Military Review

Knights and chivalry of three centuries. CH 5. Knights of France. Central and southern areas

130
Knights of the ranks were mixed up;
and every one has crushed and attacked, putting his weapon in motion.

Whom will the Lord choose, who will send success?
There you could see the stones of mortal years,
A lot of torn mail and dissected armor,
And the way spears and blades both wound and smack.
And the sky in the commotion of arrows was like that
As if the rain drizzled through hundreds of small sieves!
(Song of the Crusade against the Albigensians. Lessa 207. Translated from the Old Asian I. Belavin)


This region includes the entire old kingdom of France south of the Loire River and much of what is now known as Midi-Pyrénées is the largest region of France, covering more than some European countries, such as Denmark, Switzerland or the Netherlands. The area under consideration included a huge duchy of Aquitaine, a smaller duchy of Gascony and many small baronies and marquistes. By the middle of the XI century, its own special culture, its own language (Occitan) and its military traditions were formed here.


A miniature "David and Goliath" from Stephen Harding's Bible, ca. XXUMX-1109. (Library of the Municipality of Dijon)

In the middle of the XII century, almost the entire region, with the exception of the county of Toulouse, fell under the control of the county of Anjou. Heinrich, Count of Anjou, became King Henry II of England, with the result that most of this territory soon became part of the vast Anjou Empire (a term used by some historians, it really was not called that), stretching from Scotland to the Spanish border. It is clear that the French monarchy felt simply obliged to destroy this state in the state, although its majority in the feudal and legal terms theoretically obeyed the French crown. Between 1180 and the beginning of the Hundred Years War in 1337, the kings of France succeeded in reducing the territory of southern France controlled by the English monarchs to the southern part of the county of Sentonges, which belonged to the duchy of Aquitaine, with which it became the possession of England in 1154 and Western Gascony.

Knights and chivalry of three centuries. CH 5. Knights of France. Central and southern areas

Bas-relief depicting fighting horsemen (Church of St. Martin, Vomecourt-sur-Madon, canton of Charm, Epinal district, Vosges, Grand Est, France)

Again, it should be remembered that it was the south of France, and above all the county of Toulouse, that for a long time was the stronghold of the Albigensians, which led to the crusade (1209 - 1229), which in essence was a war of the culturally backward North against the more developed South. The result was the interpenetration of cultures: for example, the work of the troubadours penetrated into the northern regions of France, but in the south there was a significant increase in the military influence of the North.


Milites of Northern France. Fig. Angus McBride

Further, we can say that France was not too lucky in the era of the Middle Ages, because those who did not attack it only at that time. Let's start with the VIII century and ... fingers are not enough to bend to count all who invaded its territory. In 732, the Arabs invaded France and reached Tours. In the 843 year, according to the Treaty of Verdun, the Frankish state was divided into parts: the Middle, Eastern and Western. Paris became the capital of the West Frankish kingdom, and already in 845, it was besieged and then plundered by the Vikings. In 885 — 886, they again laid siege to him. True, this time Paris managed to defend. However, the Vikings, though they left, but only after they were paid 700 silver livres or ... 280 kg! In 911,913,934,954 the central regions were subjected to devastating raids by the Hungarians. In the South of France, they invaded 924 and 935.

That is, the former Carolingian empire was threatened by Vikings from the north, Magyars from the east, and Arabs from the south! That is, the French kingdom before 1050 had to actually develop in the ring of enemies, not to mention the internal wars caused by the phenomenon of feudal fragmentation.

Only knightly cavalry could repel all these blows. And it appeared in France, which is confirmed by the well-known “embroidery from Bayeux”, and numerous miniatures from manuscripts, and, of course, effigii, which in France were no less, if not more, than in neighboring England. But it has already been mentioned here that many of them suffered during the years of the French Revolution. Nevertheless, the fact that one way or another has been preserved to our days is enough to restore the entire course of the changes that the equestrian armament of the knights of France underwent in “our” three centuries.

To begin with, we note that in the thumbnails and 1066 of the year, and 1100 - 1111, that is, about half a century later, the soldiers are depicted almost the same. For example, Goliath from the Harding Bible and the warriors on the bas-relief in the church of St. Martin in the village of Vomecourt-sur-Madon in the Vosges are very similar to each other. The warriors on the bas-relief are almost the same as those depicted in the “embroidery from Bayeux”. They have similar helmets and almond-shaped shields. By the way, they are no different from traditional images of knights of Russia, having exactly the same helmets and almond-shaped or “serpentine” (as they are called in English historiography) shields!


Capitalized warrior with the French manuscript Comments to Psalms 1150-1200 (Library of the University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France)

However, already in 1150 - 1200. the French warriors were dressed in chain mail from head to foot, that is, in chain mail hauberg with woven chain mail gauntlets, although at first the arms of chain mail reached only the elbow. "Tapestry from Bayeux" shows us representatives of the nobility who have mail bands on their legs, tied behind the back with laces or straps. The bulk of the warriors of this protection does not have. But now almost all the soldiers in miniatures are shown dressed in Shoss, woven from chain mail. They are wearing surcoats over the chain mail. The drop-like shield in 100 years turned into a triangular with a flat top.


Crusader from the Illustrated Bible - 1190-1200 manuscript. (Royal National Library of the Netherlands, The Hague). Noteworthy is the outdated by this time protection of the feet, which can be seen even in the “embroidery from Bayeux”.

Helmets also changed their shape. There were helmets in the form of a dome with a noseplate, and at the top of the helmets with a tip, they began to be bent forward. However, referring to the drawings "Winchester Bible" (1165-1170), we note that, although the length of the chain mail remained the same as in 1066, the knight's figure visually changed as the fashion came to wear them over long caftans with floors up to ankles, and besides bright colors! That is, progress in armament had a place, of course, but it was very slow.


Warriors of France in the first half of the XII century. Fig. Angus McBride


The mail made by the Penza master A. Davydov from the fragments of chain mail found at Zolotarevsky site of ancient settlement, that is, relating to the 1236 year. At its production went exactly 23300 rings. Outer diameter - 12,5 mm, inner - 8,5 mm, ring thickness - 1,2 mm. Weight chainmail 9,6 kg. All rings are connected by riveting.


