Military Review

Laser weapons: technology, history, status, prospects. Part of 1

66
Laser weapon always causes a lot of controversy. Some consider it the weapon of the future, others categorically deny the likelihood of the appearance of effective samples of such weapons in the near future. People thought about laser weapons even before their actual appearance, let us recall the classic work “Hyperboloid of Engineer Garin” Alexei Tolstoy (of course, the product doesn’t indicate a laser, but close to it in terms of the effect and consequences of using a weapon).


The creation of a real laser in the 50-x - 60-s of the XX century again raised the topic of laser weapons. For decades, it has become an indispensable attribute of science fiction films. Real success was much more modest. Yes, lasers occupied an important niche in reconnaissance and target designation systems, are widely used in industry, but their power was still insufficient for use as a means of destruction, and their weight and size characteristics are unacceptable. How did laser technology evolve, how ready are they for military use now?

The first active laser was created in 1960 year. It was a pulsed solid-state ruby ​​laser. At the time of creation, it was the highest technology. Nowadays, such a laser can be assembled at home, and its pulse energy can reach 100 j.


Diagram of the first artificial ruby ​​laser



A self-made artificial ruby ​​laser with 5 j pulse energy and a coin shot through with seven pulses of this laser, a laser built by @Laserbuilder, they are planning to create a similar laser with pulse energy up to 100 j


The nitrogen laser is even simpler to implement, it does not require complex purchased products, it can even work on nitrogen contained in the atmosphere. With straight arms, it can be easily assembled at home.

Laser weapons: technology, history, status, prospects. Part of 1

Homemade nitrogen laser made by Jarrod Kinsey



The process of self-assembly and demonstration of the nitrogen laser

Since the creation of the first laser found a huge number of ways to produce laser radiation. There are solid-state lasers, gas lasers, dye lasers, free electron lasers, fiber lasers, semiconductor and other lasers. Also, lasers differ in their mode of excitation. For example, in gas lasers of various designs, the excitation of the active medium can be carried out by optical radiation, discharge of electric current, chemical reaction, nuclear pumping, thermal pumping (gas dynamic lasers, GDL). The advent of semiconductor lasers gave rise to DPSS (Diode-pumped solid-state laser) diode-pumped lasers.

Various designs of lasers make it possible to obtain radiation of different wavelengths, from soft X-rays, to infrared radiation. Lasers emitting hard X-rays and gamma lasers are under development. This allows you to select the laser on the basis of the problem being solved. Regarding military use, this means, for example, the possibility of choosing a laser, with radiation of a wavelength that is minimally absorbed by the planet's atmosphere.

Since the development of the first prototype, the power has continuously grown, the weight and size characteristics and the efficiency of lasers have improved. This is clearly seen in the example of laser diodes. In the 90-ies of the last century, laser pointers with a power of 2-5 mW appeared on the market; in 2005-2010, you could already buy a laser pointer 200-300 mW; W. In Russia, in the open market there are modules of infrared laser diodes with fiber-optic output, optical power 2019 W.


Laser pointer with optical power 7 W, wavelength 445 nm


The growth rate of the power of laser diodes is comparable to the growth rate of the computing power of the processors, in accordance with Moore's law. Certainly laser diodes are not suitable for creating combat lasers, but they, in turn, are used to pump efficient solid-state and fiber lasers. For laser diodes, the efficiency of conversion of electrical energy into optical energy can be in excess of 50%, theoretically it is possible to obtain efficiency and in excess of 80%. High efficiency not only reduces power supply requirements, but also simplifies the cooling of laser equipment.
An important element of the laser is the beam focusing system - the smaller the spot area on the target, the higher the power density that allows damage. Progress in the creation of complex optical systems and the emergence of new high-temperature optical materials allows us to create highly efficient focusing systems. The system of focusing and targeting the American experimental combat laser HEL includes 127 mirrors, lenses and light filters.

Another important component that provides the possibility of creating a laser weapon is the development of systems for targeting and keeping the beam on the target. To hit targets with an “instant” shot, in a split second, gigawatt powers are needed, but creating such lasers and power sources for them on a mobile chassis is a matter of the distant future. Accordingly, to destroy targets with hundreds of kilowatt lasers - tens of megawatts, it is necessary to hold a spot of laser radiation on the target for some time (from several seconds to several tens of seconds). This requires high-precision and high-speed drives capable of tracking a laser beam on a target, according to the guidance system.

When firing at long ranges, the guidance system must compensate for the distortions introduced by the atmosphere, for which several lasers of various purposes can be used in the guidance system, ensuring accurate targeting of the main “combat” laser to the target.

What lasers have received priority development in the field of armaments? Due to the absence of powerful sources of optical pumping, these were primarily gas-dynamic and chemical lasers.

At the end of the 20th century, public opinion stirred up the American Strategic Defense Initiative (PIO) program. Under this program, the deployment of laser weapons on the ground and in space was supposed to destroy the Soviet intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM). For placement in orbit, it was supposed to use nuclear-pumped lasers emitting in the X-ray range or chemical lasers up to 20 megawatts.

The PIO program faced numerous technical difficulties and was closed. At the same time, some of the research carried out within the framework of the program made it possible to obtain sufficiently powerful lasers. In 1985, a deuterium fluoride laser with an 2,2 megawatt output power destroyed a liquid ballistic missile fixed in the 1 kilometer from the laser. As a result of the 12-second exposure of the rocket's hull wall, they lost strength and were destroyed by internal pressure.

In the USSR, combat lasers were also developed. In the eighties of the 20th century, work was carried out on the creation of the Skif orbital platform with a gas-dynamic laser with an 100 kW power. The Skif-DM mass-dimensional model (the Polyus spacecraft) was put into Earth orbit in the 1987 year, but due to a number of errors it did not reach the calculated orbit and was flooded along the ballistic trajectory in the Pacific Ocean. The collapse of the USSR put an end to this and similar projects.


The Polyus (Skif-DM) spacecraft on the super-heavy launch vehicle Energia


Large-scale studies of laser weapons were carried out in the USSR under the Terra program. The program of the zonal anti-missile and anti-space defense system with a radiation damaging element based on high-power laser weapons “Terra” was implemented from 1965 to 1992. lasers.


AZh-4T and AZh-5T lasers from the Terra-3 complex


Also in the USSR, from the middle of the 70 of the 20th century, an A-60 airborne laser-based complex was developed on the basis of the Il-76MD aircraft. Initially, the complex was designed to combat automatic drifting balloons. A continuous gas-dynamic megawatt class CO laser developed by the Khimavtomatika design bureau (KBKHA) was to be installed as a weapon.

As part of the test, a family of GDL bench samples was created with radiation power from 10 to 600 kW. It can be assumed that at the time of testing the A-60 complex, a laser with a power of 100 kW was installed on it.

Several dozens of flights were performed with testing of a laser system on a stratospheric balloon, located at an altitude of 30-40 km and on a target La-17. In terms of sources, it is indicated that the A-60 aircraft complex was created as an aviation laser missile defense component under the Terra-3 program.


