mastery of weapon possession. The outcome of the duel was to be decided by God, keeping alive the one who is right. So it was precisely an accident that should have determined the outcome of the duel.
      1. Kosya Queen 22 March 2019 21: 19 New
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        And if a person is an atheist. In addition, the goal of a duel I always considered settling accounts for insult. How can I avenge an insult if I am 100 percent right in this situation, stupidly relying on how the card or dice, etc. And as a result: I'm right, but due to the fact that the lot fell to my opponent - he shot me first. And I'm in a wooden mac, not washing off the insult with the blood of the offender. Where is God's judgment? It is outwardly beautiful and pathos, but it clearly does not smell of justice. If you don’t know how to shoot or stab, set the other instead. If the forces are clearly not equal. By type, student and army officer. In tsarist Russia, this was practiced. If my memory serves me, such situations are shown in the film “The Duelist” with Mashkov as the main antagonist of the film. And here such an important question was raised in the film. A mahach could only be arranged by an aristocracy equal in social class, and if you are not of noble blood, then you are denied satisfaction. Even the right is not given to God's judgment. But all are equal before God, aren't they? So it’s beautiful, but impractical. Although, you probably will not agree with me.))
        1. Trilobite Master 24 March 2019 12: 50 New
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          Quote: Mowing Queen
          the goal of the duel, I always thought of settling accounts for insult.

          In the broadest sense, the goal of the duel is to protect the nobility of honor. Honor can suffer only as a result of actions of equal status. A petty bourgeois or a peasant, in general, any person from the non-noble class could not harm the honor of a nobleman, even publicly insulting him. Roughly speaking, the honor of a nobleman did not suffer even from slapping and spitting in the face, if these actions were not done by a nobleman. To treat such incidents to a man of honor was prescribed as if a dog barked at him or he stepped into a cow cake - unpleasant, but does not detract from honor. Conflicts between nobles and non-nobles were dealt with by courts of general jurisdiction, and not by courts of honor, where only noblemen could be present and participate.
          The network is now in the public domain you can easily find the dueling codes of those times - there it is all described in detail, starting with theoretical positions and ending with purely procedural issues.
          The film "Duelist", by the way, has the same attitude to the real story as "The Lord of the Rings" or "Conan the Barbarian".
          Quote: Mowing Queen
          So beautiful, but inappropriate.

