Military Review

Laser weapons: ground forces and air defense. Part of 3

21
Use laser weapons in the interests of ground forces is significantly different from its use in the air force. The range of application is significantly limited: the horizon, the topography and the objects located on it. The atmospheric density at the surface is maximum, smoke, fog and other obstacles do not dissipate for a long time in calm weather. And finally, from a purely military point of view, most of the ground targets are armored, to one degree or another, and for burning armor tank not only gigawatt - terawatt capacities will be required.


In this regard, most of the ground-based laser weapons are designed for anti-aircraft and anti-missile defense (anti-aircraft / anti-missile defense) or to blind the enemy’s sights. There is also a specific use of the laser against mines and unexploded shells.

One of the first laser complexes designed for blinding the enemy's devices was the self-propelled laser complex (SLK) 1K11 Stilet, which was put into service with the Soviet army in the 1982 year. SLT "Stilet" is designed to disable optical-electronic systems of tanks, self-propelled artillery installations and other ground combat and reconnaissance vehicles, low-flying helicopters.

After the target is detected, SLT Stilet makes it laser-sensing, and after detecting optical equipment using glare lenses, hits it with a powerful laser pulse, blinding or burning out a sensitive element — a photocell, a light-sensitive matrix, or even a retina of the aiming fighter.

In 1983, the Sanguine complex, optimized for hitting air targets, was commissioned with a more compact beam guidance system and an increased speed of turnaround drives in the vertical plane.

Already after the collapse of the USSR, in 1992, the SLC 1K17 “Compression” was adopted, its distinguishing feature is the use of a multichannel laser from 12 optical channels (upper and lower rows of lenses). The multichannel scheme made it possible to make the laser setup multi-band in order to eliminate the possibility of countering the defeat of the enemy’s optics by installing filters that block the radiation of a certain wavelength.


From left to right: Stiletto SLK, Sanguin SLK, Compression SLK


Another interesting complex is Gazprom's Battle Laser, the MLTK-50 mobile laser technology complex, designed for remote cutting of pipes and metal structures. The complex is located on two machines, its main element is a gas-dynamic laser with a power of about 50 kW. As the tests showed, the laser power installed on the MLTC-50 allows cutting ship steel with a thickness of up to 120 mm from a distance of 30 m.


MLTC-50 and the results of its work


The main task in which the use of laser weapons was considered was the tasks of air defense and missile defense. To this end, the Terra-3 program was implemented in the USSR, as part of which a huge amount of work on various types of lasers was carried out. In particular, such types of lasers as solid-state lasers, photodissociation iodine lasers of high power, electric-discharge photodissociation lasers, pulse-frequency lasers of an megawatt class with electron beam ionization, and others were considered. Studies of laser optics were carried out, which made it possible to solve the problem of the formation of an extremely narrow beam and its ultra-precise targeting.

Due to the specificity of the used lasers and technologies of that time, all the laser complexes developed under the Terra-3 program were stationary, but even this did not allow the creation of a laser whose power would provide a solution to the missile defense tasks.

Almost in parallel with the program “Terra-3”, the program “Omega” was launched, within which the laser complexes were supposed to solve air defense tasks. However, the tests carried out under this program also did not allow the creation of a laser complex of sufficient power. Using previous developments, an attempt was again made to create an Omega-2 air defense laser complex on a gas-dynamic laser. During the tests, the target was hit by the RUM-2B target and several other targets, but the complex did not enter the troops. Isn't the Peresvet laser complex a resuscitation of the Omega-2 project?

Unfortunately, due to the post-perestroika degradation of domestic science and industry, not counting the mysterious Peresvet complex, there is no information about Russian-made ground-based air defense laser complexes of Russian development.

In 2017, information appeared about the placement of the Polyus Research Institute for a tender for an integral part of research work (R & D), the purpose of which is to create a mobile laser complex to combat small-sized unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in daylight and twilight conditions. The complex should consist of a tracking system and the construction of target flight paths, providing target designation for a laser radiation guidance system, the source of which will be a liquid laser. On a demonstration sample, it is required to realize detection and acquisition of a detailed image to 20 of air objects at a distance from 200 to 1500 meters, with the ability to distinguish a UAV from a bird or a cloud, it is required to perform a trajectory calculation and hit the target. The maximum contract price announced in the tender is 23,5 million rubles. Completion is scheduled for April 2018. According to the final protocol, the only participant and winner of the competition is the company "Shvabe".

What conclusions can be made on the basis of the technical task (TK) from the tender documentation? The works are carried out within the framework of research, there is no information about the completion of the work, the receipt of the result and the opening of development work (R & D). In other words, in case of successful completion of the R & D, the complex can be created allegedly in the 2020-2021 year.

The requirement to detect and hit targets during the day and at dusk means the absence of radar and thermal imaging intelligence in the complex. Estimated laser power can be estimated in 5-15 kW.

Of particular interest is the requirement for a liquid laser specified in the TOR, and at the same time the requirement for the presence of a fiber power laser in the complex. If this is not a typo, is it meant a fiber optic radiation output from a liquid laser, or has a new type of fiber laser with a liquid active medium in a fiber been developed?