Duel between knights. Mural, approx. 1232-1266 (Tower Ferrand, Pern-les-Fontaine, France). Here, as we see, horse blankets are already present, and, most importantly, forged knee pads. Well, of course, it is very well shown that the blow of a spear to the neck, even if protected by a chain mail, was irresistible.


French knights of the Albigensky era and the leader of the northern crusaders, Simon de Montfort, killed by a stone-thrower during the siege of Toulouse. Fig. Angus McBride Painted helmets are striking (paint was applied to protect them from rust), quilted, ready-made clothing and the same knee pads.

The beginning of the XIII century. marked by a number of significant improvements knight armor. Thus, the shields have become even smaller, the coat of mail has now covered the entire body of the warrior, but to protect the knees they begin to use quilted "pipes" with a convex forged "cup". Although, again, not all of them wear them at first. But gradually, the novelty is in widespread use.


Carcassonne effigy. General form.

In the castle of Carcassonne, there is a nameless effigy of the 13th century, brought there from the nearby Abbey of La Grass, and which, despite the damage inflicted on it, very clearly shows us the most typical changes in the armament of the knights of this century. On it we see a surco, and with two coats of arms embroidered on the chest. Moreover, it is not the coat of arms of the Tranquelles family. On it is a fortress with a single tower and border. It is known that from the moment Robert I of Anjou in France “invented” the border, she immediately sold out across Europe, and in a variety of variations, imitations and imitations, and in Spain she was particularly successful. In France, they began to use it for the breeze (modification) of the coat of arms and include third sons in the coat of arms. That is, it is either the coat of arms of some Spanish knight or a French, but the third son, some sufficiently sovereign seigneur. Finding out is important for one simple reason. We know the approximate time of the death of the master of effigia and ... see his armor. He is wearing a mail haberk, but his legs below his knees are covered with anatomical leggings and sabatons characteristic of Spain from plates. At that time, only very wealthy people could wear such armor, as they were not widely distributed. And the effigy itself is very large (see photo), and the no more a sculpture is, the more it is ... more expensive!


Surcoat with coats of arms and a mail hood with a characteristic flap. Castle Carcassonne.


Feet carcassonian effigy. The loops on the leg lattices and the rivets on the sabaton plates are clearly visible.

By the way, about the fact that for some time among the knights there was a fashion for the image of coats of arms on the chest of surco. David Nicole in his book “The French Army in the Hundred Years War” presented a photograph of the effect of the lord of the castle of Bramevac in the first half of the 14th century as a sample of the armor of an outdated sample, which were then kept in remote corners of southern France. On it, we even see three coats of arms at once: big on the chest and two coats of arms on the sleeves.


Effigiya seignor Bramevaka. One of the tombs of the cloister of the Cathedral of Notre Dame, Saint-Bertrand de Comenge, Haute-Garonne, France.

An exceptionally valuable illuminated source of information on military affairs of the 13th century is the Bible of Macieus (or the Bible of the Crusader), commissioned by the French King Louis IX Saint somewhere in 1240-1250. Her miniatures depict knights and infantry, armed precisely in the characteristic for this time armor for France, belonging to the royal domain. After all, the one who illustrated it simply could not be somewhere far away from the king, her customer. And apparently he was very well versed in all the subtleties of military craft. However, in her miniatures there are no horsemen in the plate. From this it is permissible to conclude that they were already in the South of France, but not yet in its North!


Scene from the Bible of Macieusky (Library and Museum of Morgan, New York). The central figure attracts attention. It is difficult to say which biblical story formed the basis of this miniature, but it is significant that he holds his “big helmet” in his hand. Apparently it is not very convenient for him. The wounds depicted on the miniature are characteristic - a half severed arm, a helmet cut by a sword and a dagger wound in the face.

At the same time, if we look at a number of effigy of the early 14th century, including the effect of Robert II the Noble, Count d'Artois (1250 —1302), who fell in the battle of Courtray, it is not difficult to see that he had legs on his feet are present. That is, at the beginning of the XIV century, they entered into the use of knighthood everywhere, not only in the South, but also in the North.


Effigiya Robert II Noble, Count d'Artois. (Basilica Saint-Denis, Paris)


Another effect with plate covers of the legs and sabatons of chain mail. (Cathedral Corbeil-Esson, Esson, France)

On the same effigia, chainmail gauntlets are well preserved. Obviously, they were tied directly to the sleeves. However, slits were made on the palms, allowing them to be removed. That's just interesting, they were tightened with some laces or not, because otherwise in the heat of battle such a glove could slip off the hand at the most inopportune moment.


The hands of effigii from the cathedral in Corbeil-Esson. Photo close up.

A curious document was preserved that was written shortly before the beginning of the Hundred Years War and where the process of dressing a French knight in armor was successively described. So, first the knight should have put on a free shirt and ... comb her hair.

Then came the turn of stockings and leather shoes. Then he had to put on his leggings and knee-pads made of iron or of “boiled leather”, a quilted jacket-aketon and mail with a hood. Over it was put on the shell, similar to the poncho of metal plates sewn onto the fabric and covering the throat plate collar. All this was hidden by a surcoat caftan with a knight's coat of arms embroidered on it. On the hands should wear plate gauntlets made from plates of whalebone, and over the shoulder is a sling for the sword. Only after that did he finally put on a heavy helmet or a lighter seat with or without a visor. The shield at that time was used quite rarely.


The original helmet of the cap of overlapping metal bands, we see in the "Chronicle of Baduan d'Avesna", c.1275-1299. (Municipal Media Library Arras, France). Knights hardly wore such ersatzes, but for the city militia this helmet was just right.

The weapons and armor of the city militia differed greatly in their quality. Moreover, since weapon Militiamen often bought the city magistrate, then it was often used not even by one, but by several generations of warriors. Weapons were most often purchased, but wooden shields were usually made on site, it was not too difficult. As a rule, the crossbowmen had more complete armor than the archers, because during the siege of a castle or a city, they were the ones who participated in exchanges of fire with their defenders, who also fired from crossbows. For example, the list of equipment that a crossbowman named Geran Quesnel from the Clos de Galé arsenal in Rouen received in 1340 has been preserved. According to him, Zheran was given a shell, a corset, most likely a chain mail shirt, which had to be worn under the shell, bracers and, in addition, a plate collar.

