Military Review

Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Knighthood and knights of northern France. Part of 1

"... but one of the Thracian horsemen ..."
(Second Book of Maccabean 12: 35)


Why in the Bible, where the rider meets 39 times, are the horsemen from Thrace mentioned, so they deserve this honor along with everyone else? And the thing is that Thrace was famous for its riders, and it was not for nothing that many Roman emperors, starting with Marcus Aurelius, included in their titles and the name “Sarmatian”. Although ... they were deceiving before their people, since all their victories over the equestrian peoples of the Great Steppe were short-lived and fragile. But it is significant how important was the role played by riders in stories humanity, especially if they were well armed.

That is why today we are returning to the knightly theme, but on a slightly different informational level. If earlier it was mainly about those or other types of knightly weapons, now it will be a kind of journey across countries and continents, during which knights and their weapons will be viewed from one region to another. But in strictly defined chronological frameworks - from 1050 to 1350. It was a very important period in the history of the development of weapons and tactics of its use, the era of the Crusades and the establishment of international relations between very distant countries. Many of the VO readers pointed out the need for just such an approach in presenting the theme of knightly weapons, since it would have provided an opportunity to get a complete, complete picture, and the validity of such a remark should be recognized. However, the volume of information by region is very large, even if we confine ourselves to a simple overview of the information available on them. In addition, have to meet with a huge number of repetitions, which, of course, must be avoided. Therefore, the materials of the cycle will be primarily focused on giving a general “picture” of the genesis of knightly weapons in different “lands and countries”, then showing individual samples of elements of knightly weapons, and, finally, to draw conclusions about the general nature of what happened in one way or another. place at a specified time.

Now, before we consider the knights and knighthood of the specified period directly, let's see what, in fact, had the “horsemen of war” in different countries by this time, and how did they come to this common?

Norman archers and riders go on the attack. However, not everyone is still holding spears under the arm. Some prepare in the old manner to throw them. Scene 51 (fragment). Photo from the “Carpet Museum”, Bayeux, France)

To begin with, at the beginning of a new era in the territory of Eurasia, there were only three really great empires: Roman in the West, Chinese in the East, and the Persian state between them. The horse staff, without which the heavy cavalry is inconceivable, China received from Fergana, because the local breed of horses, the descendants of the Przhevalsky horse, were not suitable for plate cavalry; the Persians received horses from Arabia, and the Romans from Arabia, the Black Sea steppes, as well as Spain. "Movable snaffle" has already been described in detail by Xenophon. Spurs among the Greeks, the Celts and the Romans appeared already in the IV - III centuries. BC, and then spread to the East. Then in the IV. somewhere on the border of China and Korea, stirrups were invented, along with the Huns, migrated to Europe.

On this miniature from the manuscript 869 - 950. riders still have no riders. (Saint-Omer, France, Regional Library of Saint-Omer, France)

And now, by the time when, at the time of the terrible Rome, no less formidable Goths had advanced by this time, their weapons seemed sufficiently “knightly”. This can be judged by the example of Totila, the proud king, and how he prepared for the battle on the eve of the battle (in the description of Procopius of Caesarea), although according to archaeological data, he and his soldiers still did not know the stirrups.

Knights and chivalry of three centuries. Knighthood and knights of northern France. Part of 1

Frankish army in the campaign. Illustration for the psalm 59. "Golden Psalter". Around 880 (St. Gallen (monastery of St. Gall), the library of the monastery, Switzerland)

“... And that's what he began to do. At first, he tried a lot to show the enemy what a magnificent warrior he was. He put on gold plate armor and decorated himself with everything from helmet to tip of his spear with ribbons and purple pendants, so he was completely transformed and looked like a king. Sitting astride a beautiful horse, he stalked between two armies and, as on a military lists, showed what he was capable of, pranced on a horse, threw a spear into the air, picking him up on the fly. Playfully tossed him from one hand to another. He was proud of his agility in these matters. He owned a horse as it can only from childhood, accustomed to the lists. So passed the first half of the day ... "

A miniature by Simon Marmion on the story "Songs about Roland" from "The Big French Chronicles". Ser. XV century. (Russian National Library, St. Petersburg.)

King Clovis and Chalice in Soissons. It is quite obvious that Khlodvig in 486 year simply could not wear such armor, which indicates the absence of historical thinking among the artists of that time. Miniature from the "Big French Chronicles". Ser. XIV century. (National Library, France)

Now let's turn to the Song of Roland, the canonical text of which is Oxford Manuscript, written somewhere between 1129 and 1165 for years in the Anglo-Norman dialect and stored in the Bodlian library of Oxford University, then you can read the following:

Great Karl Spain plundered,
Destroyed the city and occupied the castles.
He thinks the time is peaceful,
And goes to sweet France back.
Here is his Roland puts on the ground.
From the hill a banner flew menacingly to the sky.
Around are French tents.
Meanwhile, in the gorges of the Saracens jump.
On them are steel shells and armor,
All wearing helmets, girded swords,
On the neck shield, a spear in his hand clamped.
Moors sat in an ambush in the mountain more often.
Four hundred thousand of them gathered there.
Alas, the French do not know!