In the West, the development of laser weapons in the interests of air defense has received tremendous development. The leaders can be identified the United States, Germany and Israel. However, other countries are also developing their own samples of ground-based laser weapons.

In the US, combat lasers run several companies at once, which were already mentioned in first и second articles. Almost all companies developing laser complexes initially assume that they are placed on carriers of various types - changes are made to the design that correspond to the specifics of the carrier, but the basic part of the complex remains unchanged.

We can only mention that the laser complex GDLS of the Boeing company, 5 kW, developed for the Stryker BTR, can be considered as the closest to adoption. The resulting complex was named “Stryker MEHEL 2.0”, its task is to combat small-sized UAVs in cooperation with other air defense systems. During the Maneuver Fires Integrated Experiment tests conducted in the US 2016, the Stryker MEHEL 2.0 complex hit 21 targets from the 23 running.

The latest version of the complex additionally installed electronic warfare systems (EW) to suppress communication channels and positioning of the UAV. Boeing plans to consistently increase the laser power first to 10 kW, and later to 60 kW.

In 2018, the experimental BTR "Stryker MEHEL 2.0" was transferred to the base of the 2 Cavalry Regiment of the US Army (Germany) to conduct field trials and participate in exercises.


BTR "Stryker MEHEL 2.0"



Presentation of the laser complex "Stryker MEHEL 2.0"

For Israel, air and missile defense issues are among the top priorities. Moreover, the main targets hit are not enemy aircraft and helicopters, but mortar ammunition and home-made Kassam-type missiles. Given the appearance of a huge number of civilian UAVs that can be used to move improvised aerial bombs and explosives, their defeat also becomes the task of air defense / missile defense.

The low cost of improvised weapons makes it unprofitable to defeat them with missiles.

For example, for the destruction of one homemade Qassam missile, made in artisanal conditions with costs of the order of 5 000 dollars, a volley of one or two anti-aircraft guided missiles (SAM) worth about 100 000 dollars each is needed.

In July, 2014, the militants launched two Abadil-1 (Abadil-1) UAVs of Iranian production, costing less than 50 thousand dollars per unit, in the direction of the territory of Israel. Israel’s air defense system successfully detected and shot them down, but it later turned out that it took four Patriot missiles to destroy them, costing about 3 000 000 dollars each.


In this regard, the Israeli Armed Forces had a completely understandable interest in laser weapons.

The first samples of the Israeli laser weapons date back to the mid-seventies. Like the rest of the country at the time, Israel began with chemical and gas-dynamic lasers. The most advanced sample can be considered a chemical laser THEL on deuterium fluoride up to two megawatts. On tests 2000-2001, the laser complex THEL destroyed 28 unguided missiles and 5 artillery shells, moving along ballistic trajectories.

As already mentioned, chemical lasers have no prospects, and they are interesting only from the point of view of developing technologies, therefore the THEL complex, and the Skyguard system developed on its basis, remained experimental samples.

In 2014, at the Singapore Air Show, the aerospace concern Rafael presented a prototype of an air defense / missile defense laser complex, which received the symbol “Iron Beam”. The equipment of the complex is located in one autonomous module and can be used both stationary and located on wheeled or tracked chassis.

As a means of destruction, a system of solid-state lasers with a power of 10-15 kW is used. One anti-aircraft battery of the Iron Beam complex consists of two laser systems, a guidance radar and a firing control center.

At the moment, the adoption of the system has been postponed for 2020-s. Obviously, this is due to the fact that the power of 10-15 kW is insufficient for the tasks solved by Israel's anti-aircraft defense / anti-missile defense and it needs to be increased to at least 50-100 kW.

Also there was information about the development of the defensive complex "Gideon Shield", including rocket and laser weapons, as well as EW equipment. The Gideon Shield complex is designed to protect land forces operating at the forefront, details of its characteristics are not disclosed.


Israeli laser complex air defense / missile defense "Iron Beam"


In 2012, the German company Rheinmetall tested the 50 kilowatt laser cannon, consisting of two 30 kW and 20 kW laser systems designed to intercept mortar shells in flight, as well as to destroy other ground and air targets. During the tests, a steel beam 15 mm thick was cut from a distance of one kilometer and two light UAVs were destroyed from a distance of three kilometers. The required power is gained by summing up the required number of 10-kilowatt modules.


Laser gun company Rheinmetall power 50 kilowatts, of the two laser modules for 30 kW and 20 kW



Presentation of the laser gun company Rheinmetall

A year later, on tests in Switzerland, the company demonstrated the M113 BTR with a 5 kW laser and a Tatra 8xNNXX truck with two 8 kW lasers.


M113 BTR with 5 kW laser and Tatra 8xNNXX truck with two 8 kW lasers


In 2015, at the DSEI 2015 exhibition, Rheinmetall presented the 20 kW laser module installed on the Boxer 8x8 machine.


Laser Mobile HEL Effector Wheel XX from Rheinmetall on Boxer 8x8


And at the beginning of 2019, the company Rheinmetall announced the successful testing of a combat laser complex with an 100 kW power. The complex includes a high-power source of energy, a laser radiation generator, a controlled optical resonator, forming a directed laser beam, a guidance system responsible for searching, detecting, recognizing and tracking targets, followed by guidance and holding of the laser beam. The guidance system provides a circular view of the 360 degrees sector and the vertical pointing angle of 270 degrees.