The same arsenal of Clos de Gale in Rouen produced armor, siege engines, ships, although the best in quality crossbows did come from Toulouse. By the beginning of the Hundred Years War, this city could produce silk-covered and cloth-lined gambesons, lamellar armor for warriors and their horses, bascinetts, cappella helmets with margins, handguards and various shields (either white or painted in the colors of the French coat of arms and decorated with images golden lilies). It produced daggers, spears, darts-dards, Norman axes, known in England as Danish axes, crossbows and trigger crossbows, and to them in large quantities crossbow bolts, which were stacked in batches in metal upholstered boxes. By the way, the first mention of testing armor in France was also found in a document from Rouen relating to 1340.

During the Hundred Years War, the assortment of armor, which were produced in Clos de Galé, replenished samples of armor, borrowed from countries. For example, the production of Genoese shells covered with canvas and bascinet, as well as plate collars, mentioned in the document 1347, was established here. The coat at that time gradually lost its gauntlets and hood, and its sleeves and hem were shortened all the time until it turned into short haubergon. Early versions of the cuirass, as it is now believed, were made of “boiled leather”, and also, judging by some effigiyami - strips of metal, setting one on another. Many of the armor had a fabric cover, although, for example, the French 1337 document reported a shell without a fabric cover, but it had a leather lining. That is, in the knightly at that time there were such!


Richard de Jocort - Effigy 1340 of the Year - (Abbey of Saint-Saint-l'Abbe, Côte d'Or, France)

Initially, protective arms for the arms and legs were made of strips of hard leather and metal. So, in 1340, in Clau de Gale, plate bracers are mentioned. The bevor's chin, which strengthened the chain mail barmitsa, descending to the shoulders of bascinet, became widespread in the 1330's, and one of the first French mentions concerning the plate collar refers to the 1337 year. Great helmets, made in this arsenal, for some reason listed among ... ship equipment. Well, the first bascinet, which was made here, was released in 1336 year, and it could be simple hemispherical helmet liner helmets (worn together with a “big helmet”) and helmets that have a movable visor, which could be removed if necessary. Also, the study of French effigy shows that all-metal sabatons appeared here much earlier than in other European countries, namely, by the year 1340!


The drawing of Angus McBride depicts a knight in such equipment.

The question of recognition by knights of each other on a hollow battle, apparently, was already of great importance at that time. And here we clearly see at least two "experiments" in this area. At first, the coats of arms were embroidered (or sewn on clothes), but in the first quarter of the XIV century they began to be depicted on the ellets - shoulder plates made of cardboard, “boiled leather” or plywood, trimmed with colored fabric. Obviously, the rigid base allowed for a better look at the coat of arms, and it could have been poured with blood less than if it was embroidered on a coat on a chest. And they could be round and square, and even in the shape of ... hearts!


French knights in miniature from Ovid's Morals, 1330 (National Library of France, Paris)

Thus, we can conclude that the southern and central regions of France played an important role in the development of knightly weapons from 1050 to 1350. Many innovations were tested here and introduced into the practice of mass use. However, even in the years of the Hundred Years War, the French knighthood still wore chain mail, which did not really protect them from arrows of bows and crossbows, only their legs were covered with anatomical leggings and knee pads, but such an improvement did not affect security in battle . It was precisely because of the lack of security of their riders that the French lost both the Battle of Crecy in 1346, and the Battle of Poitiers in 1356 ...

Использованная литература:
1. Nicolle, D. French medieval armies 1000-1300. L .: Osprey Publishing (Men-at-arms series No. 231), 1991.
2. Verbruggen, JF, The Art of War of Europe on the Middle Ages from the Eight Century to 1340. Amsterdam - NY Oxford, 1977.
3. DeVries, K. Infantry Warfare in the Early Fourteenth Century. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1996.
4. Curry, A. The Hundred Years' War 1337-1453. Oxford, Osprey Publishing (Essential Histories 19), 2002.
5. Nicolle, D. Crecy, 1346: Triumph of the Black Prince, Osprey Publishing (Campaign No. XXUMX), 71.
6. Nicolle, D. Poitiers 1356: The King of Osprey Publishing (Campaign No. XXUMX), 138.
7. Nicoll, D. The French Army in the Hundred Years War / Trans. from English N.A.Phenogenov. M .: LLC “Publisher AST; Astrel Publishing LLC, 2004.


To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Knights of Ireland (part 4)
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Knights of Scotland (part 3)
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Knighthood and knights of England and Wales. Part of 2
Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Knighthood and knights of northern France. Part of 1
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  1. polpot
    polpot 7 March 2019 05: 50
    +7
    Thanks, very interesting
  2. tlauicol
    tlauicol 7 March 2019 06: 12
    +2
    The chain mail lasted a long time. Although it does not protect against stabbing blows. Apparently, while the knights were killing the knights, and the vigilantes of the vigilantes. As soon as life "improved" and there were masses of powerful archers, the honor of the turnip began.
    It is not clear why the Romans again returned to chain mail? Impoverished? Has the opponent changed? Or the composition of the army
    1. Lamatinets
      Lamatinets 7 March 2019 07: 23
      +1
      By the way, chain mail can protect against piercing, if there were chain mail of very small weaving) or correctly), but how much they cost and how much they weigh!
      1. tlauicol
        tlauicol 7 March 2019 07: 46
        +2
        Quote: Lamatinets
        By the way, chain mail can protect against piercing, if there were chain mail of very small weaving) or correctly), but how much they cost and how much they weigh!