          Exactly. The concept of "honor" is generally beautiful, but completely inexpedient. Therefore, the same is true of all that is associated with this concept, and first of all, the duel.
  5. Alexander Trebuntsev 21 March 2019 06: 50 New
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    The author adjusts the facts to the patterns that have been established since the times of the Soviets. It creates a kind of tragic image of a ruined man. But Lermontov himself was a destroyer of his life. But I will try on points.
    1. The author talks about the leniency of punishment to Martynov, but where was he? There was a consequence, Martynov was also at first accused, but what could have been presented to him? Dueling was banned in the Caucasus among the military. It was believed that the senseless death of officers in a duel was criminal. They are needed in the war. A very severe punishment was relied on for this. Martynov by the time of the duel was no longer an officer and could shoot as much as he wanted.
    2. Lermontov ran into a duel himself, and then asked for forgiveness and so twisted. Like, "Well, I'm friendly, loving that you are so ...". They already had a duel with Martynov before, but Lermontov asked for forgiveness, everyone tried to persuade Martynov, and he, always giving in to other people's influence and opinion, put up with it. So, about Lermontov’s phrase that he doesn’t avoid a duel, the author got a little excited. When Martynov called him again this time, he again apologized, stressing that they were old friends. In general, relations with Martynov were complicated already because of the story with the letter of Martynov’s mother, which Lermontov opened and did not deliver. Then, as usual, Martynov was dissuaded from the duel and it did not take place. Moreover, exalted young ladies, whom are always bored and who, as pets, are not able to entertain themselves (today there are many of them too), loved Lermontov’s society, but did not know all the details of their relationship with Martynov. They even wrote in their diaries about how evil everyone is, who do not understand Lermontov’s subtle soul, and especially this Martynov, when Lermontov’s appearance spoiled his mood and he no longer entertained young ladies, but it depressed them.
    In general, Lermontov in public meetings immediately adjoined the ladies society and spent time with them only. For them, he always seemed very sweet, courteous, and with regard to men he let go of very wicked witticisms, amusing ladies. Apparently, Lermontov had a complex of physical inferiority, which he implemented in this way since his youth. He was forgiven, so it also happened from the time of his youth. Already during the service, this led to excesses, but everything was possible to hush up for the time being.
    Somehow I read very interesting opinions of art historians about Lermontov’s work. It is very interesting that many agreed that by the time of the death of Lermontov had already written out. As a rule, he did not have anything new, equal to what was written earlier, except for short epigrams and quatrains. And even without that, his bile temper completely poisoned and increasingly made it unbearable for those around him. So, it is not necessary on the principle that if he is a great poet and, as the Soviepy said "fought against tsarism," he must be made an innocent murdered of him.
    1. Dagger75 21 March 2019 07: 27 New
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      In many respects I agree with the previous author, but the word "Sovdepiya" rezanul ...
    2. vladcub 21 March 2019 18: 38 New
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      Alexander Trebuntsev. I agree with you in many respects, but let me make a remark: "Sovdepiya" is too much. Indeed, this is OUR youth, all the good that you have formed in your youth.
      You are right: “Wind” simply retold the prevailing opinion: the king of the Byak and, accordingly, everything that is against the king is good. It’s not easy with Lermontov’s duel: among Lermontov’s acquaintances, it was widely believed that Martynov, to put it mildly, was a short-sighted person and a coward. Lermontov attributed all the failed duels to Martynov’s cowardice. And Lermontov’s phrase: “let it act better” hinted that Martynov was a coward. Lermontov had a bile temper and he and his friends wanted to disgrace Martynov type: "I saw a gun and did it in my pants." In addition to Lermontov’s seconds, Lermontov’s acquaintances sat at almost every bush to make fun of Martynov, and he knew this
    3. Dmitry Bolotsky 21 March 2019 20: 51 New
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      Alexander, thanks! It’s true, Lermontov himself chose his fate. He and Martynov Nikolai Solomonovich were friends since the cadets school. Unlike Lermontov, Martynov volunteered for the Caucasus and participated in the expedition of the Caucasian detachment beyond the Kuban. He was awarded the Order of St. Anne of the 3rd degree with a bow. By the time of the quarrel with Lermontov, he had the rank of retired major. This quarrel was not the first. And its initiator was Mikhail Yurievich. Martynov for the rest of his life suffered and suffered, which caused the death of Lermontov. But the duel was honest and her culprit was Lermontov.
  6. Olgovich 21 March 2019 07: 03 New
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    The fatal combination of many circumstances and the restlessness of those around led to the death of a GENIUS .....
  7. srha 21 March 2019 09: 38 New
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    Actually, I heard (for which I bought it, for which I am selling it) that there was no duel - it was a murder.
    1. vladcub 21 March 2019 17: 37 New
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      With the same success ALL dueling can be called a murder
      1. srha 21 March 2019 18: 40 New
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        Nope. For example, a gray cat met, are all cats gray?
        The purpose of the duel is to protect honor (well, who knows how ...), because of this the form of the duel is different from ordinary murder - it is regulated by the rules and does not always lead to death. It was about this (violation of the rules) that I heard.
  8. Wildcat 21 March 2019 09: 45 New
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    A good book about Lermontov’s duel was recently published, not just defending Lermontov, but his opponent and the seconds are no better ... a description of how people under investigation discuss evidence without particularly hiding ...
  9. The comment was deleted.
  10. Trilobite Master 21 March 2019 10: 56 New
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    Thanks to the author for the cycle.
    Much has been written about Lermontov, including about his last duel, but it was not much information about his service officer of the current army. Read with interest.
    The behavior of the king reminds me of the behavior of the offended child - "do not play my toys and do not write in my pot." The poet's blood, including on his hands. I would not be surprised if I found out that in three hundred or five hundred years they would write in history books that the reign of Nicholas I was marked by three events - the death of Pushkin, the death of Lermontov and the defeat in the Crimean War. Actually, this emperor did nothing more for Russia.
    1. vladcub 21 March 2019 17: 35 New
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      Mikhail, you know very well that in life everything is not unambiguous and with the assessment of Nicholas 1, not everything is simple. To read Korf and other semi-official authors is boring: "White and fluffy." Soviet historians scolded him, but Adelman praised him almost positively
      1. Trilobite Master 21 March 2019 22: 08 New
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        Quote: vladcub
        not everything is the same with the assessment of Nicholas 1

        This is my personal assessment. As a person, he may have been in his own way, sincere and honest, I like such people, but as a ruler of a huge state he did not show himself. In the words of my grandfather, collecting the harvest in the fall: "He sowed the yard, took the yardstick, for the summer nothing was lost." This is just about Nicholas and his rule.
  11. Alexander Trebuntsev 21 March 2019 12: 15 New
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    Quote: Trilobite Master
    Actually, this emperor did nothing more for Russia.