The laser complex can be placed on land, air and sea carriers, which is ensured by the modularity of the design. The equipment complies with the European set of standards EN DIN 61508 and can be integrated with the MANTIS air defense system, which is in service with the Bundeswehr.

Tests conducted in December 2018, showed high results, indicating a possible early launch of weapons into mass production. UAVs and mortar shells were used as targets for testing weapons.

Rheinmetall has consistently, year after year, developed laser technologies, and as a result, it can become one of the first manufacturers to offer commercially manufactured combat laser systems of sufficiently high power to customers.


Combat laser complex company Rheinmetall


Other countries are trying to keep up with the leaders in the development of promising models of laser weapons.

At the end of 2018, the Chinese corporation CASIC announced the start of export supplies of a short-range LW-30 air defense laser complex. The LW-30 complex is based on two machines - the combat laser itself is placed on one of them, and the airborne target detection radar on the other.

According to the manufacturer, the 30 kW laser is capable of striking UAVs, air bombs, mortar mines and other similar objects at a distance of 25 km (obvious exaggeration).


Chinese laser air defense system of short range LW-30


The Turkish military industry secretariat has successfully tested an 20 kilowatt combat laser, which is being developed as part of the ISIN project. On tests, the laser burned several types of ship armor with a thickness of 22 millimeter from a distance of 500 meters. The laser is planned to be used to destroy UAVs at a distance of up to 500 meters, to destroy improvised explosive devices at a distance of up to 200 meters.


Promotional video test of the Turkish laser complex

How will ground-based laser complexes develop and improve?

The development of ground-based combat lasers will largely correlate with their aviation brothers, adjusted for the fact that the placement of combat lasers on ground carriers is a simpler task than their integration in the design of the aircraft. Accordingly, the laser power will grow - 100 kW by 2025, 300-500 kW by 2035 and so on.

Taking into account the specifics of the ground-based theater of military operations, the complexes of smaller power 20-30kW will be in demand, but the minimum dimensions allow them to be placed as part of the weapons of armored combat vehicles.

Thus, in the period from 2025, there will be a gradual saturation of the battlefield, both with specialized combat laser complexes and modules integrated with other types of weapons.

What are the consequences of the saturation of the battlefield with lasers?

First of all, the role of high-precision weapons (WTO) is noticeably reduced, the doctrine of General Duee will once again go to the shelf.

As in the case of air-to-air and ground-to-air missiles, WTO models with optical and thermal imaging are the most vulnerable to laser weapons. PTUP type “Javelin” and its analogs will suffer, the possibilities of aerial bombs and missiles with a combined guidance system will decrease. The simultaneous use of laser defense complexes and EW complexes will further aggravate the situation.

Planning aerial bombs, especially of small diameter, with a dense layout and low speed, will become easy targets for laser weapons. In the case of the installation of laser-radiation protection, the dimensions will increase, as a result of which such aerial bombs fit less in the weapon compartments of modern combat aircraft.

Hard will have a UAV short-range. The low cost of such UAVs makes them unprofitable to defeat anti-aircraft guided missiles (missiles), and small dimensions, as shown by experience, prevent them from being hit by cannon weapons. For laser weapons such UAVs, on the contrary, are the simplest target of all.

Also, the air defense laser complexes will increase the security of military bases from mortar and artillery attacks.

Combined with the prospects outlined for combat aviation in the previous article, the possibilities for air strikes and air support will be significantly reduced. The average “check” for the defeat of a ground, especially mobile target will increase markedly. Bombs, projectiles, mortar mines and low-speed missiles will need to be improved in order to install laser-radiation protection. Advantages will receive samples of the WTO with a minimum time spent in the affected area of ​​laser weapons.

Laser defense systems, placed on tanks and other armored vehicles, will complement the active protection complexes, ensuring the destruction of missiles with thermal or optical guidance at a greater distance from the protected machine. They can also be used against ultra-small UAVs and enemy manpower. The turnaround speed of optical systems is many times higher than the turn speed of guns and machine guns, which will make it possible to hit rocket launchers and ATGM operators within a few seconds after their detection.

Lasers placed on armored combat vehicles can also be used against optical means of reconnaissance of the enemy, but due to the specific conditions of ground combat operations, effective protection measures can be provided for this, however, we will talk about this in the relevant material.

All of the above will significantly increase the role of tanks and other armored combat vehicles on the battlefield. The distance of armed clashes will largely shift to battles within the direct line of sight. The most effective weapons will be high-speed projectiles and hypersonic rockets.


The concept of 155 mm active-rocket projectile with a ramjet engine



American anti-tank missile system with hypersonic laser-guided missiles and a kinetic attack element MGM-166 "LOSAT"


In the unlikely confrontation "laser on earth" - "laser in the air" the first will always come out the winner, since the level of protection of ground equipment and the ability to place massive equipment on the surface will always be higher than in the air.
Author:
Photos used:
nevskii-bastion.ru, defense.ru, topwar.ru, militaryarms.ru
Articles from this series:
Laser weapons: technology, history, status, prospects. Part of 1
Laser weapons: prospects in the air force. Part of 2
21 comment
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. podgornovea
    podgornovea 19 March 2019 09: 28
    +1
    What teravatty!?