Airborne Laser Complex A-60


In February, 2010 was reported in the media about the resumption of work on airborne laser weapons on the IL-76MD-90А platform with PS-90А-76 engines. Concern VKO "Almaz-Antey", TANTK named after GM. Beriev and the Khimpromavtomatika enterprise in Voronezh were given the task of creating an aviation complex with a “laser capable of burning airplanes, satellites and ballistic missiles”. The Il-76MD-90А aircraft, re-equipped for this purpose, made its first flight in October 2014, and on November 24 2014 arrived in Taganrog to install a laser complex. The finalization of the vehicle and its ground testing continued for two years, and on October 4 of 2016, the media passed a message about the start of flight tests of the successor to the A-60. As follows from the words of the Deputy Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation, Yuri Borisov, “flight experiments continue, the results of which confirm the correctness of the decisions taken”.

What types of lasers are the most promising for military applications at the present time? With all the advantages of gas-dynamic and chemical lasers, they have significant drawbacks: the need for consumable components, start-up inertia (according to some data up to one minute), significant heat generation, large dimensions, the output of spent components of the active medium. Such lasers can be placed only on large carriers.

At the moment, solid-state and fiber lasers have the greatest prospects, for operation of which it is only necessary to provide them with electric power of sufficient power. The US Navy is actively working on free-electron laser technology. The important advantages of fiber lasers include their scalability, i.e. the ability to combine multiple modules for more power. Inverse scalability is also important. If a solid-state laser with a power of 300 kW is created, then a less dimensional laser with a power of, for example, an 30 kW can be created for it.

What is the situation with fiber and solid-state lasers in Russia? The science of the USSR in the development and creation of lasers was the most advanced in the world. Unfortunately, the collapse of the USSR changed everything. One of the world's largest companies for the development and production of IPG Photonics fiber lasers was founded by a native of Russia, V. P. Gapontsev, on the basis of the Russian company NTO IRE-Polyus. Currently, the parent company IPG Photonics is registered in the United States. Despite the fact that one of the largest production sites of IPG Photonics is located in Russia (Fryazino, Moscow Region), the company operates under US law and its lasers cannot be used in the Russian armed forces, including the company must comply with the sanctions imposed on Russia.

However, the capabilities of fiber lasers produced by IPG Photonics are extremely high. IPG continuous high power fiber lasers have a power range from 1 kW to 500 kW, as well as a wide range of wavelengths, the efficiency of converting electrical energy into optical energy reaches 50%. The divergence parameters of IPG fiber lasers far exceed those of other high power lasers.


Fiber YLS laser with power 100 kW manufactured by IPG Photonics, power levels up to 500 kW available on request


Are there other developers and manufacturers of modern high-power fiber and solid-state lasers in Russia? Judging by the commercial patterns, no.

The domestic manufacturer in the industrial segment offers gas lasers with a maximum power of tens of kW. For example, the Laser Systems company in 2001 presented the 10 kW oxygen-iodine laser with chemical efficiency exceeding 32%, which is the most promising compact autonomous source of high-power laser radiation of this type. Theoretically, oxygen-iodine lasers can reach power up to one megawatt.

At the same time, it is impossible to completely exclude the fact that domestic scientists managed to make a breakthrough in any other direction of creating high-power lasers, based on a deep understanding of the physics of laser processes.

In 2018, Russian President Vladimir Putin announced the Peresvet laser complex, designed to solve the problems of anti-missile defense and defeat the enemy's orbiters. Data on the Peresvet complex are classified, including the type of laser used (lasers?) And optical power.

It can be assumed that the most likely candidate for installation in this complex is a gas-dynamic laser, a descendant of a laser being developed for the A-60 program. In this case, the optical power of the Peresvet laser can be 200-400 kilowatts, in an optimistic scenario up to 1 megawatts. As another candidate, the previously mentioned oxygen-iodine laser can be considered.

If we proceed from this, then from the cabin of the main machine of the Peresvet complex presumably are located - diesel or gasoline electric current generator, compressor, chemical components storage compartment, laser with cooling system, laser beam guidance system. Nowhere is visible radar or OLS detection targets, which implies external targeting.


Laser complex "Peresvet"


In any case, these assumptions may turn out to be false, both in connection with the possibility of domestic developers creating fundamentally new lasers, and in the absence of reliable information on the optical power of the Peresvet complex. In particular, in the press, information about the presence of a small-sized nuclear reactor in the Peresvet complex as a source of energy jumped. If this is true, then the configuration of the complex and the possible characteristics may be completely different.

What power does a laser need so that it can be effectively used for military purposes as a means of destruction? This largely depends on the intended range of use and the nature of the targets hit, as well as the method of their defeat.

As part of the on-board self-defense complex "Vitebsk" there is an active jamming station L-370-3С. It counteracts flying enemy missiles with a thermal homing head by blinding infrared laser radiation. Taking into account the dimensions of the L-370-3С active jamming station, the power of a laser emitter is at most several tens of watts. This is hardly enough to destroy the thermal homing head of the rocket, but it is quite enough for temporary blinding.


Station active interference L-370-3С


During the tests of the A-60 complex with a laser power of 100 kW, targets L-17, representing an analogue of a jet aircraft, were struck. The range of damage is unknown, it can be assumed that it was about 5-10 km.

Test examples of foreign laser complexes:

During tests of the American airborne laser complex Boeing YAL-1, ballistic target missiles were destroyed. One target missile with a liquid-propellant rocket engine, the second solid propellant, the firing range on the tests was about 100 km.

At the test site in Schrobenhausen, Rheinmetall tested an 20 kW laser facility that destroys an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) at a distance of 500 meters in 3,39 seconds.

The US Army Stryker armored combat vehicle, equipped with a mobile high-energy laser (Mobile High-Energy Laser, MEHEL) with 5 kW, struck a small UAV at the Grafenwehr training ground in Germany (Bavaria)

During more than 100 tests, the Israeli laser Keren Barzel missile defense system in April 2014. The system hit 90% of targets (mines, shells, UAVs) showed performance (Proof Of Concept), more than 100 tests were conducted. The power of the laser used is several tens of kilowatts.

The company "Boeing" together with the US Army tested the advanced combat laser HEL MD. Despite the bad weather - strong wind, rain and fog - the 10-kilowatt installation successfully hit several air targets at Eglin airbase in Florida. ”

The previous test of the complex was carried out at 2013 at the White Sands, New Mexico State site. Then the laser hit more than 90 mortar shells, and several UAVs. For a total of two tests, HEL MD hit 150 air targets, including 60-mm mortar shells and UAVs. The company plans to increase the power of the complex to 50-60 kW and improve the power supply system of the laser system.



Battle Laser HEL MD


[

Tests combat laser HEL MD


Based on the above, we can assume:

- to hit small UAVs at a distance of 1-5 kilometers, a laser with a power of 2-5 kW is required;

- to destroy unguided mines, shells, and high-precision ammunition at a distance of 5-10 kilometers, a laser with a power of 20-100 kW is required;

- to hit targets such as an airplane or a rocket at a distance of 100-500 km, a laser with a power of 1-10 MW is required.