    Well, judge by your minimum knowledge. Nikolay did a lot. For the most part, criticism of his rule was simply slander. The conversation is long, therefore I recommend considering his affairs in relief for the people. He discussed a lot of internal problems of Russia with Alexander I before his accession to the throne. In fact, together they developed a tactic of pressure on the nobility.
    Alexander I during his life did not pass a single state peasant to the serfs. Nikolai went even further. He gave the peasants the opportunity to free themselves from serfdom. Previously, the nobleman who liberated the peasants could be recognized as incapacitated and given the freed peasants to serfs to his relatives. Now it has become legal. The peasants could redeem themselves and the amount of payments was limited.
    In addition, since many nobles lived re-mortgaging their property and serfs in banks for decades, he forbade banks to issue loans to serfs, and then limited the re-mortgage of estates. The nobles howled. They used to live with drones, not even bothering themselves with public service, but they were gently pushed to work for the good of the fatherland, or at least to some kind of work. Peter I once introduced the obligatory service of the nobility, and Catherine II, in order to lick the nobility, removed this obligation from them. Now the good old days are gone and the ruling class did not like it.
    Many useful reforms were carried out in the Army and in the military industry. But the embittered nobility left in our memory only his unsuccessful undertakings and the nickname "Palkin". They accused him of love for the Germans, but they themselves did not want to serve.
    Yes, he did not have love for Lermontov, but why would he love him, when he and his inner circle often did not like him. But Nikolai treated Pushkin very well, although he openly admitted to the Tsar that he would support the Decembrists. And the Tsar did a lot for the Pushkin family. Do not be so one-sided. There is only white and black in the world. We have too much habit of simplifying.
    1. vladcub 21 March 2019 17: 13 New
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      Alexander Trebuntsev. You are almost right, but let me clarify: the so-called "Law on noble liberties" was first prepared by Petr3 "Petro Fedorovich", Catherine 2, you remember how she got the throne, at first she tried to "lick" the nobility and published this and more several decrees supposedly hers, but in fact these are the decrees of Peter 3.
      About Nicholas 1. After a conversation with Pushkin, Nikolai said: "Today I spoke with the smartest person in Russia."
      As you know, V. A. Zhukovsky (real surname: Zhukovskaya, he was illegitimate) was a teacher of imperial children and, at every opportunity, inserted a word in defense of Pushkin
  12. vladcub 21 March 2019 16: 49 New
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    Quote: Dead Day
    from school struck in memory: "... and it is boring and sad, and there is no one to give a hand in a minute of spiritual adversity, desire ... what is the use of wanting, in vain and forever, and the years go by ... all the best years .."

    He also remembered at school: “No, I'm not Byron,” but if you think about it, they have a lot in common.
  13. montirovka 21 March 2019 18: 26 New
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    I read it in one go. In each new article, I try to find the answer to my question: Could there be Lermontov in the Mikhailovsky fortification? In September 1837 he was in Gelendzhik. Could he and Velyaminov arrive by sea to the Mikhailovsky fortification?
  14. vladcub 21 March 2019 18: 47 New
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    The wind, let me tweak you a little: Martynov had a dagger at his BELT, and not behind his belt. On the fateful evening before the duel, it was once in the program: “Sloo Andronnikova” and there he recalled the memories of ALL eyewitnesses
  15. vladcub 21 March 2019 18: 56 New
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    Regarding the duel: Peter1 categorically forbade the duel among officers and indeed there was a death penalty for the duel for both participants and seconds, but according to historians, the law was almost not valid. By the era of Nicholas 1, some of the laws of Peter 1 formally acted, but were not actually implemented
    1. Mikhail Matyugin April 5 2019 15: 12 New
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      Quote: vladcub
      Peter1 categorically forbade a duel among officers, and indeed there was a death penalty for the duel for both participants and seconds, but according to historians, the law was almost inactive.

      The law, like much in Russia, was in effect then, but now ... but at the discretion of the authorities, a lot depended on the person’s origin and social status, his connections, degree of closeness to the authorities, etc.

      Again, not all duels ended in death, often, especially “on a white weapon”, the duel lasted only until the first blood or to a serious injury, and on pistols much depended on the distance - at long distances it was more a psychological duel with little chance of dying (smooth-bore pistols were), while at the distance of dozens of steps or even “across the table” it was a uniform murder.
  16. Karenas 21 March 2019 19: 17 New
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    Dear East Wind!
    I wrote earlier ... In the mid-50s, there was a large article in Investigative Practice devoted to some dark moments in history ... We will omit the first part of the article on the neutron bombardment of Napoleon's hair to determine arsenic poisoning ... We will also skip the second part of the article , according to Pushkin’s duel ...
    Let us dwell on the study of the third part ... It is dedicated to the duel of Lermontov ... So, in the USSR a forensic medical examination was carried out, which showed that the bullet entered the body of the poet at an angle of 15 °. The article cited opinions from that ill-fated day ... That Martynov then specially shot past Lermontov, but immediately with his shot a completely different, secretive, from the bushes was higher ... And the name of the shooter was given ... Some kind of dragoon was ... (forgot the surname ... only the ending is "sky")
    In addition, he learned from other researchers of Lermontov’s work that Martynov had denied the authorship of the ill-fated shot until the end of his life ... By the way, Martynov’s descendants changed their surname ...
  17. Grim Reaper 21 March 2019 21: 34 New
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    Thanks to the author for the cycle. I was waiting for exactly the end. Just thank you
  18. Mikhail Matyugin April 5 2019 15: 09 New
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    Thanks so much for the cycle! I read it with pleasure!

    Lermontov already then more clearly realized that the imperial court was ready to rot him in the barracks. They even try to take away even the controversial “freedom” from fighting in mountain battles in Chechnya.
    Yeah, what dishonor and stupidity on the part of the authorities of the Russian Empire - one of the best poets of Russia, if you didn’t send them to Siberia, even not allowing them freedom to fight in the Caucasus, to destroy them and simply ruin them ... It would be better if they just executed them right away - that would be faster and ... more honest, or something.

    Although the version about the fact that Martynov specifically shot to the side, and a mortal shot was fired by an unknown person from the bushes above the place of the duel, is interesting too.