    "And finally, from a purely military point of view, most of the ground targets are armored, to one degree or another, and burning a tank’s armor will require not only gigawatt - terawatt power. "

    Who is going to burn armor?
    Is a tank fighting without optics? By GPS and target designation of the spotter-gunner on the target hover?
    1. Shopping Mall
      19 March 2019 09: 32
      0
      Quote: podgornovea
      What teravatty!?

      "And finally, from a purely military point of view, most of the ground targets are armored, to one degree or another, and for burning through the armor of a tank not only gigawatt - terawatt capacities will be required. "

      Tank without optics fighting? GPS and target designation artillery spotter on the target to be induced?


      Here it was meant that it was almost impossible to burn through armor. And about the optics -
      Lasers placed on armored combat vehicles can also be used against optical means of reconnaissance of the enemy, but due to the specific conditions of ground combat operations, effective protection measures can be provided for this, however, we will talk about this in the relevant material.
      1. psiho117
        psiho117 20 March 2019 12: 09
        0
        Bravo, Author!
        The article and conclusions at the end finally 100% reflect reality.
        Thanks for the work hi
  2. Professor
    Professor 19 March 2019 09: 55
    0
    What are the consequences of the saturation of the battlefield with lasers?

    The bombs and equipment will install laser defense systems reflecting the laser beam back to the laser source.

    Bombs, projectiles, mortar mines and low-speed missiles will need to be improved in order to install laser-radiation protection.

    Fine and fast steering mirrors
    1. Shopping Mall
      19 March 2019 10: 09
      +2
      Quote: Professor
      What are the consequences of the saturation of the battlefield with lasers?

      The bombs and equipment will install laser defense systems reflecting the laser beam back to the laser source.


      The idea is certainly interesting, but it is hardly possible.
      Reflect all does not work, the more focused beam - scattered.
      It is difficult to determine the exact direction to the source of the beam, a small area for triangulation.
      There will be no space on bombs / missiles for this system, what to put it instead of a head of guidance?
      On the technique, but where to put, at what point, what size? If I understood correctly, the guidance systems work as a beam not only on the target, but on the section on the target.
      1. Old Skeptic
        Old Skeptic 19 March 2019 11: 58
        +3
        Quote: AVM
        It is difficult to determine the exact direction to the source of the beam, a small area for triangulation.
        There will be no space on bombs / missiles for this system, what to put it instead of a head of guidance?


        Oh, I'm belittling you. It is enough to polish the shells and at least 50% of the radiation will be reflected (do not care where), and if you spray more reflective metal then even more, plus most of the shells in flight constantly rotating change the point of destruction (heating), plus the angle of destruction on the flight path of the projectile.
        And how many problems will the smoke bring to the battlefield, and all sorts of smoke screens?
        1. DimerVladimer
          DimerVladimer 19 March 2019 15: 05
          +2
          Quote: Old Skeptic
          Oh, I'm belittling you. It is enough to polish the shells and at least 50% of the radiation will be reflected (do not care where)


          Apparently they did not see the work of an industrial laser - it is useless to polish.
          [media = https: //ok.ru/video/6738740604]
          Large thickness graphite or tungsten shell :))
      2. Professor
        Professor 19 March 2019 12: 08
        -1
        Quote: AVM
        The idea is certainly interesting, but it is hardly possible.
        Reflect all does not work, the more focused beam - scattered.
        It is difficult to determine the exact direction to the source of the beam, a small area for triangulation.

        In fact, it is enough just to cover the target (mine) with a reflex coating and the laser's effectiveness will disappear.

        Quote: AVM
        There will be no space on bombs / missiles for this system, what to put it instead of a head of guidance?

        Of course, fiction, but corner reflectors return the beam back.

        Quote: AVM
        On the technique, but where to put, at what point, what size? If I understood correctly, the guidance systems work as a beam not only on the target, but on the section on the target.

        As you wrote above, laser technology is not a threat. Do not burn his armor.

        For articles my "plus". good Read with pleasure. all the more so now I work with lasers and therefore the impression from the articles has increased even more.
  3. Nicholas C.
    Nicholas C. 19 March 2019 12: 09
    +1
    In the previous article you did not answer immediately, then I will write my answer here.
    Quote: AVM
    By the 40, the laser power of a kilowatt will be brought to 300, it will fire it with the flap, this will have to be wrapped up in the entire rocket in thermal protection. At a distance of 50 km the spot will be on the order of 10 cm in diameter, which are there tenths of a millimeter.
    Why should you wait for the 2040 of the year to buy a laser with a power of 300kW, if you can buy a laser with a power of 500kW right now? https://www.ipgphotonics.com/ru/products/lasers/nepreryvnye-lazery-vysokoy-moshchnosti/1-mikron/yls-1120-kvt#[yls-do-500-kvt] Something is not right with your review and forecasts.
    If we simply take the ratio of the power density in the fiber laser aperture (according to the link provided, let it be 500 nm) to the power density in the spot 100 mm (10 cm), then 0.0005x0005 / (100X100) = 0,000000000025 This is the power density drop coefficient. Multiply it by your 300kW. And that's not counting power dissipation in the atmosphere. What are you going to hit with such a power density (or at least fry)? For technological purposes, laser radiation from such an aperture is first collimated and then focused. And what kind of optical scheme for shooting down air-to-air missiles with a spot on a target with a diameter of 100 mm do you imagine?