Lasers of the indicated powers either already exist or will be created in the foreseeable future. What types of laser weapons in the near future can be used by the air forces, ground forces and fleet, we consider in the continuation of this article.
Author:
Photos used:
habr.com, buran.ru, airwar.ru, MilitaryRussia.Ru, ipgphotonics.com, bastion-karpenko.ru, russianarms.ru, arms-expo.ru
66 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. heavy division
    heavy division 13 March 2019 15: 27
    +6
    Very promising weapon!
    I always read a place from Hyperboloid, where the laser is in action, with an internal tremor.
    And Resident Evil-1 (Resident Evele), where the laser cut out special forces, is also scary.
    There is something mysterious, surgical-cosmic in this weapon.
    interesting article
  2. Hunghuz
    Hunghuz 13 March 2019 16: 01
    +3
    Can it be said that this is a relatively environmentally friendly weapon?
    But surely high-precision for sure ...
  3. viktorish007
    viktorish007 13 March 2019 16: 29
    +3
    when he served, in our unit a lot of people suffered due to the use of laser weapons in exercises

    art range finder shone in the faces of personnel
    1. merkava-2bet
      merkava-2bet 13 March 2019 17: 05
      +1
      And when I served, the tank laser rangefinder had a minimum safe range for the eyes without optics of 2000 meters, they scared us too, and when I became a contractor, I saw in the documents that there was a filter there and it was safe for the eyes, but they scared us.
      1. viktorish007
        viktorish007 13 March 2019 17: 09
        0
        No, they measured it with artillery, there are filters with xs that are or not, additional lenses were on the emitter, although xs could and the filters were
      2. sviazist
        sviazist 15 March 2019 00: 03
        +2
        They scared you for good reason. Range finder for a radiation length of 1,06 microns on neodymium. Very, very dangerous for the eyes. You will not remove this radiation with any kind of flutter, since it is monochrome, that is, has a fixed wavelength. Modern range finders operate at 1.5 microns, which
        flax is absorbed by the vitreous body of the eye, and therefore is considered conditionally safe for the eyes. But if you look into a modern tank sight point-blank or closer than 100 m from the tank, and your friend the gunner decides to measure the distance to you, then minus one eye is guaranteed. Or two if you're out of luck
    2. 2329 Carpenter
      2329 Carpenter 13 March 2019 17: 22
      +1
      Well, how can it be without army sawing in the army?
      Or, as the Germans joked: with us, the Germans all progress is from the mind. And for Russians - from curiosity.
      What, they say, will happen if the rangefinder is "shone" on them?
  4. merkava-2bet
    merkava-2bet 13 March 2019 17: 01
    +2
    Thank you namesake, very interesting, I hope that you will touch the Soviet laser science, for example, explosive laser radiation generators. Thank you for an interesting topic.
    1. Shopping Mall
      13 March 2019 17: 53
      +6
      Quote: merkava-2bet
      Thank you namesake, very interesting, I hope that you will touch the Soviet laser science, for example, explosive laser radiation generators. Thank you for an interesting topic.


      These are photodissociation lasers, which are essentially chemical. For its time, the topic is interesting, but in the future, I think that this whole direction is obviously futile. Need lasers "from the socket" wink
      1. The comment was deleted.
  5. And Vasya.
    And Vasya. 13 March 2019 17: 09
    +4
    The author in his article did not mention at all - for which they tried to use X-ray laser with nuclear pumping in the PIO. Yes, very simply - it is impossible to physically reflect the x-ray or to scatter it. However, the United States could not make a nuclear-pumped x-ray laser, neither theoretically nor technically!
    1. Shopping Mall
      13 March 2019 17: 45
      +6
      Quote: And Vasya.
      The author in his article did not mention at all - for which they tried to use X-ray laser with nuclear pumping in the PIO. Yes, very simply - it is impossible to physically reflect the x-ray or to scatter it. However, the United States could not make a nuclear-pumped x-ray laser, neither theoretically nor technically!


      I mentioned the existence of this type of laser - nuclear-pumped, but precisely because no practical results were obtained, and I did not write. X-ray lasers have problems with optics and a resonator. I plan to return to the topic of the X-ray laser (but not with nuclear pumping).
      1. And Vasya.
        And Vasya. 13 March 2019 17: 46
        +4
        AVM! Thank!
  6. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 13 March 2019 17: 11
    0
    The nitrogen laser is even simpler to implement, it does not require complex purchased products, it can even work on nitrogen contained in the atmosphere. With straight arms, it can be easily assembled at home. In-in! So those are right who say that Archimedes burned the Roman fleet not with the help of polished copper coins (HA-HA!), But with the Laser! And now, even know how! fellow
  7. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 13 March 2019 17: 17
    0
    Why didn't they mention the "millionaire laser" that Gorbachev allegedly boasted to Reagan? And with the "half" power of which diarrhea was caused in American astronauts? what
    1. Shopping Mall
      13 March 2019 17: 47
      +4
      This is from the Terra-3 project, apparently. I really tried to be closer to the ground, or something.
      1. And Vasya.
        And Vasya. 13 March 2019 20: 23
        +2
        AVM (Andrey Mitrofanov)! There is still an opportunity to avoid a missile being hit by a laser beam — this is to impart rotational motion to the rocket and, of course, to apply a flat trajectory in the lower layers of the atmosphere, to scatter and attenuate laser radiation. Maneuvering at high speed along an unpredictable trajectory! You can find a lot of options.
        1. Shopping Mall
          13 March 2019 20: 46
          +2
          Quote: And Vasya.
          AVM (Andrey Mitrofanov)! There is still an opportunity to avoid a missile being hit by a laser beam — this is to impart rotational motion to the rocket and, of course, to apply a flat trajectory in the lower layers of the atmosphere, to scatter and attenuate laser radiation. Maneuvering at high speed along an unpredictable trajectory! You can find a lot of options.


          rotate the rocket
          - this will only partially reduce the heating of the hull, especially if the nose of the rocket is affected + unnecessary algorithms for the guidance head, unnecessary rudder operation, if it has a ramjet engine, it is not known whether it can be constantly rotated.

          apply a flat trajectory in the low atmosphere
          - the rocket will have no energy, on the contrary, they are thrown higher to increase the range. Otherwise, if an aircraft is hit, for example, at an altitude of 10 km, it will have to go down, fly in the most dense atmosphere, and then attack from the least energetically advantageous position + at the capture head a limited viewing angle, it may simply lose the target.

          Maneuvering at high speed on an unpredictable trajectory
          - very much energy is lost, decreases the distance of the target. And the laser beam will catch up anyway)
          1. And Vasya.
            And Vasya. 13 March 2019 20: 58
            +1
            AVM (Andrey Mitrofanov)! Catch up with it, of course, but with quick maneuvers it can lose guidance on the target! So I couldn’t burn through and manage to get out of the affected area ...
          2. merkava-2bet
            merkava-2bet 14 March 2019 01: 07
            +1
            I would add that all rockets are very gentle creatures. There are many ways to reduce the effects of a laser, but none will give 100%, even as they write everywhere, you need to use ablation, but found another effect, not long ago, if I'm not mistaken, explosive ablation evaporated substance. There is also another way of using a laser beam, and this is a plasma, for transmitting a powerful electric pulse to an object, on the order of 10000 Ampere, that is, an explosive short circuit, as I understand from scientific works.
            1. Shopping Mall
              14 March 2019 12: 07
              +1
              Quote: merkava-2bet
              I would add that all rockets are very gentle creatures. There are many ways to reduce the effects of a laser, but none will give 100%, even as they write everywhere, you need to use ablation, but found another effect, not long ago, if I'm not mistaken, explosive ablation evaporated substance. There is also another way of using a laser beam, and this is a plasma, for transmitting a powerful electric pulse to an object, on the order of 10000 Ampere, that is, an explosive short circuit, as I understand from scientific works.


