Military Review

Marina Raskova. The story of the legendary pilot-navigator

36
The biography of Marina Raskova is in many ways similar to the biographies of thousands of simple Soviet girls, whose lives were inflamed by the Great Patriotic War. She is an example of perseverance, strength of character, remarkable will and courage, qualities that, by definition, are more characteristic of men. During the period of serious tests for the homeland, Raskova proved to be a real, brave and competent commander. This is certainly not the case with such: “The weak half”.


Marina Raskova became famous in the 30 of the last century. Together with two crew members of the AIR-12, she broke the existing world record for the length of the flight by plane. Literally the next year after the aforementioned events, in one thousand nine hundred and thirty-eighth year, the brave pilots recorded two more records. Now - according to the flight distance on the MP-1 (seaplane).

That year was really a landmark for Raskova. At the beginning of autumn on the ANT-37 she, together with her commander Grizodubova and 2 pilot Osipenko, made an unprecedented uninterrupted flight on the route Moscow - Kirby. Its length was almost 6 and a half thousand kilometers. Signed flight brought Raskovoy universal recognition and the highest rank - Hero of the Soviet Union. She was also awarded the Order of Lenin.

Youth

Marina Malinina (after Raskov's marriage) was born on March 28, 1912 in Moscow. Her parents were engaged in pedagogy. The girl graduated from 9-year-old school. The future opera diva was seen in Marina. Her dad, Mikhail Malinin, taught vocals. Mom worked at the school as a teacher. Dad noticed his daughter's vocal abilities early and tried to develop them. However, at the age of 7, Marina lost her father. The man was hit and killed by a motorcycle.

After the death of the main breadwinner in the family, there was an acute shortage of money. At seventeen, the girl went to work. Then there was an early marriage. Sergey Raskov became her chosen one. In 1928 Marina was a laboratory chemist at the plant. In 1931, he was a laboratory assistant at the Zhukovsky Air Force Academy. It was then that I finally understood: planes are hers. She studied in absentia at the Leningrad Aviation School. 1933 - she is already the navigator of the Black Sea airbrushing expeditions. Later she worked at the Air Force Academy as a flight instructor, at the same time she studied at the Leningrad Institute of Civil Air Engineers fleet. Received the specialty "navigator". She was trained at the pilot training school in Tushino.

Marina Raskova. The story of the legendary pilot-navigator


Higher and further!

The 30s of the 20th century were truly marked by prosperity aviation romance. Marina was the first navigator girl in the USSR. Soon she was entrusted with an important task: to carry out the large aerial photography required for the Odessa-Batumi airline under construction. The work was done perfectly!

In her 22, Marina was an instructor in navigational training for the Flight Academy. Zhukovsky. However, the active girl was not going to stop there. Thanks to perseverance, she got permission to study at the school of pilots of the Central Aviation Club of Moscow. After graduation, in the 1935 year, at the controls of the aircraft participated in the parade dedicated to the celebration of 1 May. Each year he added a bold girl experience and new achievements. There were record flights, extreme situations ...



Here is one of them. ANT-37 “Rodina” took to the air with Shchelkovo 24 September 1938. From the beginning of the flight, everything went wrong somehow. Dense cover of clouds. Zero visibility. I had to control the plane, relying solely on the readings of the instruments. But that's not all. Very soon came the icing. A layer of ice was growing on the propeller. To cope with the situation and prevent the worst, it was decided to increase the speed to the maximum. Strongly chatted in the air. After Ural was left behind, the radio connection was gone.

When the clouds had passed, it turned out that the plane was over the Sea of ​​Okhotsk.

The crew commander Grizodubova made a turn "Motherland" to the shore. Fuel ran out, and with it the chances of successfully completing the flight. The fuel gauge relentlessly moved to zero. It was decided to go to the landing in the taiga.

Only this would inevitably lead to the death of the navigator, who is in the lower glass cabin. To avoid death, Marina jumped with a parachute. Landing was normal. But soon she faced a new challenge: cold, all around the beasts and no one near. She wandered with minimal supplies of food, tightly clutching a revolver and a knife in her hands for a long ten days, until she reached people.