        Bilbo Baggins had this wink Yes, and the swords stopped stabbing properly
        1. Lamatinets
          Lamatinets 7 March 2019 07: 48
          +3
          Well, there it was mithril, and its secret has been lost to this day. wink
    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 7 March 2019 17: 43
      +4
      Quote: Tlauicol
      The chain mail lasted a long time. Although it does not protect against stabbing blows. Apparently, while the knights were killing the knights, and the vigilantes of the vigilantes. As soon as life "improved" and there were masses of powerful archers, the honor of the turnip began.
      It is not clear why the Romans again returned to chain mail? Impoverished? Has the opponent changed? Or the composition of the army

      And the first and second, and third !!!
      But the most important thing is that Romney, by the 4th to 5th centuries, realized that a manipulated mobile system can withstand the quality and defeat any opponent! The empire was too vast and the enemies were too different!
      Regards, Vlad!
    3. Mikhail Matyugin
      Mikhail Matyugin 8 March 2019 15: 30
      +1
      Quote: Tlauicol
      It is not clear why the Romans again returned to chain mail? Impoverished? Has the opponent changed?

      How to understand "returned again"? In fact, they never left her, as they received - from the Greeks, Illyrians or Celts - and so they practiced until the end of Western imiperia. It's just that lorica segmentata is quite laborious to manufacture, inconvenient in battle, and requires a person to the right size, while chain mail is devoid of all these shortcomings, and it is more accurate and easier to hide from arrows and spears with a shield than to rely on armor.
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 7 March 2019 07: 11
    +1
    even during the Hundred Years War, the French knighthood still wore chain mail, which did not truly protect against the arrows of bows and crossbows,

    This is better than nothing.
    And sometimes she defended, when the arrows were at the end ...
    1. Mikhail Matyugin
      Mikhail Matyugin 8 March 2019 15: 32
      +3
      Quote: Olgovich
      This is better than nothing.
      And sometimes she defended, when the arrows were at the end ...

      Just the experience of Crassus, and then Emperor Gordian, showed not only Roman shields and chain mail. but segmented loriks do not protect well from the new type of bows that appeared among the Parthians, and then among the Sassanid Persians.

      Only one-piece cuirass - or multilayer armor (such as aketon-chain mail-lamellar) protects from arrows.
  4. Lamatinets
    Lamatinets 7 March 2019 07: 20
    +3
    Thank you, an excellent series of articles, I was surprised that the French had so much effigy left, I thought that after the revolution they could simply be counted on the fingers.
    1. kalibr
      7 March 2019 08: 06
      +6
      They can be counted on the fingers ... 300 pieces are few, very few ...
      1. Lamatinets
        Lamatinets 7 March 2019 09: 09
        +2
        No, well, all the same, 300, although it gives some idea of ​​history.
        1. kalibr
          7 March 2019 09: 36
          +5
          In general, there is an idea to consider the French effigies in detail. Because I wrote poorly about Angshian and German ones, wrote about Spanish ones ... But with French, until recently it was bad. Their photos should be looked for more, I would say - persistently. In England there is a "Medieval Society", which photographed a lot of effigies and allowed them to be used. But there are no French ones. Then in France the effigs of priests, monks, simply noble ladies were preserved, but the effigies of the knights got it. Therefore, when you are looking for them in cathedrals and churches, women priests often come out. And among the knights there are a lot of "broken" ones.
          1. Lamatinets
            Lamatinets 7 March 2019 10: 56
            +2
            Effigy nuns !!!! Thank you, I did not even imagine that this could be. !!!
            1. kalibr
              7 March 2019 15: 06
              +4
              Nuns, abbess ... wives of knights ... There are a lot of them. But what about them you write? They are shocked from head to toe!
  5. OAV09081974
    OAV09081974 7 March 2019 08: 12
    +9
    I would like to thank the distinguished author for creating an interesting cycle, which I read with the same interest. In this case, a part is devoted to the peculiarities of armament and equipment of representatives of the classics of European knighthood - the French.
    Always very interesting. Thank!
    1. kalibr
      7 March 2019 09: 36
      +6
      Thank you, dear Alexey Vladimirovich!
      1. OAV09081974
        OAV09081974 7 March 2019 09: 37
        +7
        Thank you! hi
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 8 March 2019 20: 49
          +1
          I, too, will join in gratitude to the esteemed Caliber. hi McBride is gorgeous, effigies and miniatures are gorgeous. good Only one question remains .... Where did the great Afro-Russian poet Alexander "our everything" Pushkin come from in the last picture ?! belay wink
          1. bubalik
            bubalik 8 March 2019 21: 13
            +1
            Pane Kohanku
            Today, 21The only question remains ...

            ,, I'm thinking recourse where is it from belay
            laughing
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 8 March 2019 21: 46
              +1
              this is a medieval "light-hearted rider"! belay
  6. Korsar4
    Korsar4 7 March 2019 08: 27
    +4
    Thank. Very interesting.

    Unprotected spot neck. This is another Achilles with Hector shown.
    1. Lamatinets
      Lamatinets 7 March 2019 09: 07
      +2
      The back of the neck was protected, but the front is simply not real, or rather, there were attempts, but ....
  7. Decimam
    Decimam 7 March 2019 09: 10
    +5
    but in the first quarter of the XNUMXth century they began to be depicted on eletes - shoulder plates made of cardboard, “boiled leather” or plywood, sheathed with colored fabric.
    Obviously, there is an inaccuracy.
    Cardboard appeared in France in 1751, the famous scientist Reaumur is considered its inventor.
    Plywood in 1797 was patented by the British Bentham.
    1. kalibr
      7 March 2019 09: 42
      +4
      Well, plywood was also known to other Romans, cardboard ... yes, most likely it could be cursed parchment. But writing "thin wooden plates or plaques" somehow ... doesn't sound. And so I'll tell you everything is clear.
      1. Decimam
        Decimam 7 March 2019 11: 16
        +3
        Egypt, Greece, Rome - this is not plywood in the modern sense. It is rather ersatz caused by a lack of wood. Medieval Europe did not suffer from wood deficiency.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 8 March 2019 20: 52
          0
          Medieval Europe did not suffer from wood deficiency.

          however, she built everything from stone, and we from wood. request
          1. Decimam
            Decimam 8 March 2019 21: 19
            +3
            You are greatly mistaken about the "all-stone" Europe. Read the literature on the history of half-timbered houses or, as they call it in France - kolombage. And you will find out that Europe was not at all made of stone.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 8 March 2019 21: 48
              +2
              Panah Kohanku, I don’t have time to read everything. This is better for you, as a professional engineer! hi I am a "charmed wanderer", what I see is what I write about! request
              1. Decimam
                Decimam 8 March 2019 21: 51
                +2
                No need to read everything. We can, suppose, not read Shpakovsky. Already thirty books less. And you can always find time to read normal literature.
                No time - get a sensible secretary who organizes your working day. Just choose not according to the length of the legs and the size of the bust, but according to the functional readiness.
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 8 March 2019 21: 57
                  +2
                  hmm .. what, did Vyacheslav Olegovich bring you during my absence? laughing
                  No time - get a sensible secretary who organizes your working day. Just choose not according to the length of the legs and the size of the bust, but according to the functional readiness.

