The first five-year plan fell on 1928-1932, the second on 1933-1937, the third began in 1938 and was to end in 1942, but the implementation of all plans of this period was prevented by the attack of the Third Reich in June 1941. However, the Union stood the test of war. At the end of 1942, our country produced more weapons than Hitler’s “European Union” —Germany and its united Europe.
It was a real Soviet miracle. The country, which in the 1920-ies was an agrarian country with a weak industry, has become an industrial giant. In the USSR, created thousands of large enterprises, dozens of new industries. Already in 1937, more than 80% of industrial products were produced in new factories. In terms of industrial output, the Union ranked second in the world, second only to the United States, and first in Europe, overtaking such strong industrial powers as Germany and the United Kingdom.
Given the fact that Soviet Russia was constantly under the pressure of a new war with the West or Japan, a lot of effort and money had to be spent on developing the military-industrial complex in order to equip the army with new weapons and equipment: airplanes, tanks, ships, guns, air defense systems, etc. The threat of attack from the West and East predetermined the accelerated development, its mobilization character.
"Industrialization - the path to socialism." Poster. Artist S. Ageev. Xnumx
At the same time there was a threat from within - from the side of the “fifth column” (Why were needed Stalinist repression). From the very beginning, the Bolsheviks (Russian Communists) had two wings: the Bolsheviks-statesmen headed by Stalin and the revolutionaries-internationalists, cosmopolitans, Trotsky was the leading figure among them. For the latter, Russia and the people were “dung” for the realization of the plans of the world revolution, the creation of a new world order based on false communism (Marxism), which was one of the scenarios of the Western masters for creating a global slave-owning civilization. This is the "secret of 1937 of the year." Russian communists were able to take up over the cosmopolitan internationalists. Most of the "fifth column", including its military wing, was destroyed, some hid, "repainted." This allowed us to prepare for a world war and win it.
During industrialization, much attention was paid to the spatial development of Russia. The development of the Urals and Siberia. Already on the eve of the adoption of the first five-year plan, they planned to place strategic production there. This speaks, firstly, of the need to develop Russian expanses in the east of the country. Secondly, the Kremlin’s understanding of the fact that the traditional industrial areas of Russia in the west of the country — Leningrad, the Baltic States, Ukraine — are vulnerable to enemy invasion. In the future, this policy was continued. In 1939, a new program for the construction of backup plants outside the Urals and in Siberia was adopted. Also in the east, they created a new agrarian base of the country. In 1934, the task was to create a powerful agricultural base beyond the Volga.
They attached great importance to the country's connectivity and the construction of new transport arteries. In particular, they developed communications linking the European part of Russia with the northern and eastern regions of Siberia. Created the Northern Sea Route. Air transport was also developed in these regions, which was subsequently based on small aviation. The campaigns of the Krasin icebreakers (formerly Svyatogor) and Chelyuskin, Chkalov’s flights and other significant events were not only individual heroic milestones, but a chain of events for the consistent development of the Russian North. Soviet Russia systematically mastered the vast expanses of the Russian Arctic and Siberia.
The Soviet Union 20-s was a poor, agrarian country, which barely overcame the devastation, the huge losses of the First World War and the Civil War. Russia was robbed, having survived the period of the most massive plundering of the country in its stories. Therefore, it was extremely difficult to industrialize; there was a catastrophic lack of money.
Later, they created a liberal myth that Stalin’s industrialization had to be carried out by plundering the Russian countryside and “tightening the belts” of the whole country. But these statements are not true. The impoverished village of 20, already devastated and looted during the world and civil wars, intervention, peasant war, simply could not provide such means. On the whole, the people were poor. Russia has already been robbed. It is clear that there is some truth in these statements, inflated to the whole anti-Soviet myth. It is obvious that the period of mobilization suggested “tightening the belts,” and the carrying out of industrialization temporarily slowed down the pace of raising the people's welfare. However, the standard of living of the people grew from year to year, and with the emergence of hundreds of new factories and plants, the construction of roads and power plants, etc., the growth of welfare increased. These were long-term investments, which formed the basis of the well-being of the lives of many generations of people in the USSR-Russia, including the current ones.
The main source of funds was that the Russian Communists no longer allowed Westerners to parasitize Russian wealth. Gave shortened both external and internal parasites. For example, this is precisely the reason for the current poverty of the majority of the population of Russia and Ukraine. Capitalism is a parasitic, predatory, unjust system. The poor all the time get poorer, and the rich get richer. Therefore, in Russia from year to year there are more and more billionaires and multimillionaires, and more and more poor and poor. This is an axiom. The oligarchs and the bureaucracy involved in the robbery of the country, their entourage, get richer by capturing 80-90% of the country's wealth, and the rest exist, survive.
As soon as the process of robbery from inside and outside was stopped in Soviet Russia, funds were immediately found for industrialization, the creation of powerful armed forces, the development of education, science and culture. Nothing has changed in the present. There is no development, “no money,” as Russian riches are devoured by external and internal parasites.
The lack of wealthy classes, the “elect” parasitizing the masses, also saved money in the country. Since the capital, the money was not exported from Russia and was not spent on overconsumption, the pleasures of the “elite”. The criminal world was also pressed, they did not allow officials to steal, they were severely punished for it. At the same time, during the “great purge”, it was possible to return a part of the capital, money, which the representatives of the “elite” had previously taken abroad. These funds also went on development. Thus, the main source of financial resources for development is the cessation of the plunder of the country from within and from without.