Combat Combat

From the very beginning of the Great Patriotic War, Raskova participated in the creation of aviation regiments consisting of women. It is considered the initiator of the release of the relevant decision of the USSR State Committee of Defense. From 1942, Raskova became the commander of the 587-th bomber regiment (female), armed with Pe-2 aircraft. The squadrons entrusted to her fought in the sky over Stalingrad.

In 1918, with the participation of Raskova, an aviation group was formed which consisted of 3 female regiments: Pe-2 bombers, Yak-1 fighters and Po-2 night bombers. The last Germans called "Night Witches". These are the brave pilots who managed to command Marina Mikhailovna.



This courageous and resolute woman lived a short but very bright life of a true patriot, given to her country man. Death overtook her at the front.

On the fateful day of January 1943, the Raskovoy pilots again went to the front, having been reformed. In very difficult weather conditions near the village of Mikhailovka in the Saratov region, the plane of Major Raskova crashed. She was only thirty.

Initially, Marina Raskova was buried in Saratov, but then the remains were cremated, transported to Moscow, where they were forever placed in the Kremlin wall.

In the 1943, the regiment in which she served was renamed to Marina Raskova's 125 Guards.

Hero Heritage

Today, the name of Marina Raskova with honor is the Tambov Higher Military Aviation School. In this flight school, a bust of the heroic pilot is installed. Also in Komsomolsk-on-Amur, on the facade of the house where members of the crew of the famous Rodina plane lived in 1938, a memorial plaque was installed. The name of Marina Raskovoy are streets, squares and lanes in Moscow, as well as in other settlements of the former USSR. Two ships bore the famous name "Marina Raskova." This is the former American Ironclad, which sank in the 1944 year in the Kara Sea, and the river ship built in 1964 in Hungary. In the year 1998 written off.

Marina Raskova won many awards. Some of them were awarded posthumously. Was a knight of two orders of Lenin (1938 year), the medal "Golden Star" (1938 year). She was awarded the sign "Honorary Worker of State Security" (1940 year), Order of the Patriotic War 1 degree (1944 year posthumously).

The whole life of Marina Raskova was devoted to her selfless service to the Motherland. Such people are rightfully considered national heroes worthy of respect, eternal memory and imitation from future generations.
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  1. Phil77
    Phil77 8 March 2019 05: 33
    +2
    Of course, thanks to the author for an interesting article! A real heroine, you don’t need to add anything else! But I would like to know more about the female fighter regiment (is this a kind of wish to the author, write, eh?).
  2. svp67
    svp67 8 March 2019 05: 55
    +12
    That's right, you need to remind about this, but here's the question for the author of the article ...
    These courageous pilots had the opportunity to command Marina Mikhailovna.
    and beneath this is this photo ...
    And why is it here?
    After all, these are the pilots of the female Air Force service, who ferried planes across safe territory. Remember the movie "Driving". And Marina Raskova certainly did not command them.
    Here are the faces of those who fought alongside her and whom she had to command ...



    1. Walking
      Walking 8 March 2019 13: 42
      +7
      It should be noted that Marina Raskova herself did not make a single combat mission, completing the formation of three regiments and sending them to the front, she flew as a member of the flight but the plane crashed and the crew died. The author forgot to add that Raskova was a staff member of the NKVD and was a senior lieutenant in state security. Photos for the article also need to be selected better.
      1. Peter Serdyuk
        8 March 2019 20: 37
        0
        Thanks for the feedback. The author is aware of the facts that you point out in the commentary. Wishes I will consider.
      2. Astra wild
        Astra wild 8 March 2019 22: 13
        0
        On foot, however, the fact that Marina Raskova did not make a single combat mission does not come to her merits. The formation of 3 regiments also meant something.
        By the way, I only knew about the pilots that I fought on the Po-2, but I did not know about other aircraft connections.
        “There was a senior lieutenant of the state security,” I read somewhere that Raskova was the head of a special department and at the same time the commander of an air regiment. Perhaps these are journalistic fantasies, but the fact that the young woman was a senior state security officer is undeniable. Perhaps I am mistaken, but: "senior lieutenant of state security" - similar to the rank of major
        1. fighter angel
          fighter angel 11 March 2019 13: 44
          0
          Aster.
          "Perhaps I am mistaken, but:" senior lieutenant of state security "is similar to the rank of major ..."