                  Of course, I’ll only take the length of the legs .. but the bust .. you know, dear Viktor Nikolaevich, I always liked the small one .. good
                  No need to read everything. We can, suppose, not read Shpakovsky.

                  I’ll read it, as the one thanks to which we are familiar, to Panah Kohanka request how are wild indian monkeys doing there? should I write another script? starring Michael Pare, how about you? wink drinks
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 8 March 2019 22: 33
                    +1
                    "Sportloto-82". Episode with Brondukov and his assistant. This is almost all information for thought.
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 8 March 2019 22: 40
                      0
                      I do not remember.. recourse I remember this:
                      https://topwar.ru/134930-vpihnut-nevpihaemoe-boevik-ili-myuzikl.html
                      I gave a detailed script in the comments below ... drinks
                  2. Decimam
                    Decimam 8 March 2019 22: 35
                    +2
                    No, Shpakovsky and I are old friends. Although he often gets angry, at heart he agrees with my criticism.
                    The secretary is primarily the organization of office work, planning and coordination of the boss. The presence of a competent secretary greatly facilitates the work, believe the experience. And if itching in the loins occurs periodically at work, it means little work.
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 8 March 2019 22: 44
                      +1
                      The secretary is primarily the organization of office work, planning and coordination of the boss. The presence of a competent secretary greatly facilitates the work, believe the experience. And if itching in the loins occurs periodically at work, it means little work.

                      over the past ten years, my dear man, I understood too well what organization means. wink I told you everything else, just giving vile advice on how to cook sausages on an atomic absorption spectrometer! Shame on you, Pana Kohanku?drinks
                      1. Decimam
                        Decimam 8 March 2019 22: 45
                        +4
                        Is sharing knowledge shameful?
                      2. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 8 March 2019 22: 52
                        +2
                        I didn’t tell them (employees) about your knowledge .. but it’s not enough that ... what
                        for sausages - there is a microwave! wink
  • sivuch
    sivuch 7 March 2019 10: 25
    +4
    It was because of the insufficient protection of their riders that the French lost both the battle of Crescy in 1346 and the battle of Poitiers in 1356 ...
    Well, the point here is more in tactics, especially since under the Maupertuis the French mostly fought on foot.
    And at the beginning of the 15th century, the transition to armor was completed, which did not stop the French from losing miserably at Agincourt, Valmont, and Verney.
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 7 March 2019 10: 58
    +6
    A scene from "The Bible of Matsievsky".
    Fluffy slippers are scattered across the battlefield, and the central knight collects them with a spear? smile
    Seriously though, it is not clear what these "curly" fragments are.
    In addition, the swords shown in the picture were surprised. The uncle who just cut another's head, I think, has typical caroling in his hands: poorly developed guard, a short handle across the width of the palm, a wide blade with a pronounced long dale and a rounded tip ... spherical, but just as massive. At the time of St. Louis, fashion was as if swords of the Romanesque type.
    1. Decimam
      Decimam 7 March 2019 14: 12
      +5
      Scene from Matsievsky’s Bible (Morgan Library and Museum, New York). The central figure is noteworthy. It is difficult to say which biblical plot formed the basis of this miniature, but it is significant that he holds his “big helmet” in his hand. Apparently it is not too convenient for him. The miniature wounds are typical - a half-severed arm, a helmet cut by a sword, a wound with a dagger in the face
      Here the author, in my opinion, made a mistake. It was nevertheless necessary to understand and give a more detailed explanation of what is the Matsievsky Bible.
      Matsievsky’s Bible is a handwritten Bible, commissioned by the King of France, Louis IX of Saint, mastermind and leader of two crusades - the seventh and eighth.
      The manuscript contains 283 illustrations for the first books of the Bible from Creation to the reign of David (First Book of Kings). The cycles of miniatures highlight the life of the kings of Saul and David. The manuscript is unique in that it contains 21 large illustrations of battle scenes, written in all details, reflecting the realities not of biblical times, but of the wars of the Middle Ages.
      The illustration in the article depicts the plot "The Israelites Defeat the Philistines."
      Considering that the creation of the manuscript dates back to 1240-1250, the sword "At the Uncle's" is Romanesque or Capetian, very similar to its predecessor, the Carolingian sword. Used in Europe from about 1000 to 1350.
      1. kalibr
        7 March 2019 15: 03
        +4
        Here was my article; THE BIBLE OF MATSIEVSKY AS A HISTORICAL SOURCE. "
        1. Decimam
          Decimam 7 March 2019 15: 10
          +3
          How then to explain "It is difficult to say which biblical story formed the basis for this miniature."?
          1. kalibr
            7 March 2019 16: 08
            +3
            I do not know! Sources are viewed from different angles. I did not touch the content.
            1. Decimam
              Decimam 7 March 2019 17: 17
              +4
              An interesting discussion turns out.
              - It was nevertheless necessary to understand and give a more detailed explanation of what is the Matsievsky Bible.
              - Here was my article; THE BIBLE OF MATSIEVSKY AS A HISTORICAL SOURCE. "
              - How then to explain "It is difficult to say which biblical story formed the basis of this miniature"?
              - I do not know! Sources are viewed from different angles. I did not touch the content.
              I wonder from which side a historical source can be viewed as such, without touching its content?
              1. kalibr
                7 March 2019 17: 36
                +2
                Quote: Decimam
                I wonder from which side a historical source can be viewed as such, without touching its content?
                Victor Nikolaevich! Maybe enough to play the fool? Yes, with whatever ... and absolutely do not touch the content!
                1. Decimam
                  Decimam 7 March 2019 19: 46
                  +3
                  In general, yes, if you slightly shorten the historical stage of consideration and exclude the logical one, you can not touch the content.
      2. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 7 March 2019 15: 24
        +5
        Quote: Decimam
        "That uncle's" is Romanesque or Capetian, very similar to its predecessor, the Carolingian sword.