              The theme of the transmission of electricity (for peaceful purposes) through the ionized channel formed by high-power laser radiation, I came across in my opinion at the beginning of 90-s, either in the Young Technology, or in the Youth Technique, and then I was very intrigued. Of course, from a military point of view wink The direction is interesting - the resonant system of transmission of electric energy.
              Unfortunately, as I understand it, this is still at the research stage:
              ... using a CO2 laser with an average 100 kW radiation power and a pulse repetition rate of 10 - 50 kHz, coinciding with the frequency of the resonant circuits, which, according to our estimates, will increase the length of the reproducible laser-plasma channel to several kilometers ...
              1. merkava-2bet
                merkava-2bet 14 March 2019 15: 34
                0
                I have a question for you, gamma and neutron lasers or masers, I mean not one-time like the USA with their X-ray laser from Star Wars bluff, but from the outlet as you say, there is a general reality and is there any research or another fantasy.
                1. Shopping Mall
                  14 March 2019 15: 40
                  +1
                  Quote: merkava-2bet
                  I have a question for you, gamma and neutron lasers or masers, I mean not one-time like the USA with their X-ray laser from Star Wars bluff, but from the outlet as you say, there is a general reality and is there any research or another fantasy.


                  The maser works in the range of microwave waves, it already refers to the radar.
                  Gamma lasers do not exist yet, there are no lenses and reflectors capable of focusing and amplifying gamma radiation. If something is being conducted, then it is either in the laboratory stage or is highly classified.
                  I have not heard anything about neutrons, a neutron is a particle, not a wave, as far as I know, neutron beams are obtained using high-energy lasers.
                  1. merkava-2bet
                    merkava-2bet 14 March 2019 17: 39
                    0
                    Since you mentioned my favorite magazine Technika-Molodezhi, that is, an article of the year or 1992 or 1993, a Russian-American experiment is described under the code name Trust, plasma weapons were tested on an island in the Pacific Ocean, allegedly it was very successful and Americans had round eyes, they were used against air targets, and they literally crumbled in the air, what do you think about this, as well as the plasma generator of the acclaimed AJAC aerospace plane, by the way, also in this magazine of the year, either the end of the 90s or the beginning of the 2000s, stories or there are real results.
                    1. psiho117
                      psiho117 14 March 2019 22: 39
                      0
                      Quote: merkava-2bet
                      research in the USA proton accelerator compact size ...
                      Do not believe! bully
                      Judge for yourself - the laser took more than 1960 years to go from the first laboratory laser in 50 to more or less capable of knocking something down.
                      Tufted weapons are now at the stage of single samples in the largest research institutes, while what and how is still not entirely clear, and they will not come out of the laboratories until the first field trials for at least another 15 years.

                      plasma weapon tests

                      Plasma weapons are generally Alles Kaput:
                      Earth science in retaining high-temperature plasma by a magnetic field has so far been successful at the level of several milliseconds created by huge electromagnets in prototypes of thermonuclear reactors. Well, a stone flower doesn’t come out from Danila-Master, we cannot for now.

                      As for natural plasmoids - ball lightning, there is even more deaf: there is not only a mathematical model, there is not even an approximate understanding of what is there and how. And here, for example, mat. The model of stimulated emission, the physical basis for the operation of any laser, appeared in the 30s.
                      I’m sitting and thinking, maybe the engine also can

                      They were late - the mathematical model of the Warp engine, Alcubierre developed back in 1994 ... hi
                  2. merkava-2bet
                    merkava-2bet 14 March 2019 17: 49
                    0
                    A month ago I read about research in the USA on a proton accelerator of compact dimensions, the ultimate goal of the experiment is the creation of a proton laser, the advantages over an electron due to the proton mass are about ~ 2000 times heavier than an electron, they intend to achieve high kinetic energy when an object (target) is irradiated. I think maybe the engine can also be connected.
                    1. Vadim237
                      Vadim237 14 March 2019 23: 04
                      +2
                      There is a patent for a fast neutron generator - in the United States they want to put such on satellites and use them as an element of missile defense - when separating warheads, these satellites will bombard warheads with beams of fast neutrons, thereby weeding out false targets from real ones, since the latter will start under the influence of radiation " glows "
                      1. And Vasya.
                        And Vasya. 15 March 2019 11: 30
                        +1
                        Vadim237 (Vadim)! To neutralize neutron beams, steel with boron is used ... Therefore, neutron beams are well neutralized! And this was one of the reasons for the Soviet Union's rejection of neutron weapons!
                2. psiho117
                  psiho117 14 March 2019 21: 22
                  0
                  Quote: merkava-2bet
                  neutron lasers

                  this will be a beam weapon. Lasers shoot with photons, beam - with dispersed particles.
        2. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I 14 March 2019 09: 37
          +2
          Quote: And Vasya.
          You can find a lot of options.

          Among the options were suggestions: 1. heat-resistant coating ... 2. sublimation coating ("controlled", evaporation, coatings ...); 3. "painting" with special compositions that change color (for example, white .. .) or :It was about protecting our missiles against the action of space laser guns. Knowing the parameters of laser radiation, these people picked up substances that evaporated when they struck the laser beam, forming an aerosol with particles so large that electromagnetic waves interfered with them and the beam was scattered. This was enough for the specific intensity of the impact on the metal to become insufficient to penetrate the rocket body. They made paint from this substance and painted samples for testing by hand. Handling a rocket would have cost 50 dollars. After seeing all this, the Germans were depressed ...
          1. Shopping Mall
            14 March 2019 09: 45
            +1
            Quote: Nikolaevich I
            Quote: And Vasya.
            You can find a lot of options.

            Among the options were suggestions: 1. heat-resistant coating ... 2. sublimation coating ("controlled", evaporation, coatings ...); 3. "painting" with special compositions that change color (for example, white .. .) or :It was about protecting our missiles against the action of space laser guns. Knowing the parameters of laser radiation, these people picked up substances that evaporated when they struck the laser beam, forming an aerosol with particles so large that electromagnetic waves interfered with them and the beam was scattered. This was enough for the specific intensity of the impact on the metal to become insufficient to penetrate the rocket body. They made paint from this substance and painted samples for testing by hand. Handling a rocket would have cost 50 dollars. After seeing all this, the Germans were depressed ...