    2. With a fairly decent angular resolution in centimeter radars with a distance measurement is not so good. The huge ground radar Gamma 1 has an error of measuring the distance - 50 (IMHO plus or minus 50). For the Irbis airborne radar (from Su-35), this characteristic is simply not given. For guided missiles it is not so important. Are you going to focus the beam, measuring the range with such precision?

    3. It is a pity that with questions about the drive, etc. You just jumped off:
    Quote: AVM
    I cannot analyze, to the smallest detail, all the questions that are developed by companies with a staff of tens of thousands of people and a budget of billions of dollars.
    But you write a review about it. And this is the most interesting. If for the destruction of an object the beam on it needs to be focused and held at the focal point for the necessary time? And this is more important than simply increasing the power of lasers.

    According to today's article, only a couple of nuances.
    1. About the legends about lasers from "Astrophysics" good article: https://www.popmech.ru/weapon/11215-vyzhigatel-samokhodnye-lazernye-kompleksy/#part0
    2. About the legends of lasers from TRINITY.
    Quote: AVM
    Gazprom's Battle Laser is a MLTK-50 mobile laser technology system designed for remote cutting of pipes and metal structures. The complex is located on two machines, its main element is a gas-dynamic laser with a power of about 50 kW. As the tests showed, the laser power installed on the MLTC-50 allows cutting ship steel with a thickness of up to 120 mm from a distance of 30 m.
    You write about the cut steel in 120mm, and in the illustration give a sample with a thickness of no more than 10mm. How so? Do not give such characteristics: power consumption of the laser 750kW!, working time - 4min, break - 20min. Will you ask the enemy to smoke or, like the Americans, to enter into negotiations? The problem of cutting off the derricks of burning wells is big. But what is the industry actually using to solve it? It appears from your article that Gazprom, given its relevance, once paid for a model (even a prototype), it was shown something (tests). The installation did not go into production.
    3.
    Quote: AVM
    developed a new type of fiber laser with a liquid active medium in the fiber?
    Because everyone knows the device of the fiber laser resonator, and even I, it is curious to know your opinion in the form of a shemka, where there may be a liquid active medium.

    Well, somehow, and the rest of the review.
    1. Shopping Mall
      19 March 2019 12: 22
      +2
      Quote: Nikolay S.
      In the previous article you did not answer immediately, then I will write my answer here.
      Quote: AVM
      By the 40, the laser power of a kilowatt will be brought to 300, it will fire it with the flap, this will have to be wrapped up in the entire rocket in thermal protection. At a distance of 50 km the spot will be on the order of 10 cm in diameter, which are there tenths of a millimeter.
      Why should you wait for the 2040 of the year to buy a laser with a power of 300kW, if you can buy a laser with a power of 500kW right now?
      https://www.ipgphotonics.com/ru/products/lasers/nepreryvnye-lazery-vysokoy-moshchnosti/1-mikron/yls-1120-kvt#[yls-do-500-kvt] Something is not right with your review and forecasts.


      A civilian laser and a military laser are not the same thing, a reduction in size, a more compact removal of parasitic heat, and a system for converging rays and focusing just for longer distances will be required.

      Industrial fiber lasers are very powerful. IPG recently sold a 100 kW laser to the NADEX research laser center in Japan. He is able to weld metal parts as thick as 30 cm. But for the sake of such power, one has to sacrifice the ability to focus the beam at distances. Tools for cutting and welding need to work with objects located just a few centimeters from them. And the highest power that was achieved from a fiber laser with a beam suitable for focusing on objects located hundreds of meters away from them is 10 kW. But this is also enough for fixed targets like unexploded projectiles left on the battlefield, since the laser can be focused on explosives for quite a long time until it detonates.

      Of course, 10 kW will not be able to stop the boat carrying a bomb. The demonstration for the Navy at the USS Ponce used six industrial fiber lasers from IPG, each of which had power in 5,5 kW, firing through the same telescope to form a beam in 30 kW. But it will not be possible to get a beam with a power of 100 kW, capable of maintaining the focus needed to destroy fast-moving remote targets, simply adding light from additional industrial lasers and increasing the size of the telescope. For this, the Pentagon needed a single system capable of producing 100 kW. The laser had to track the movement of the target, focusing on a weak spot like an engine or explosive, until the beam destroys it.

      Unfortunately, this is not possible with the current approach.

      “If I could create a 100 kW laser based on a single fiber cable, that would be great, but I can't,” says Afzal of Lockheed. “It’s not possible to scale a single fiber to high energy.”

      Such power requires new technology, he adds. The leading candidate is the combination of the rays of a multitude of individual fiber lasers in some more controlled way than the simple direction of all the rays through a single telescope. And in this area two approaches look promising.