        It was precisely the fact that the Roman swords differed from the Carolingian in the first place by a more developed guard, a longer handle that was free for the hand and a sharp point (the rounded tip was typical for Carolingian swords), and brought me to thought. All these signs of the sword in question, as if absent.
        By the way, not so long ago I read in some material on the sword of Dovmont, that from the middle of the XIII century. in Central Europe (Passau) they began to make swords with a pronounced edge and balance, shifted to the hilt, that is, of the Gothic type, as an example of which, in fact, Dovmont’s sword is.
        1. kalibr
          7 March 2019 16: 11
          +5
          About swords will be according to Nicolas, and according to Ochshott, and according to Lable ...
  • wolf20032
    wolf20032 7 March 2019 15: 49
    +1
    Insufficient security, if it took place, has nothing to do with the defeat at Cresi.
    1. kalibr
      7 March 2019 16: 10
      +4
      Under the hail of arrows of the English archers, you would not argue ...
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 8 March 2019 19: 05
        +2
        Well, something like this. I saw in action (naturally) only modern replicas, but even they, on a hundred meters, pierce a 50mm board, the arrow goes one third long
  • Torins
    Torins 7 March 2019 19: 41
    +2
    Quote: Tlauicol
    The chain mail lasted a long time. Although it does not protect against stabbing blows. Apparently, while the knights were killing the knights, and the vigilantes of the vigilantes. As soon as life "improved" and there were masses of powerful archers, the honor of the turnip began.
    It is not clear why the Romans again returned to chain mail? Impoverished? Has the opponent changed? Or the composition of the army

    It's all about the quality of the steel from which the swords were made, for a sword that stabs well the blade should be narrow, and such then quickly broke, which could cost a knight's life. Therefore, chopping weapons prevailed on the battlefields, with which chain mail was not very bad at handling, shields well saved from arrows.
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 7 March 2019 19: 50
    +3
    "... the work of the troubadours has penetrated the northern regions of France."
    I still think that the spread of treachery in France and England took place in a more peaceful way, namely, the matrimonial history of Alienor of Aquitaine.
    Thank you for the article! By the way, why is the source of the illustration with the effigy of Simon de Montfort not indicated? Modesty, of course, decorates it, but it goes against your own rules for processing materials.
    1. kalibr
      7 March 2019 21: 32
      +2
      These are my own photos, so why should I specify? "Photo of the author"? What for...
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 7 March 2019 21: 42
        +2
        For the fact that this is intellectual property. In order not to violate the boundaries of the alien, you care, and yours ... Yes, grow it! However, very in Russian ...
        1. kalibr
          8 March 2019 10: 38
          +2
          Ha! Interesting thought! It never crossed my mind. However, we are all limited in some way ... in knowledge, logic, "thinking" - roughly speaking, with humor, some (for me, for example) are bad. And then ... somehow I didn't think about it at all, but in the books in England, under all my photos, there is a signature: Author's photo.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 8 March 2019 13: 21
            +2
            Voooot! That is, the publisher appreciates your efforts to create original illustrative material. And you, for some reason, constantly giving links to the author or the owner of the illustrations, somehow forget about your own work. And this is real - work, in the permanent time trouble of a bus tour, to make high-quality photo material! I tried - I know.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 8 March 2019 14: 59
              +2
              Naturally, "permanent time trouble". However, the "predatory things of the century" are already deciding for us.
            2. kalibr
              8 March 2019 15: 31
              +2
              The more I think about your words, the more I see their meaning. OK!!!! Thank you for poking your nose into the obvious.
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 8 March 2019 21: 07
                +3
                Anton will not tell you bad .... wink
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 8 March 2019 22: 03
                  +2
                  "I only have two flaws: damn smart and terribly modest." laughing
                  Meanwhile, rumors of my intellect are greatly exaggerated.
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 8 March 2019 22: 32
                    +1
                    Meanwhile, rumors of my intellect are greatly exaggerated.

                    The fool does what he wants, multiplies exponentially, imposes his opinion on others, and makes them unhappy! And then repents! And such - 80 percent! negative
                    A smart person .. always doubts .. which makes the work of fools easier! am
                    Anton, I've been sure for a long time in the last scene of "The Ball of the Vampires", its chorus: "The whole world belongs to killers and ...." And what is wrong? why fools make a nonsense, why do you, the smartest person, consider yourself miserable? good drinks
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 8 March 2019 22: 39
                      +2
                      I respect Socrates too much to consider myself smarter than him, because: "I only know that I know nothing."
                      1. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 8 March 2019 22: 46
                        +1
                        I respect Socrates too much to consider myself smarter than him, because: "I only know that I know nothing."

                        yeah, and the fanatic Mark Krysoboy is also a good man! yes drinks
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 8 March 2019 22: 52
                        +2
                        Slightly different categories, don’t you?
                  2. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 8 March 2019 22: 45
                    +3
                    "Anton Palych Chekhov once remarked:
                    "The clever one loves to learn, but - to teach."
                    How many fools in my life I met.
                    It is high time for me to receive an order "(c).
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 8 March 2019 22: 57
                      +2
                      To be honest, I'm tired of teaching. My son, this is my last experience of "teaching professional skills"
                      "I'm tired of being a rock and roll singer in an irregular country"
                    2. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 8 March 2019 23: 01
                      +2
                      "Discoverers of many truths,
                      Rare Book Consultants
                      Eyewitnesses to the big events
                      Interlocutors of kings "(c).
                    3. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 8 March 2019 23: 10
                      +2
                      "He knows about everything, he knows about everyone,
                      What Grebenshchikov brought, whom Ricochet beat "
                    4. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 8 March 2019 23: 30
                      +2
                      "Gather your own people that make simple hearts cry" (c).
                    5. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 8 March 2019 23: 40
                      +3
                      "You and I will go through the taverns,
                      We will find the old command "
                    6. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 8 March 2019 23: 47
                      +2
                      I love this song.