          No, you are not mistaken until the ranks of the NKVD and the all-army ranks were equal, and so it was.
          Special titles ...
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 8 March 2019 17: 55
      +2
      But the author doesn’t care: pilots and pilots. Thank you, M. Rech did not push here
    3. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 8 March 2019 19: 58
      +1
      I was also strained by the last photo, where against the background of an American plane there is a group of women in American flight uniforms. And some strange airplane - four-engine. Very similar to B-17. These were not supplied to us by Lend-Lease. Although on the bow there is an inscription in Russian.
      1. Givi_49
        Givi_49 9 March 2019 00: 44
        +2
        This is indeed the B-17 "Pistol Packin 'Mama" of the Women's Air Force Corps. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pistol_Packin%27_Mama
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 9 March 2019 10: 05
          +4
          Well, it’s necessary to try to put a photo from the American comedy film 1943 of the year into an article about the famous Raskova.
      2. Fitter65
        Fitter65 9 March 2019 02: 44
        +4
        Honestly M.M. Raskova only in the 1st photo, against the backdrop of the Motherland plane. The rest of the series would have been.
    4. Peter Serdyuk
      8 March 2019 20: 34
      0
      Thank you for your care and your fair clarification!
  3. Same lech
    Same lech 8 March 2019 06: 13
    +2
    Wonderful woman...
    I take this opportunity to congratulate all Women on the occasion of March 8!
    I wish you all good health, men's attention, well-being in life and good luck all the time ... Congratulations !!! smile love hi
    1. Astra wild
      Astra wild 8 March 2019 07: 17
      +2
      Lesha, thanks for the congratulations. Thank on behalf of all women
  4. Astra wild
    Astra wild 8 March 2019 07: 34
    +2
    Colleagues, pay attention: "The girl graduated from 9-year-old school. The future opera diva was seen in Marina." Nine classes for that time not everyone could boast of this. She could be an opera singer and given her dedication, she could become a celebrity. But she became a renowned aviator.
    Something tells me that Marina was not happy in marriage. Early marriages, and if the chosen one is even older, are rarely happy.
    The author, but you do not know: did Marina have children?
    1. Walking
      Walking 8 March 2019 13: 32
      0
      Quote: Astra wild
      Colleagues, pay attention: "The girl graduated from 9-year-old school. The future opera diva was seen in Marina." Nine classes for that time not everyone could boast of this. She could be an opera singer and given her dedication, she could become a celebrity. But she became a renowned aviator.
      Something tells me that Marina was not happy in marriage. Early marriages, and if the chosen one is even older, are rarely happy.
      The author, but you do not know: did Marina have children?

      There were no children.
      1. Walking
        Walking 8 March 2019 13: 45
        0
        I apologize was mistaken, there was a daughter.
    2. Peter Serdyuk
      8 March 2019 20: 40
      0
      I don’t know about her children. As for happiness in marriage ... I think you are right. Happy not divorced.
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 8 March 2019 22: 15
        0
        So I was not mistaken!
    3. fighter angel
      fighter angel 11 March 2019 14: 17
      0
      Astra, good day to you.

      As for the personal life of Marina Mikhailovna, she broke up with her husband and engineer.
      There is information, not confirmed, that she could have an affair with Alexander Belyakov, the legendary Chkalovsky navigator. At least, it was Belyakov who patronized and supported her in every way ...
  5. Olgovich
    Olgovich 8 March 2019 07: 49
    0
    extremely interesting. beautiful woman.

    the undisputed heroine of all the girls before the war, the whole country.

    infinitely sorry. that she lived such a short life. which, of course, would be enough for a dozen ordinary ones.

    It’s wonderful that on March 8, Women's Day, they remembered our beautiful women heroes.
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 8 March 2019 18: 14
      +1
      I agree with you: "the unconditional heroine of all the girls before the war." Before the war, a girl called Marusya lived in my native village, as the elders told me, she was the most beautiful girl in the village. She was the only one in the whole region to study to be a pilot, she was one of the very first female pilots. Unfortunately, she died young: the cockpit was open, and she flew in a light sweater and died of tuberculosis. Her mother collected photographs of Latvia, she was slightly damaged by her mind, and the neighboring girls were also at one time fond of such photographs
    2. fighter angel
      fighter angel 11 March 2019 14: 20
      0
      Olgovich,
      That rare case when I agree with you.
      "extraordinarily interesting. beautiful woman ..."
      Certainly.
      And you look at portraits / photos of Valentina Grizodubova in her youth.
      The same is a wonderful beauty!