      One idea is to precisely equalize the phases of light waves emanating from several fiber lasers so that they fold and form a single, more powerful beam. The light waves in each laser are coherent, that is, they move equally with each other - all the waves have peaks and troughs. In principle, the coherent alignment of the rays of several different lasers should create a powerful beam that could be focused on targets located several kilometers away. Phased antenna arrays can combine the coherent output of several radio transmitters, but this is much more difficult to do with light. The wavelength of light is orders of magnitude shorter - on the order of a micrometer, unlike centimeters in the case of radar - because of which it becomes extremely difficult to precisely combine the waves so that they constructively fold and not interfere.

      Another approach involves ignoring the phases and combining the rays from many fiber lasers equipped with optics, which limit the light they emit in one short segment of the spectrum. As a result, each beam has its own, excellent wavelength. As a result, their combination produces a beam with a large spread of wavelengths, and its components do not interfere with each other. This technique is called “spectral beam combining,” and was adopted from the technology of spectral channel multiplexing, which turned out to be extremely successful in cramming more data into existing fiber-optic communication channels.

      For the introduction of this technology in Lockheed developed a special optics, deflecting the rays of individual fiber lasers at angles that depend on the wavelength - as the prism separates the colors of the spectrum. After that, the rays combine to form a single beam. In 2014, the company “created and tested a 30 kW laser for its money to deal with physics and engineering fundamentals,” says Afzal. The system combined 96 rays with different wavelengths of 300 W each into a single beam with a total power of 30 kW. At relatively low energies, lasers emit high-quality beams, so they are easier to combine to produce a high-energy beam at the output than to build one high-energy laser with the same beam quality as Afzal asserts.

      Last year, Lockheed was able to scale this technology to 60 kW, when it introduced a model for installation on a military truck, prepared to participate in battles. This laser "set a world record for the effectiveness of military solid-state lasers, exceeding 40% the bar," says Adam Aberle, head of the development and demonstration of high-energy lasers technology. With such efficiency, a laser system with a beam of power 100 kW produces less than 150 kW of parasitic heat. Contrast this with the 400 kW of parasitic heat, which was generated by a laser made using a different technology in 2009 by Northrop Grumman.
    2. Shopping Mall
      19 March 2019 12: 42
      0
      Quote: Nikolay S.
      And what optical scheme for churning air-to-air missiles with a spot on a target with a diameter of 100 mm do you imagine?


      No, let the developers think about it.

      Quote: Nikolay S.
      2. With a fairly decent angular resolution in centimeter radars with a distance measurement is not so good. The huge ground radar Gamma 1 has an error of measuring the distance - 50 (IMHO plus or minus 50). For the Irbis airborne radar (from Su-35), this characteristic is simply not given. For guided missiles it is not so important. Are you going to focus the beam, measuring the range with such precision?


      You can measure the distance with a laser rangefinder.

      Quote: Nikolay S.
      3. It is a pity that with questions about the drive, etc. You just jumped off:
      Quote: AVM
      I cannot analyze, to the smallest detail, all the questions that are developed by companies with a staff of tens of thousands of people and a budget of billions of dollars.
      But you write a review about it. And this is the most interesting. If for the destruction of an object the beam on it needs to be focused and held at the focal point for the necessary time? And this is more important than simply increasing the power of lasers.


      For 10 people from 1000, and the complexity of the article will increase exponentially, and the remaining 990 people in general will not read it.

      Is there anyone in Russia who can give answers to these questions? In order to answer them, it is necessary to deeply work out the topic, perhaps for years.

      Quote: Nikolay S.
      1. About the legends about lasers from "Astrophysics" good article: https://www.popmech.ru/weapon/11215-vyzhigatel-samokhodnye-lazernye-kompleksy/#part0


      I did not claim that this is an effective weapon, but these are stages of development, at least some work was done, then there was no necessary technological reserve.

      Quote: Nikolay S.
      2. About the legends of lasers from TRINITY.
      Quote: AVM
      Gazprom's Battle Laser is a MLTK-50 mobile laser technology system designed for remote cutting of pipes and metal structures. The complex is located on two machines, its main element is a gas-dynamic laser with a power of about 50 kW. As the tests showed, the laser power installed on the MLTC-50 allows cutting ship steel with a thickness of up to 120 mm from a distance of 30 m.
      You write about the cut steel in 120mm, and in the illustration give a sample with a thickness of no more than 10mm. How so? Do not give such characteristics: power consumption of the laser 750kW!, working time - 4min, break - 20min. Will you ask the enemy to smoke or, like the Americans, to enter into negotiations? The problem of cutting off the derricks of burning wells is big. But what is the industry actually using to solve it? It appears from your article that Gazprom, given its relevance, once paid for a model (even a prototype), it was shown something (tests). The installation did not go into production.


      Did I suggest its use for military purposes? This is more likely a demonstration of our lack of opportunities to create solid-state and fiber lasers. In all articles, I argue that gas-dynamic and chemical lasers are a dead end.
      Actually, "Peresvet" confuses me because of its secrecy. Either a true breakthrough - secret technologies, nuclear power plants as a power source, or technologies of the last century - GDL or HL, that's a shame to tell.