                      "Argo! Is your way closer,
                      What is the milky road? "(C)
                    7. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 8 March 2019 23: 50
                      +2
                      "Where are you going, Odysseus?
                      From a wife, from children?
                      Oh, you would go home, Penelope! "
                    8. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 9 March 2019 00: 04
                      +2
                      "To taste that poison again,
                      Return event wheel,
                      I would give hymns of glory
                      And honor, and Calypso's bed "(c).
                    9. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 9 March 2019 00: 13
                      +2
                      "... bushes, buildings, grunting pigs, an overgrown garden, some kind of queen, grass and stones."
                    10. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 9 March 2019 00: 22
                      +2
                      "On a crumbling bench - Elder Pliny.
                      Thrush chirps in the cypress hair "(c)
                    11. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 9 March 2019 00: 33
                      +1
                      "Melted in the distant fog Rybachy
                      Our dear land "
                    12. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 9 March 2019 00: 56
                      +2
                      "So we arrived -
                      The edge of the earth
                      Like a driftwood on the water, thrown ... "(c).
                    13. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 9 March 2019 00: 59
                      +2
                      "And letters with transfers fly from the mainland
                      To the farthest harbor of the Union
                      And I throw pebbles from a steep bank
                      Distant La Perouse Strait "
                    14. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 9 March 2019 08: 00
                      +1
                      "Ivan Fyodorovich Kruzenshtern. The man and the ship" (c).
                    15. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 9 March 2019 08: 12
                      +1
                      "- And who is Ivan Fedorovich Kruzenshtern?
                      - I don't know, but my grandmother swam on this boat.
                    16. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 9 March 2019 08: 15
                      +1
                      “My grandmother smokes a pipe” (c).
                    17. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 9 March 2019 08: 21
                      +1
                      "He walks after me and mutters like a routine:" Change socks Karlsonchik, change socks ""
                    18. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 9 March 2019 08: 24
                      +1
                      "Icebergs! We can understand this. Ten years have passed since life" (c).
                    19. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 9 March 2019 08: 43
                      +1
                      "Nobody wants to think about where the Titanic is sailing."
                    20. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 9 March 2019 08: 53
                      +1
                      "Fly, fly, dove. And we will cut your wings" (c).
                    21. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 9 March 2019 09: 05
                      0
                      "Help! Hooligans are depriving them of sight!"
                    22. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 9 March 2019 10: 15
                      +1
                      "And the scent is like a dog's.
                      And the eye is like an eagle's "(c).
                    23. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 9 March 2019 10: 20
                      +1
                      "Will never kneel
                      Even if they are captured
                      Proud and bold seals
                      Because seals don't have knees. "
                    24. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 9 March 2019 10: 35
                      +1
                      "I thought I would hang myself, -
                      Duck, again, there is no neck "(c).
                    25. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 9 March 2019 11: 02
                      +1
                      I propose on this to complete the next round of our exciting game.
                    26. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 9 March 2019 11: 26
                      +2
                      I agree. At least someone has shown reason.
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 8 March 2019 22: 35
    +3
    "Go, go, and I'll stand still.
    I like it terribly.

    - What am I. Here. "(C).
  • kalibr
    8 March 2019 10: 46
    +2
    By the way, dear Anton! I changed the route of my summer trip. Now it will be like this: Warsaw, Berlin, Paris (two days), then the South of France, then Spain (a week) Costa Bravo, then the Cote d'Azur, Nice, then Venice, Vienna and ... home. Now I am drawing up a "museum plan" of where to visit, what to see and photograph. I hope that I will be able to photograph a lot of interesting things and visit many interesting places. So from the end of August, new articles about new interesting places, museums and castles will be published.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 8 March 2019 13: 23
      +2
      What are the changes related to? As far as I remember, an "Italian campaign" was planned
      1. kalibr
        8 March 2019 15: 29
        +2
        The book is out. A book came out - more money. And the timing has changed. The granddaughter finishes the 9th grade and goes to college. The terms of the "Italian company" did not allow taking it with you. And so, she will go with us. I wrote to you, it seems that we have a tradition to go everywhere "as a family".
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 8 March 2019 17: 49
          +3
          "Family" is great! I generally have a bad idea of ​​"cultural" events alone.
          1. kalibr
            8 March 2019 18: 02
            +3
            quote = 3x3zsave] "Family" is great! I generally have a bad idea of ​​"cultural" events alone. [/ Quote]
            I, too, Anton, and ... glad that you are of the same opinion. But ... as always there is +, there is and -. What is interesting to my women is not interesting to me and vice versa. And you usually have to give in to whom? I, naturally, because in them my happiness and my concern to them. But I would like to and fro. I walk very fast - they are not. I'm not afraid to get lost ... They let me in for free at all castles and museums. They are not ... And sometimes it is very expensive. And they are not interested, but do not wait for them to wait on the bench ... And I would go to some places ... They want to others. Sometimes we agree on a route for a month ... And sometimes on the route it is very ... tense.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 8 March 2019 18: 27
              +2
              Well, logistics is a fundamentally difficult "study", and even more burdened by intra-family gender "cockroaches"!
              Meanwhile, pass my congratulations on your holiday to your women!
              1. kalibr
                8 March 2019 18: 48
                +3
                Thank you, Anton, of course I will convey it. They will be pleased, I told them about you ...
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 8 March 2019 19: 35
                  +3
                  Vyacheslav Olegovich, right, I'm starting to be shy about my media! A fifteen-year-old girl in Penza knows about me and does not know about Pavel Volya?!?! laughing
                2. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 8 March 2019 19: 54
                  +4
                  This is already the theory of "electronic handshakes".