            I hope to make a separate article about protection from LI.
            1. psiho117
              psiho117 14 March 2019 22: 06
              +1
              The author, but these numbers are not too high?
              Based on the above, we can assume:

              - to hit small UAVs at a distance of 1-5 kilometers, a laser with a power of 2-5 kW is required;

              - to destroy unguided mines, shells, and high-precision ammunition at a distance of 5-10 kilometers, a laser with a power of 20-100 kW is required;
              Shooting at 5-10 km is still possible only under ideal conditions somewhere in Antarctica, and then at an altitude of over a kilometer.
              The results of normal tests (normal - this is when the fuse didn’t shove bickford fuse into the target drone, and it didn’t explode almost no sooner than it was shone with a laser). Reports of German and American commissions show that the minimum threshold for hitting the above goals is 100 kW (while immediately indicating that it is desirable to double the power), while the maximum distance for a confident defeat was 3 km in ideal weather conditions. At the slightest turbulence, changes in humidity, dust, bad weather - all this can literally reduce the distance.
              To hit targets such as an airplane or a rocket at a distance of 100-500 km, a laser with a power of 1-10 MW is required.
              and such power is generally achievable? Meaning on the plane? Because shooting at such ranges will be possible only in high-dispersed layers of the atmosphere ...
              And more than 100km - in general only in outer space. And then, optics do not yet allow normal focusing at such distances, there will be a light spot with a diameter of one and a half meters.
              1. psiho117
                psiho117 14 March 2019 22: 19
                +1
                In general, in my opinion, the Author too much trusted the propaganda videos - for example, the success of the same results of the laser-Boeing, in general, raises more doubts, even among the Americans who closed the project with the wording "The US Department of Defense recognized the development as not applicable in practice" ...
                Author, be skeptical hi
                1. Shopping Mall
                  14 March 2019 22: 44
                  0
                  Quote: psiho117
                  In general, in my opinion, the Author too much trusted the propaganda videos - for example, the success of the same results of the laser-Boeing, in general, raises more doubts, even among the Americans who closed the project with the wording "The US Department of Defense recognized the development as not applicable in practice" ...
                  Author, be skeptical hi


                  I will try to hi

                  More than one article is supposed on the topic, on lasers for the Air Force, SV / Air Defense, Navy, possibly on space and protection from them.

                  And about the reasons for closing the program in the next article.
              2. Shopping Mall
                14 March 2019 22: 41
                0
                Quote: psiho117
                The author, but these numbers are not too high?
                Based on the above, we can assume:
                - to hit small UAVs at a distance of 1-5 kilometers, a laser with a power of 2-5 kW is required;
                - to destroy unguided mines, shells, and high-precision ammunition at a distance of 5-10 kilometers, a laser with a power of 20-100 kW is required;
                Shooting at 5-10 km is still possible only under ideal conditions somewhere in Antarctica, and then at an altitude of over a kilometer.
                The results of normal tests (normal - this is when the fuse didn’t shove bickford fuse into the target drone, and it didn’t explode almost no sooner than it was shone with a laser). Reports of German and American commissions show that the minimum threshold for hitting the above goals is 100 kW (while immediately indicating that it is desirable to double the power), while the maximum distance for a confident defeat was 3 km in ideal weather conditions. At the slightest turbulence, changes in humidity, dust, bad weather - all this can literally reduce the distance.


                The figures are taken averaged. In addition to power, there are many factors - the wavelength, the effectiveness of the focusing system, the responsiveness of the guidance and restraint system, the tracking of distortions introduced by the atmosphere, etc.

                As for 100 kW, I agree about mines, shells, MLRS missiles, etc. A small UAV from polymers is quite possible to hit lasers 2-5 kW. They really disable the optics.

                To hit targets such as an airplane or a rocket at a distance of 100-500 km, a laser with a power of 1-10 MW is required.

                and such power is generally achievable? Meaning on the plane? Because shooting at such ranges will be possible only in high-dispersed layers of the atmosphere ...
                And more than 100km - in general only in outer space. And that, the optics does not allow normal focusing at such distances, there will be a light spot with a diameter of one and a half meters.


                Achievable likely. In the 20th century, lasers were roughly at the level of the First World War biplanes, under these conditions A-60, like Ilya Muromets.
                Now we are reaching the level of the Second World War, conditionally of course.

                And what will happen next ...

                And do not think of the atmosphere as an impenetrable environment, it is far from it. All the distortions that the atmosphere brings are well studied, and can be compensated for.
                1. psiho117
                  psiho117 14 March 2019 22: 55
                  0
                  All distortions introduced by the atmosphere are well studied and can be compensated for.
                  Of course they can - the Boeing Laser demonstrated this to us: for shooting in a highly rarefied atmosphere, he needed THREE different manholes. systems - one for guidance, one for assessing atmospheric distortions, and one for the shot itself. Well, a mirror with a diameter of 2 meters. And 3 billion dollars. wassat
                  In general, my skepticism is based on the fact that it (the laser) must either be super expensive (in order to really take into account the influence of the atmosphere), or it will be something extremely dependent on weather conditions - today I shoot, tomorrow I do not shoot. In military affairs, such an approach is not acceptable!
                  The Jews, after the tests, said that in a year they would be on combat duty ... 5 years have already passed, and no one has ever pleased us with the new combat laser.
                  1. merkava-2bet
                    merkava-2bet 14 March 2019 23: 14
                    +1
                    The Jews, after the tests, said that in a year they would be on combat duty ... 5 years have already passed, and no one has ever pleased us with the new combat laser.
                    Yes, it is really being tested and improved, there are always pitfalls, but the program continues and achieved very good results.
              3. Vadim237
                Vadim237 14 March 2019 23: 10
                -1
                "Optics do not allow normal focusing yet" - Last year there was a publication about the creation of a lensless laser.
                1. psiho117
                  psiho117 14 March 2019 23: 26
                  +1
                  Quote: Vadim237
                  Last year there was a publication on the creation of a lensless laser.

                  Are you sure? not a lensless lens? not lensless optics? Namely a lensless laser?
                  I do not believe. Proof, please.
  8. The seventh
    The seventh 13 March 2019 21: 24
    0
    A ground-based combat laser, of course, is a good thing (first of all in the war with modern "Papuans"), but most likely only for blinding up to the burnout of optical seeker. True, it is not difficult to destroy such a sweet financially-capacious goal.
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 14 March 2019 23: 07
      +1
      Such a weapon would be an excellent tool against UAVs and Kamikaze drones - but for this it would be necessary to create a radar capable of seeing objects with an ESR of 0,0015 meters squared, at a distance of 100 kilometers.
      1. The seventh
        The seventh 15 March 2019 11: 08
        0
        Will not be. After all, even if you create such a radar, then ... first it destroys this radar, then the laser of the cassette warhead of the MLRS shell, and only then will the kamikaze take off on the radars and superlaser Peresvet that miraculously survived the calculations of the radar and superlaser ...
  9. mark1
    mark1 13 March 2019 22: 34
    +3
    An interesting article, but few comments. Everything is probably because something clever does not allow to say the level of knowledge and awareness. But I look forward to continuing.
    1. sviazist
      sviazist 14 March 2019 23: 46
      +1
      So what is there to comment on. Solid slogans. In a laser, any laser, except for power, the most important parameters are its operation modes: pulsed, continuous, free generation, and also radiation wavelengths. Not a word about these parameters in the article. Not the slightest hint of the fundamental principles of the divergence of a laser beam and the fundamental limitations imposed by diffraction. Like, we have MW of power on the beam and we all burn. Yeah. About the meteorological visibility range, beam divergence, atmospheric transparency window, not a word. Reliability of systems in terms of the number of pulses before repair - not a word. Question to the AUTHOR: what is the difference between a laser and an optical amplifier
      1. mark1
        mark1 15 March 2019 06: 54
        0
        Well, the people broke through. An article is an article, no matter how good it is, but comments on it are always (almost) more interesting. In the argument we find the truth.
      2. Shopping Mall
        15 March 2019 11: 52
        +1
        Quote: sviazist
        So what is there to comment. Solid slogans. In a laser, any laser, except for power, the most important parameters are its modes of operation: pulsed, continuous, free generation, as well as radiation wavelengths. About these parameters a word in the article. Not the slightest hint of a fundamental basis for the divergence of a laser beam and the fundamental limitations imposed by diffraction.