      Quote: Nikolay S.
      3.
      Quote: AVM
      developed a new type of fiber laser with a liquid active medium in the fiber?
      Because everyone knows the device of the fiber laser resonator, and even I, it is curious to know your opinion in the form of a shemka, where there may be a liquid active medium.


      This is of course my speculation. Presumably - a liquid medium - what is indicated as an active fiber, the remaining components are preserved. Estimated benefits - the possibility of pumping the active medium to ensure effective cooling.

      However, it is at this point that I am ready to admit that this does not correspond to reality and stupidity in general.
      I was interested in the discrepancy in the TZ, in which it is unambiguous in several points that a liquid laser is indicated as a power laser, and a fiber laser in one point.

      Quote: Nikolay S.
      Well, somehow, and the rest of the review.


      You did not see the most important thing, that the company "Rinmetall" is already, for example, close to a serial product, and it did not come from anywhere like "Peresvet", but you can follow the development of the program.
  4. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 19 March 2019 16: 31
    +1
    Well, I don’t know ... they chewed everything up in such detail .... what Well, how can I insert my altyn? request Well, let's take a shoe ... I. I already complained last time that the "megawatnik" laser created "under Gorbachev" was ignored in vain! And this time the "megawatt" laser is mentioned in passing. Or maybe in vain? After all, this "Gorbachev" laser left a mark on history! After all, as the legend says, "this laser was tested on the American shuttle! Of course, they did not check the possibility of destroying the shuttle (although .... the result is inspiring! fellow ). and the possibility of tracking the "spaceplane" ... That's why they turned on the power "half"! However, the astronauts felt unwell and noted malfunctions in the onboard equipment. Then came the "crying of astronauts" to their leadership and Washington's "political demarches" towards Moscow ... This is how the glorious "pro-Soviet" legend says ...
    Another "motive" for using lasers is not mentioned! In the period of SOI-hype, along with lasers, much was said about "beam" weapons: electronic, proton, neutron "guns". The easiest way is to create an electronic "blaster", but there are problems of aiming and concentrating the electron beam in the atmosphere ... This is where the laser comes to the rescue. If I am not mistaken, it is the UV range that the laser "breaks through" the ionized channel in the atmosphere, through which the electron beam reaches the target clearly and in a straight line ... fellow
    II. The author's conviction that the laser will "bury" the missiles! I think ... we can't wait! The author, of course, mentions "anti-laser armor", but believes that it is she who will "strangle" missile weapons "as a class"! Remember the sad fate of battleships! Interesting .... when will it reach the Author that "anti-laser" protection may not be "an analogue of heavy armor"! I have already mentioned some means of "missile countermeasures" ... Among other things, it is possible to use "anti-laser" missiles (as now there are anti-radar missiles ...) in heat-resistant housings made of mirror "glass-ceramics, for example ... with a" corner " profile, with an engine that accelerates the "counter-ammunition" to "hypersound" or to speeds close to "hypersonic" ... I think that it is even possible to organize a discussion of supporters of the "laser sword" and "anti-laser shield" at VO. ... like: "and I'll hit you with a laser like that ...! And I will put up such protection! Let it be a surprise for you! "
    1. Shopping Mall
      19 March 2019 20: 26
      0
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      II. The author's conviction that the laser will "bury" the missiles! I think ... we can't wait! The author, of course, mentions "anti-laser armor", but believes that it is she who will "strangle" missile weapons "as a class"! Remember the sad fate of battleships! Interesting .... when will it reach the Author that "anti-laser" protection may not be "an analogue of heavy armor"! I have already mentioned earlier some means of "missile countermeasures" ... Among other things, it is possible to use "anti-laser" missiles (as now there are anti-radar missiles ...) in heat-resistant housings made of mirror "glass-ceramics, for example, ... with a" corner " profile, with an engine that accelerates the "counter-ammunition" to "hypersound" or to speeds close to "hypersonic" ..


      Do not strangle, but reduce efficiency, literally:

      opportunities for air strikes and air support will be significantly reduced. The average “check” for the defeat of a ground, especially mobile target will increase markedly. Bombs, projectiles, mortar mines and low-speed missiles will need to be improved in order to install laser-radiation protection. Advantages will receive samples of the WTO with a minimum time spent in the affected area of ​​laser weapons.


      The appearance of high-power lasers on airplanes will “nullify” all existing man-portable air defense missile systems (MANPADS) with the “Igla” or “Stinger” type, significantly reduce the capabilities of an air defense missile with optical or heat-guided missiles, will require an increase in the number of missiles in the salvo. Most likely, the laser can also hit the long-range ground-to-air missiles, i.e. their consumption when shooting at an airplane equipped with a laser weapon will also increase.

      The use of anti-laser protection on air-to-air missiles and to ground-to-air missiles will make them heavier and larger, which will affect their range and maneuvering characteristics.


      I did not express categorical judgments that the laser would completely bury the rockets and shells. It will force to update the arsenals - yes, it will create big problems for optical and thermal seekers (possibly fatal), it will require a larger number of ammunition in the salvo in order to penetrate the air defense / missile defense system. And this is despite the fact that the situation will change radically when an expensive antimissile hit a cheap mine or a homemade missile.

      And about hypersonic ammunition -
      The most effective weapons will be high-speed projectiles and hypersonic rockets.