                  Gogol is recalled with Dobrinsky and Bobchinsky.
                3. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 8 March 2019 19: 58
                  +2
                  Damn, Sergey! I tried to subtly joke ... request
                4. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 8 March 2019 20: 00
                  +3
                  And what field has opened.
                  For example: "All dogs know me in Bergamo" (c).
                5. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 8 March 2019 20: 09
                  +2
                  Oh yeah!
                  "Every saddled horse
                  The head nods towards me ... "
                  Whenever Russian rock music, I would not read Yesenin.
                  Meanwhile, they are inextricably linked, soulful lyrics and hard punk.
                6. Roni
                  Roni 8 March 2019 20: 39
                  +3
                  When traveling, you can look around, stayed around a thematic object, huh, suddenly, familiar forum users ?! And then check the photos.
                  In general, there was already the idea of ​​photo reports from trips to interx places.
                7. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 8 March 2019 21: 39
                  +3
                  There is one nuance here. This is still "Military Review", not "Subtleties of Tourism".
                  However, I am always ready to share my travel experience.
                8. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 8 March 2019 21: 59
                  +2
                  There is one nuance here. This is still "Military Review", not "Subtleties of Tourism".

                  why? Ryzhov writes excellent geographical articles, for example! Respect to him, Mr. Cohan! drinks
                9. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 8 March 2019 22: 09
                  +3
                  Taki Ryzhov is a staff writer and knows Paris well. If I write about Barcelona, ​​it will be the "subtleties of tourism".
                10. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 8 March 2019 22: 24
                  +3
                  It's just that your article will go to "opinions", that's all! drinks
                11. Roni
                  Roni 8 March 2019 22: 53
                  +3
                  A lively look and opinion is great, and those who know will throw m wise comments.
                12. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 8 March 2019 23: 22
                  +2
                  Dear Roni, have you met many "knowledgeable with wise comments" in the "Opinions" section ???
                13. Roni
                  Roni 8 March 2019 23: 39
                  +2
                  Everything is interconnected.
      2. Roni
        Roni 8 March 2019 22: 06
        +2
        Well, it depends on who will look.
        "Two people looked through one window:
        One saw rain and mud
        The other is green ligature foliage "
      3. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 8 March 2019 22: 24
        +2
        Oh, this is my long-standing dispute with Vyacheslav Olegovich on the subject of "rotten fences and littered balconies." I also see dirt, because by my marginal nature, I have a habit of climbing non-tourist places.
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 8 March 2019 21: 53
    +2
    Exactly.

    "I go unkempt on purpose,
    With his head, like a kerosene lamp, on his shoulders "(c).
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 8 March 2019 23: 14
    +1
    "We left the house
    When in all windows
    The lights went out
    One after another
    Ma saw the last tram leaving "
  • kalibr
    9 March 2019 07: 36
    +1
    Already 16. But her favorite ensemble is some kind of Korean guys. We ran around Budapest for an hour and bought photos of her idols to her and her friends in a Korean store. Now, she reads a book about them ...
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 9 March 2019 07: 50
    +1
    I heard about this phenomenon. Korean pop is gaining momentum.
  • Roni
    Roni 8 March 2019 20: 43
    +2
    How well you said!

    I can not resist, I will quote Kushner (although not in the subject):

    Oh my god, in the midst of Rome, above the Forum, in dusty bushes
    You lay on the bench, from the trajan walls - a stone's throw
    In a knitted suit, where enmity was seething,
    Where Catullus passed, muttering: “What rubbish, you bastard!”
    How tired I was upset by yours, hurt
    By the fact that you don’t care about these stones, broken columns,
    How I strove for them, how I was eager, did not expect to see.
    You can spoil everything for me, everything, even Rome, even death!
    Where are we? In Rome! We are in Rome. We are in it. How yellow he is, brown-eyed!
    We are in flaming Rome together. Say it again.
    Like words of love, repeat, to believe I could
    Into this sun, dissolved in blood, into gentle rock.
    You lay prone a stone's throw from the shadows of dear ones.
    This dust, this dust is dearer to me than all my relatives, relatives.
    How fatigue knows how to relate irritation to love
    One wonderful knot: here I am happy, unhappy again!
    So I have to sit, wait until you sigh, come to life.
    I would like to admire the ruins alone ... Lies.
    I couldn’t wander my whims for a long time
    Without you, without love, without birth forests and fields.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 8 March 2019 21: 06
      +3
      Yes exactly!
      Happy holiday, Daughter of the robber! love
      1. Roni
        Roni 8 March 2019 21: 28
        +2
        Thank you very much pleased!
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 8 March 2019 22: 27
        +2
        I love this holiday. I like to give flowers very much.
      3. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 8 March 2019 23: 16
        +2
        But is Roni a girl? Then congratulations from me too! love happiness, love, fulfillment of all desires!
      4. Roni
        Roni 8 March 2019 23: 37
        +2
        Thank you for your wishes!
  • Roni
    Roni 9 March 2019 10: 28
    0
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, it seems that yesterday Kushner’s poem went exclusively to Anton, and I wanted to answer your words about family trips. Do not be lazy to repeat.
    And photo reports about interesting historical places are very cool!
    1. kalibr
      9 March 2019 15: 39
      +1
      Thank! But to you my favorite poems: Near the old pagoda,
      in Burma on the far side,
      the girl looks at the sea and misses me ...
      The wind bends the bells, they are disturbed,
      then know, waiting for the British soldier, waiting for the soldier in Maddalay ...
      Supi Eolat call the girl,
      her royal name.
      I remember the yellow cap,
      skirt weed greener.
      Damn those she smoked
      Do not smoke out,
      And I look kisses feet
      Your idol.
      Buddha is his nickname.
      She needs an idol
      how stronger hug, ..
  • Roni
    Roni 9 March 2019 13: 23
    0
    I can’t change my stubbornness and cannot convey my words to the addressee, although some forces impede. Kushner’s poems were addressed to you, although, since Anton supported, then he flew away not in vain.
    Beautiful and right to be!
    I stubbornly vote for this.

    And travel notes on historic sites are great!
  • tranquil
    tranquil 8 March 2019 22: 51
    +2
    Thank you.
  • voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 12 March 2019 23: 14
    0
    Great stuff, as always good