        All this can be stated, but it will take much more time, and it will be interesting to read to units. And who cares, the network has such fundamental research.

        Quote: sviazist
        Type we have MW of power on the beam and we all burn. Yep There is not a word about the meteorological visibility range, divergence of the beams, the window of atmospheric transparency.


        I studied these data, in principle, they do not contradict the creation of laser weapons. You understand that I am not the creator of laser complexes, I analyze what is created and what is being created now, and on the basis of this I try to predict what may happen in the future. When developing companies, manufacturers accumulate huge amounts of data, many of which are secret. But the volume of work carried out allows us to build positive forecasts.

        If there is no interest in the question, then a series of articles on lasers for the Air Force, SV, Navy, developments, perspectives and the impact on the course of bd are planned. Perhaps also on lasers in space and protection from lasers.

        Quote: sviazist
        The reliability of systems in terms of the number of pulses before repair is not a word.


        Interestingly, do you have such data on other weapons, especially the newest ones? Time to failure, reliability? This is generally a strange quibble.

        Quote: sviazist
        Question to the AUTHOR: how does a laser differ from an optical amplifier?


        Optical amplification is a process similar to the process that occurs in a laser, but in a laser, as I correctly understood, it is multiple (resonator), and in a single optical amplifier, it is used to amplify a signal in a VOLS. But in general, I did not plan my dissertation defense hi
        1. sviazist
          sviazist 15 March 2019 18: 42
          +1
          This is a question of understanding the essence of the subject. In general terms, you understand him at the household level. The difference in the laser’s presence of the positive feedback provided by the cavity. A laser is a generator, not an amplifier. This is a significant difference. It is possible to evaluate the possible time to failure by analyzing the energy fluxes from the laser aperture in combination with the known optical resistances of mirror coatings. And these resilience is not so hot by the way. The slightest heterogeneity of the active element or the optical path can cause self-focusing when the volume and interruption of the optical elements are self-focusing. The implications are clear. A speck of dust in the aperture of such a laser will almost certainly burn the output mirror. A laser, like 30 years ago, was not a weapon but a scarecrow for pumping budgets from the enemy. The only promising direction in my opinion is microwave lasers, which, when used in combat against air targets, can cause currents on their bodies that will burn on-board electronics. Articles on microwave lasers on the network are available. The second promising area is to burn the eyes of enemy soldiers with lasers. The UN thinks that this is not humane, but China spits on this opinion and has the corresponding systems in service.
          1. Shopping Mall
            15 March 2019 19: 55
            +1
            Quote: sviazist
            It is possible to estimate the potential for failure treatment by analyzing the energy fluxes from the laser aperture in combination with the known optical stability of the mirror coatings. And these resistances are not so hot by the way. The slightest inhomogeneity of the active element or optical path can cause self-focusing of the volume and penetration of optical elements. The implications are clear. A speck of dust in the aperture of such a laser will almost certainly burn the output mirror.


            Technology and materials are changing very much.

            Quote: sviazist
            A laser like 30 years ago is not a weapon but a scarecrow for pumping out budgets from an opponent.


            Perhaps the following article will change your point of view. Too much work is being done for simple intimidation, and they will come into service in the near future - 2020-2025 of the year.
            And in industry, lasers inject only on the road, look at IPG's lasers, up to 500 in VK ...
            1. sviazist
              sviazist 17 March 2019 18: 53
              +1
              Combat laser and industrial laser, these are two big differences. In any case, a powerful combat continuous laser is very expensive, and the most important thing is too gentle in operation and storage, it has a lot of restrictions on atmospheric conditions of use and cannot compete even closely with classical rocket weapon systems. And, in my opinion, it is foolish to rely on scientists who deeply understand the processes in lasers, since such scientists were already 60 years ago, and no one has ever had combat lasers in service with them. A combat laser is a bluff, as the laws of physics are against its effective existence in the army. All the rest is banal propaganda.
              1. Shopping Mall
                17 March 2019 19: 24
                +1
                Quote: sviazist
                Combat laser and industrial laser, these are two big differences. In any case, a powerful combat continuous laser is very expensive, and the most important thing is too gentle in operation and storage, it has a lot of restrictions on atmospheric conditions of use and cannot compete even closely with classical rocket weapon systems. And, in my opinion, it is foolish to rely on scientists who deeply understand the processes in lasers, since such scientists were already 60 years ago, and no one has ever had combat lasers in service with them. A combat laser is a bluff, as the laws of physics are against its effective existence in the army. All the rest is banal propaganda.


                We'll see in the next 5-10 years.
                1. sviazist
                  sviazist 17 March 2019 19: 49
                  0
                  Yep On railguns already looked. wink
                  1. Shopping Mall
                    17 March 2019 19: 56
                    +1
                    Quote: sviazist
                    Yep On railguns already looked. wink


                    I don’t think it’s over with the railguns. It’s just that the XXth century has spoiled people, everyone wants everything at once, and if something doesn’t work, then we must immediately reject it.

                    And people are often unaccustomed to the openness characteristic of Western companies, for them, if an experimental project did not go into series, then it did not work out - sawing, deception. This applies to railguns, the ABL program. And then, when they succeed, they will start looking for evidence that we were the first, they say, Terra-3 will be remembered, and then the classic - "Who is to blame, and what to do?"
                    1. sviazist
                      sviazist 17 March 2019 21: 15
                      +1
                      You are already slipping into questions of faith. I'm trying to reason from the perspective of the knowledge that I know. All this knowledge was told to me then, about railguns, that people don’t have such technologies for accumulating electric energy, materials for windings to make a massive railgun (prototypes not counted). About lasers the same song. All that I was taught, tells me that a combat laser is a utopia. Yes, it’s possible to create a working prototype. But the serial combat model is not. The laser is a very accurate and thin thing in terms of adjustments. The accuracy of individual adjustments should be about half the operating wavelength. All this should ride, shake, not warm up evenly, with the creation of thermal lenses, which very badly affect the operation of the laser, up to the breakdown of all tract elements, and maintain perfect cleanliness inside, i.e., do not gass, do not sleep off (I'm talking about mirror coatings ) keep tight. And then, when the radiation from this device goes into space, it meets the Atmosphere. And she from any of the most powerful and perfectly formed beam, after a couple of hundred meters is capable of making a dash that. So a combat laser for shooting down mines, shells, missiles, planes is a utopia. A laser that works to suppress enemy optics and eyes, maybe, but the UN is against scorched eyes, but not against scorched CCDs.
                      Well, without faith. Tell me how you are going to circumvent the diffraction limit of the divergence of the laser beam. What will you do with nonlinear effects even in the same atmosphere (not forgetting the spectacle of self-focusing of the beam in the atmosphere with the formation of a plasma channel and the loss of power of the BEAM). What will you do in the rain, fog, dust, snow. Even without an atmosphere, one drop of water falling on the aperture during operation of a powerful combat laser, with 100 TH, the probability will damage the optical surface. Laser is not a weapon hi
                      1. Shopping Mall
                        18 March 2019 09: 10
                        +1
                        Quote: sviazist
                        You are already slipping into questions of faith.