It is clear that the funds were collected by other methods: the USSR led foreign trade, sold certain goods and raw materials; for the sake of a great cause, cultural and historical values were sold (later, some were able to return), the Soviet government resorted to state loans (1941 had 60 million subscribers in 2), the average citizen of the USSR occupied the state equal to 3 wages, etc. d.
The secret of the Stalinist economy was that the resources under Stalin were used much more rationally than after it. For example, in the field of armaments. Thus, the German military and political leadership during the Second World War sprayed funds and resources, chased a lot of "hares". Dozens of repeating works were conducted in the German military complex. In the Soviet economy of Stalin's time, all forces concentrated on several major breakthrough directions.For example, this is an atomic project, the creation of an air defense system. After the Great War, the Soviet Union did not begin to ruin itself with an unpromising race from the USA, the West, to build hundreds of heavy bombers - “flying fortresses”, dozens of aircraft carriers. The Kremlin has found a cheaper and more effective response - intercontinental ballistic missiles with nuclear warheads. Stalin did not live to see their first launches, but it was he who started the project.
In the Stalinist USSR, they were able to save not only in the military sphere. Thus, in the Stalin years, priority was given to the construction of small inter-collective farm hydropower plants, which provided cheap electricity. Mini-hydropower plants saved oil and coal, did not cause as much environmental damage as large hydropower plants.
In the Stalinist USSR, the system of providing the village with agricultural machinery was well thought out. So that every collective or state farm does not spend on its own technical staff, fleet of equipment, so that it does not stand idle, but works with full dedication, MTS were created - machine-tractor stations that served several collective farms at once. After Stalin, under Khrushchev, MTS was liquidated, immediately made agriculture very expensive.
Another example of the Stalinist government’s rational approach to the problems of the development of the national economy is the plan for the transformation of nature. Comprehensive program of scientific regulation of nature in the country, which began to be implemented at the end of 1940 - the beginning of 1950-s. The plan was adopted in 1948 year under the influence of drought and famine 1946-1947. It was based on afforestation to protect the fields, the introduction of grassland crop rotations, irrigation - the construction of ponds and reservoirs to ensure high yields in the steppe and forest-steppe areas. This plan had no analogues in the world. For example, in the European part of Russia they planned to plant forest belts in order to stop dry winds (hot southeastern winds) and change the climate on the 120 area of millions of hectares (these are several large European countries combined). In particular, large protective forest belts planned to be planted along the banks of the Volga, Don, Seversky Donets, Khopyra, Ural and other rivers.
Forest shelter belts, reservoirs and the introduction of grassland crop rotations were supposed to protect the southern regions of the USSR-Russia - the Volga region, Little Russia, the Caucasus and Northern Kazakhstan, from sand and dust storms, droughts. This also led to higher yields, a solution to the problem of food security. In addition to the state forest protective belts, forests of local importance were planted around the perimeter of the fields, along the slopes of ravines, along existing and new reservoirs, on sandy terrain, to fix it. Also introduced progressive methods of processing fields; the correct system of application of organic and mineral fertilizers; sowing of selected seeds of high-yielding varieties that have been adapted to local conditions. There was the introduction of grassland farming system, when part of the field was sown with perennial herbs. They served as feed for livestock and a natural means of restoring soil fertility.
Thousands of new reservoirs dramatically improved the environment, strengthened the system of waterways, settled the flow of many rivers, gave the country a huge amount of cheap electricity, which is so necessary for industrialization and agricultural development, improved irrigation opportunities for fields and gardens. New reservoirs were used for breeding fish, which also solved the problem of feeding the population, strengthened food security. Also, new reservoirs have improved the situation with fire safety.
Thus, the USSR solved the problem of food security and from the second half of the 1960-s could start selling domestic grain and meat abroad. In addition, new forest belts and ponds should significantly diversify, restore the living world (flora and fauna). I.e Stalin's plan provided for both the solution of economic and environmental problems. At the same time, it was very important that the European (Russian) part of the USSR was developing. The Russian village with such a plan was promising, had a future.
The results of the program were excellent: an increase in grain yield by 20-25%, vegetables - by 50-75%, herbs - by 100-200%. A strong feed base for livestock was created, there was a significant increase in the production of meat, fat, milk, eggs, wool. Forest stripes protected southern Russia from dust storms. For example, Ukraine-Ukraine has forgotten about them. Unfortunately, with the current barbaric destruction of forests in Ukraine, including forest belts, they will soon become commonplace again in the southern part of Russia-Russia.
Under Khrushchev's “restructuring-1”, many rational and long-term Stalinist plans were curtailed. The Stalinist plan for the transformation of nature, which promised so many positive results for the country, was also forgotten. Moreover, Khrushchev put forward his radical, ill-conceived and destructive plan: a dramatic expansion of the acreage due to the development of virgin lands. The results were sad. Extensive methods caused a short-term sharp increase in yield, and then led to the destruction of the soil, environmental disaster and food crisis in the USSR. Moscow began to buy grain abroad.
Soviet poster dedicated to the implementation of the Stalinist plan for the transformation of nature
To be continued ...