      Who, then, "minus" such a comment for you?
      No shame, no conscience.
  6. Bormanxnumx
    Bormanxnumx 8 March 2019 09: 16
    +8

    In this photo, it’s not Marina Raskova that was captured, but Maria Ivanovna Dolina ...
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 8 March 2019 18: 22
      0
      Honestly, I don’t remember this
  7. Bormanxnumx
    Bormanxnumx 8 March 2019 09: 19
    +7
    The heroine of the article
  8. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 8 March 2019 11: 30
    +6
    In my opinion, the article is good only because it reminds of a female hero on International Women's Day.
    From the point of view of information content, the Wikipedia article provides more. It remains only to recommend to the author to work better on the material and not to be limited to the most superficial study of the topic taken.
    Personally, after reading the article, it seemed to me that it was reprinted from the magazine "Koster" for some 1983 year. The magazine was good, but for middle school children. Here, it seems to me, the audience is older.
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 8 March 2019 18: 20
      +3
      Mikhail, you are critical as always, but I agree with you, the article is kind of superficial. The magazine reminded you: "Bonfire" (by the way, I don't remember it), but it reminded me of a note from a tear-off calendar. There was good information, but more often nonsense
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 8 March 2019 23: 06
        0
        Quote: vladcub
        Michael, you are critical as always

        Not always. In any case, I think so. smile
        I am rather ready to praise the author than to scold, but this is not the case. No work on the material, it’s not even hack work, it’s something more primitive. We are all interested in good informative articles on the site, but I think the time spent reading this is absolutely wasted. Perhaps the author will listen to criticism and his next material will be of higher quality.
        Quote: vladcub
        magazine: "Bonfire" (by the way, I don't remember it)

        There was one, in it I first got acquainted with the work of Maria Semyonova, the story "Urmanskie guests". Perhaps it was a local, Leningrad magazine. I subscribed to "Bonfire" and "Sparkle". smile I still keep it.
        https://www.sites.google.com/site/zurnalysssr/home/kosteer
        If you look beyond 1988, you can even find this story.
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 9 March 2019 14: 13
          +2
          I knew: "Pioneer", "Young border guard,". Around 1995, I accidentally came across the issue of "Pioneer" for 1978, with what interest I leafed through it!
  9. Blacksmith 55
    Blacksmith 55 8 March 2019 11: 51
    0
    Amazing and courageous woman.
    And the article on March 8th. Thank .
    All women with a holiday, health, happiness and long years.
  10. Lamatinets
    Lamatinets 8 March 2019 16: 14
    0
    Happy Holidays to our beautiful women !!!
    1. Astra wild
      Astra wild 8 March 2019 21: 16
      +1
      Blacksmith and all my colleagues, I’ll say on behalf of all women: no matter how strong we are, but life itself makes us strong, but we are WOMEN and we are pleased when men speak warm words to us.
      Friends (already 29 years old) live in another entrance and are generally happy, but he does not recognize March 8: "Is this a holiday - an ordinary day of entry." It’s SO POSITIVE to hear
  11. Givi_49
    Givi_49 9 March 2019 00: 49
    +2
    Marina Mikhailovna NEVER wore epaulettes, she died BEFORE their introduction. In the photo Marina Ivanovna Dolina (https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolina__Maria _Ivanovna_ (pilot)).
  12. Antares
    Antares 9 March 2019 21: 43
    -2
    Women are heroes.
    And all the glorious heroes and commanders of the world were also made by women ..
    love
  13. RomanRoman
    RomanRoman 15 March 2019 16: 15
    0
    Normal article. The author has his own vision))). But the photo with the American pilots is, of course, yes. But also not deadly. I would like to see in the continuation of the series the history of pilots Grizodubova and Osipenko. Also very interesting characters with bright fates.