                        Rather, the credibility of the sources. Otherwise, just a conspiracy of some kind, international.
                        All something took on combat lasers that can not be done and used.
                        The result will be as with SpaceX



                        Quote: sviazist
                        I'm trying to argue from the standpoint of the knowledge that I know. All this knowledge told me then, about the railguns, that we don’t have such technologies for the accumulation of electrical energy, materials for the windings, to make a massive railgun (prototypes not counted). About lasers the same song. All that I was taught, tells me that the battle laser is a utopia. Yes, it is possible to create a working prototype. But the serial combat model is not. The laser is very precise and thin in terms of adjustments. The accuracy of the individual adjustments should be about half the working wavelength. All this should drive, shake, not evenly bask, with the creation of thermal lenses, which very badly affect the operation of the laser, until the breakdown of all elements of the path, and maintain perfect cleanliness inside, i.e. Do not gas, do not sleep. ) keep tight.


                        Do you think you know everything? At one time, the first tank was called a "scarecrow for cats", practice put everything in its place.

                        Quote: sviazist
                        And then, when the radiation from this device goes into space, it meets with the Atmosphere. [And it is from any of the most powerful and perfectly formed beam, after just a couple of hundred meters it can do that. So a combat laser for shooting down mines, shells, missiles, airplanes is a utopia. The laser is working on the suppression of optics and the eyes of the enemy, maybe, but the UN is against the burned out eyes, but not against the burned out CCDs.
                        Well, without faith. Tell me how you are going to circumvent the diffraction limit of the divergence of the laser beam. What will you do with nonlinear effects even in the same atmosphere (not forgetting the spectacle of self-focusing of the beam in the atmosphere with the formation of a plasma channel and the loss of power of the BEAM). What will you do in the rain, fog, dust, snow. Even without an atmosphere, one drop of water falling on the aperture during operation of a powerful combat laser, with 100 TH, the probability will damage the optical surface. Laser is not a weapon hi


                        I will not do anything, the developers will do.
                        You can read about the atmosphere a little lower, but even this is hardly the latest data that Western companies get in the course of a huge number of experiments:


                      2. sviazist
                        sviazist 18 March 2019 21: 21
                        0
                        Dear author! Your sincere belief in laser weapons cannot but inspire respect. However, in part 2 of your review, smart people have already given estimates based on the fundamental laws of laser construction. I am not a supporter of many figures on the forum, however, those calculations that are given in the discussion by Saburov are absolutely correct. From myself, I can add that I had a certain relationship with the development of range-finder lasers and worked in laboratories where powerful solid-state lasers are used to receive and study plasma.
                        So, in all the Murzilka mentioned above, key information is constantly lacking: what is the DVA during the test, what is the distance from the target and how does the beam focus, what is the laser wavelength (well, except for the last picture), what is its mode of operation, what is the power / energy radiation. All these parameters are very important for understanding what is actually drawn on the murzilka.
                        No one says that you can not create a prototype. You can, but why? Profkan 3 billion dollars to understand that it is a laboratory product, and not a weapon, as if expensive.
                        And then, common phrases about the growing capabilities of adaptive optics laughing Do you even know what laser adaptive optics are? How much does it cost and how does it work? In megawatt or kilojoule laser. Yes, the prototypes are laser probes, adaptive mirrors. But this is a prototype. And it stands as a new cast-iron bridge.
                        Then, on the forum, you were clearly told what kind of energy a laser pulse carries (a beam) and compared it with the energy of a projectile from a cannon. Yes, the order of numbers is correct and yes, in order to destroy something with a laser, there is little available energy. There can be no more of them without a proportional increase in refrigerators, since there are fundamental limitations on the efficiency of lasers, which, like the diffraction phenomenon, cannot be circumvented. In addition, the energy will not be infinitely pumped into the active element either, since it will simply collapse.
                      3. Shopping Mall
                        18 March 2019 21: 33
                        +1
                        Quote: sviazist
                        Dear author! Your sincere belief in laser weapons cannot fail to inspire respect. However, in the 2 part of your review, smart people have already given estimates based on the fundamental laws of laser construction. I am not a supporter of many figures on the forum, but the calculations given in the discussion of Saburov are absolutely correct.


                        I do not operate on such concepts as faith. The problem is often that fundamental assessments can be assessed differently, when people work in a certain direction, invest money, it turns out that there are solutions. And the copy-paste cited by Saburov-ohm will not convince me, I have already seen it several years ago. In general, how can one compare radiation and an explosion directed in all directions, differing in the type of impact, in terms of energy;

                        In 2004, when the first 4 megapixel digital camera appeared to me, I was also convinced that film is eternal, that digital will never replace it. They made calculations with the grain size on the film and that there will never be enough pixels to replace the "fundamental laws". And where is it, the tape? And then they convinced that a smartphone camera would never give a normal photo, that the lens was small, there would not be enough light, and now there are modules with a sensitivity higher than the human eye.
                        Are fundamentally new technologies emerging, have you heard about metamaterials?

                        Quote: sviazist
                        From myself I can add that I had a certain relation to the development of lasers for rangefinders and worked in laboratories where powerful solid-state lasers work, intended for obtaining and studying plasma.
                        So, in all the Murzilka mentioned above, key information is constantly lacking: what is the DVA during the test, what is the distance from the target and how does the beam focus, what is the laser wavelength (well, except for the last picture), what is its mode of operation, what is the power / energy radiation. All these parameters are very important for understanding what is actually drawn on the murzilka.
                        No one says that you can not create a prototype. You can, but why? Profkan 3 billion dollars to understand that it is a laboratory product, and not a weapon, as if expensive.


                        Many of the information presented on the forum lacks details, it is clear, who will disclose secret data and trade secrets? This does not prevent believing in Poseidons, Petrels, Peresvet, Zircons, and so on and so forth.

                        Quote: sviazist
                        And then, common phrases about the growing capabilities of adaptive optics laughing Do you even know what laser adaptive optics are? How much does it cost and how does it work? In megawatt or kilojoule laser. Yes, the prototypes are laser probes, adaptive mirrors. But this is a prototype. And it stands as a new cast-iron bridge.


                        Can you imagine? Well, ozvuchte estimate of the laser complex on 100 kW?

                        Quote: sviazist
                        Then, on the forum, you were clearly told what kind of energy a laser pulse carries (a beam) and compared it with the energy of a projectile from a cannon. Yes, the order of numbers is correct and yes, in order to destroy something with a laser, there is little available energy. There can be no more of them without a proportional increase in refrigerators, since there are fundamental limitations on the efficiency of lasers, which, like the diffraction phenomenon, cannot be circumvented. In addition, the energy will not be infinitely pumped into the active element either, since it will simply collapse.


                        The efficiency is slowly increasing, especially with fiber lasers. You are given direct links to the manufacturer’s website; you can accuse him of lying.

                        Comparison with a gun is absurd, it has already been written above.