      But they will not be cheap.
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 20 March 2019 05: 14
        0
        Quote: AVM
        I did not express categorical judgments that the laser would completely bury the rockets and shells.

        I agree ! Didn't express (!) ... here, I somewhat exaggerated the situation for polemical effect! But, nevertheless, you "categorically" stated that the "anti-laser" protection: a). Will cost the missiles dearly and b). Will significantly (!) Reduce the effectiveness, performance characteristics of missiles! My opinion was that the "situation" for missiles may not be as "sadly fatal" as you paint! One cannot but agree with you ... indeed, the successes in the development of laser weapons, the widespread use of these in the troops, will inevitably cause "missile rearmament"! But, as one Deutsche officer said: "The devil is not so terrible as his baby!" In modern conditions, weapons still quickly become obsolete, they have to be replaced more often, the new "generation" of weapons, as a rule, is more expensive than the previous one! The trend, however! And they won't be in a hurry to get rid of the old weapon ... maybe it will be useful to drive the "barmaley"?
  5. bk0010
    bk0010 19 March 2019 21: 30
    0
    Speaking of missile defense. If the Jews really learned to accompany the Kassam with a laser beam, then why don't they take an ordinary cannon anti-aircraft gun (like in World War II) and equip it with a laser-guided projectile (like Krasnopol)? PUAZO, even during the Second World War, will launch a projectile in the vicinity of the target, and the laser spot and controllability of the projectile will ensure defeat (well, yes, PUAZO is not quite suitable, but in the 21st century there are normal systems with a radar and a computer). And it is not a trick to increase the channelization: a "laser pointer" is an inexpensive thing, the question is in the mechanics of target tracking.
    1. Shopping Mall
      19 March 2019 22: 17
      0
      Quote: bk0010
      Speaking of missile defense. If the Jews really learned to accompany the Kassam with a laser beam, then why don't they take an ordinary cannon anti-aircraft gun (like in World War II) and equip it with a laser-guided projectile (like Krasnopol)? PUAZO, even during the Second World War, will launch a projectile in the vicinity of the target, and the laser spot and controllability of the projectile will ensure defeat (well, yes, PUAZO is not quite suitable, but in the 21st century there are normal systems with a radar and a computer). And it is not a trick to increase the channelization: a "laser pointer" is an inexpensive thing, the question is in the mechanics of target tracking.


      Because a projectile with laser homing and the ability to realize overloads to intercept air targets will be very expensive, not much cheaper than an anti-missile. He and the usual "Krasnopol" cost 5-10 thousand $. And he needs to intercept mines and homemade missiles for $ 50-100
      1. bk0010
        bk0010 20 March 2019 00: 53
        0
        Yesterday, it seems, the prices were quoted: Qassam -5000 $, anti-missile - 100000 $.
        1. Shopping Mall
          20 March 2019 11: 38
          +1
          Quote: bk0010
          Yesterday, it seems, the prices were quoted: Qassam -5000 $, anti-missile - 100000 $.


          Yes, everything is correct, I found such information about Qassam. But I doubt that the mine to the 60 mm mortar, produced by a huge batch, costs more than 50-100 dollars.

          However, I found in the network the order of numbers on US ammunition. As I understand it, the data are partially real, partially estimated, prices in $:

          200 - 60 mm high-explosive / smoke mine
          400 - 81 mm high-explosive / smoke mine
          200 - 105 mm shot, simple high-explosive projectile
          600 - 155 mm shot, simple high-explosive projectile
          4 000 - 155 mm shot, advanced high-explosive shell
          50 000 - 155 mm shot, guided projectile
          2 000 - light bombshell
          4 000 - the main bomb
          20 000 - light guided bombs
          40 000 - main guided bomb
          100 000 - heavy guided bomb
          50 000 - anti-radar missile
          150 000 - short-range air-to-surface missile
          250 000 - medium-range missile / anti-ship missiles
          600 000 - mid-range air-to-surface missile
          750 000 - long-range missile / anti-ship missiles
          750 000 - the main long-range cruise missile
          40 000 - ATGM missile with homing on thermal imager
          10 000 - MANPADS Rocket with Infrared GOS
          80 000 - melee air-to-air missile
          200 000 - medium-range air-to-air missile
          500 000 - medium range anti-ship missile
          500 000 - light airborne cruise missile
          1500 000 - the main airborne cruise missile
          300 000 - medium-range maneuverable air-to-air missile
          1500 000 - heavy missiles
          3000 000 - lightweight anti-missile
  6. The comment was deleted.
  7. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 22 March 2019 00: 08
    0
    Thanks to the author, an interesting review article. And the author's additions in the comments. good
  8. Shopping Mall
    3 August 2019 10: 28
    0
    The U.S. Army has signed a contract with Northrop Grumman and Raytheon to create 50 kW laser weapons to equip Stryker combat vehicles that are being converted for a short-range air defense mission (M-SHORAD):

    http://forum.militaryparitet.com/viewtopic.php?id=25733
  9. Shopping Mall
    7 August 2019 08: 33
    0
    The advent of battle lasers. 4 July 2019 years - https://topwar.ru/160925-prishestvie-boevyh-lazerov-4-ijulja-2019-goda.html