                        And do not pump energy endlessly. They make assemblies from modules, rays are reduced by diffraction gratings. Do not be surprised if technology appears, when several lasers make a plasma lens for a third one, well, this is already my invention ...
                      4. sviazist
                        sviazist 18 March 2019 21: 47
                        0
                        Please explain how the laser beams are diffracted, what are the characteristics of the beam after this, what gratings are used for this. True, very interesting. We are talking about a 100 kW laser, right?
                  2. sviazist
                    sviazist 18 March 2019 21: 27
                    0
                    My good advice to you, take any Soviet book called Quantum Electrodynamics, read it, understand its content, then read a book called Nonlinear Optics, understand its content. And then start writing scientific articles about laser weapons. hi
                  3. Shopping Mall
                    18 March 2019 22: 04
                    +1
                    Quote: sviazist
                    My good advice to you, take any Soviet book called Quantum Electrodynamics, read it, understand its content, then read a book called Nonlinear Optics, understand its content. And then start writing scientific articles about laser weapons. hi


                    No matter how many years through 10-15, American and German books on this subject would have to be searched, due to the hopeless obsolescence of Soviet ones.
                  4. sviazist
                    sviazist 18 March 2019 22: 07
                    0
                    Not. Do not become obsolete. In this universe with its laws of physics. So what's with diffreshetki and fiber lasers. And yes, about adaptive optics is also very interesting laughing
                  5. Shopping Mall
                    18 March 2019 22: 16
                    +1
                    This is from Terra-3

                    At FIAN, a new phenomenon in the field of nonlinear laser optics has been investigated -
                    reversal of radiation wavefront. This major discovery has allowed further
                    a completely new and very successful approach to solving a number of problems of physics and
                    high-power lasers, above all the problems of forming an extremely narrow beam and
                    his super-precise aiming.


                    And this is from here from the site, information from Lockheed Martin

                    American defense giant Lockheed Martin did just that. Based on the new production technology of semiconductors, solar cells and automotive welding, the company has developed a laser facility designed for military purposes, which is hundreds of times more powerful than its commercial predecessors.

                    Robert Afzal, a senior researcher at this company, says: “In this area, a real revolution is taking place today, prepared by many years of gigantic research work. And we believe that laser technology is finally ready in the sense that we are now able to create a laser powerful enough and small enough to be installed on tactical machines. ”

                    “Previous lasers were just too big - they were entire stations. But with the advent of high-performance fiber laser technology with a high-quality beam, we finally got the last piece of the puzzle in order to install it on such machines. ”

                    The civilian industry used lasers of the order of several kilowatts, but Afzal remarked that military lasers should be rated at 10-100 kW.

                    "We developed a technology that allows us to scale the power of fiber lasers, not just building a larger fiber laser, but combining several kilowatt-class modules to achieve the necessary military power."

                    He said that the laser is based on the addition of rays - a process that combines several laser modules and allows you to form one high-power and high-quality beam that provides efficiency and lethality greater than several individual lasers with 10 kW.


                    White collimated beam

                    Describing the process of passing a ray of light through a prism, refracted into many color streams, he explained: “If you have several laser beams, each with a slightly different color, entering this prism exactly at the required angle, they will all come out of this prism with imposition and will form the so-called white collimated beam ".

                    “Essentially we do this, but instead of a prism, we use another optical element, called a diffraction grating, which performs the same functions. That is, we build modules of high-power lasers, each at a slightly different wavelength, then we combine them, reflecting from the diffraction grating, and at the output we get one high-power laser beam. ”

                    Afzal said that in fact such a solution is a technology of spectral compaction from the telecommunications sector, combined with high-power fiber-optic lasers from industrial production.

                    “A fiber laser is the most efficient and powerful laser ever developed,” he said. - That is, we are talking about the total electrical efficiency exceeding 30%, which was not the dream of 10-15 years ago when we had the efficiency of 15-18%. This greatly influenced the power and cooling, so these systems can now become smaller. The laser is now not scaled by building a large laser, but by adding new modules. ”


                    Honestly, I'm already sick of it. Simply wait and see what happens. I’m a pretty hard-nosed person, and in any case I will keep the topic under control.
                  6. sviazist
                    sviazist 18 March 2019 22: 48
                    0
                    Once you are so stubborn, take the time to educate yourself. Soviet books are good for their fundamental approach, without any simplifications inherent in modern literature. Wavefront reversal is a nonlinear optics. And this is not good news.
                    Let the bourgeois not lie about the efficiency of 30%, which I doubt very much (this is not the efficiency of light into the light, but the efficiency of the outlet what No.), but where will it go to more than 200 kW of heat, which should not just be dissipated, but removed from the pump lasers and the entire laser as a whole? And after that he says that his laser will not look like a small mobile hangar. No.
                    So what about the diffraction that they come up with laughing lasers then their IR range with a wavelength of 1-2 microns wink
                  7. sviazist
                    sviazist 18 March 2019 22: 56
                    0
                    And yes, the pros for persistence drinks
  • Viknt
    Viknt 19 March 2019 20: 31
    0
    A lot of work has been done and clearly deserves approval. The Signaler's comments are also of some interest, but his manners leave much to be desired. It is possible to recommend sending claims to the same "lasers" like himself with an exaggerated sense of self-importance.
    1. sviazist
      sviazist 19 March 2019 21: 57
      0
      About manners, well, what they are, without going over to personalities and insults, I don’t want to change and I won’t yes Before writing lasermen in quotation marks, it would be nice to show off your knowledge in the subject yourself, otherwise the question is to your manners. Self-esteem exists, but it is not hypertrophied, otherwise someone would have told me about this wink But on the merits of the issue, with all the positive aspects of the author, his enthusiasm for the subject, his perseverance and inexhaustible optimism, this is me without any sarcasm, he completely lacks the ability to critically analyze information on this topic due to the lack of fundamental knowledge in the field of quantum electrodynamics and optics . His comments on the difference between a laser and an amplifier, references to some kind of secrecy of some parameters of the ray's behavior in the atmosphere, supposedly accessible only to Western corporations, and derogatory reviews of Soviet literature on lasers give him out. If he were a professional in this matter, he would know that the influence of the atmosphere on the laser beam has been studied thoroughly for a long time, the data are presented in articles and monographs on laser ranging. Even in Russian. After all, reading the articles here, you unwittingly expect that they were written by a specialist in this matter. In this case, this is not so. hi
      1. Viknt
        Viknt 19 March 2019 22: 22
        0
        Write better, with pleasure we will be enlightened. An article of the type of review, but in fact quite detailed, for such a non-public topic. Demand more from the author and be a developer .....? What exactly qualifications ... According to state regulations, literature more than 5 years ago is removed from teaching materials. By myself, I know how quickly you lose qualification. Time rushes faster.
        1. sviazist
          sviazist 19 March 2019 23: 11
          0
          Come on. Bourne and Golf on optics are no longer relevant, is Shen on non-linear optics obsolete? Quantum Electronics Magazine Closed? Fundamental physics may not change for centuries. Applied literature yes, it is aging quickly. In order to understand what corporations are actually painting on mills, fundamental, preferably university, knowledge is needed. And so this is a review of advertising posters. Star wars in the history of the United States have already been, now comes part 2. hi