However, neither steel armors (in the sense in which we understand this word) nor the battles at that time had horse warriors, so this is either an inaccurate translation, or ... later scribes replaced the already incomprehensible words with more “modern” ones. What do we base this statement on? First of all, this is, of course, the most important “document” of the era we need - the tapestry from Bayeux. In fact, this is not a tapestry, and ... the most common embroidery of a different type with seams and threads of several colors on a linen cloth, and sometimes quite funny. There is a defecating man, a man with green hair and a blue horse. The end of it is torn off, which is not surprising, because its length already reaches 68,38 m with a width of only ... 48 / 53 cm! There is an interesting suggestion that its authors were not at all Queen Matilda, the wife of Guillaume the Conqueror, but English monks from the monastery of St. Augustine in Canterbury. However, be that as it may, but it is important that her age is depicted there. The first written mention of its existence dates back to 1476 year. But it was made undoubtedly much earlier, because it depicts warriors with weapons and in armor at this time that no longer existed, something is known from other sources. Consequently, “embroidery from Bayeux” refers to the time of the battle of Hastings, which it depicts, that is, it may be 1066 year, but, most likely, it is several years older. By the way, the very "conquest of England" by Guillaume the Conqueror was nothing more than an expansion of the northern counties of northern and eastern France, and from this region we will begin our journey into the knightly times of that distant pore. I would like to emphasize that the illustrative material for this series of articles will be excellent miniatures from medieval manuscripts - visual witnesses of that distant era. So…

Knights and knights of Northern France. Part of 1

To begin with, we recall that the state system of France at that time was very different from the modern one, although, as a state, it already existed. And her “map” was not at all like the one we know today. Thus, in the middle of the 11th century, the county of Flanders, which is currently western Belgium, was part of the French kingdom, but Brabant and Hainault in the east, which are today part of Belgium, then belonged to the Holy Roman Empire. Champagne was also rarely ruled by the French kings, and Alsace and Upper Lorraine also belonged to the Empire. The lands of the duchy of Burgundy around Dijon were part of France, but imperial was the county of Burgundy around Besançon. To the south, almost the entire territory to the east of the Saone and Rhone rivers was also the property of the German emperors, and the French monarchy was still “waiting in the wings” and only by the middle of the XIV century did it begin its advance to the East.

However, in this period of time, Northern France itself can by no means be considered homogeneous either culturally or even militarily. Brittany was largely Celtic in language and retained its military customs until the end of the XII century. In the XI century, Normandy was still different from the rest of the country by the fact that the Viking-Normans settled there at one time, although they very quickly and successfully learned military science from the French and, first of all, how to use troops of heavily armed cavalry in infantry fighting. The Flemish were the most different from all the past; much of which spoke Flemish dialect (that is, Dutch) and, as many believed, were not French at all. Even then, the infantry played a much more prominent role among them than anywhere else in France.

The critical moment of the battle of Hastings. A rumor spread among the Norman knights that their leader had been killed. Then the duke bared his head so that he could be recognized, and Count Eustace of Bologna, pointing to him, shouted: “Duke William is here!” Scene 55 / 56. Photo from the Carpet Museum, Bayeux)

A number of foreign historians believe that Northern France, which had so successfully opposed Britain, was the main source of Western European military fashion, but not technological or tactical innovations. It has been observed that from the 9th to the 11th centuries the value of poorer vassals serving either as infantry or in the unarmed cavalry steadily declined. The term milites now began to refer specifically to the rider, usually dressed in armor, whereas earlier it was meant simply armed people without distinction on horseback and foot.

The spear of the XV century. The length of the 23,3 cm. Weight 2579,8 g. Such "winged tips" appeared in Europe at the same time with the knightly cavalry and were used until its disappearance. The side projections did not allow the spear to go too deep into the body. (Metropolitan Museum, New York)

That is, in 1050 and later, there was already a specialization in the field of military affairs and the allocation of knights as a military elite. But massive military gatherings are becoming rare. However, the cities have not yet had great military significance, either as a source of troops or as centers of defense. But the prohibition of the church on the war, establishing the so-called "God's peace", took place both in the north of France and in the south. And by limiting the scale of the hostilities and their duration, the church only contributed to the professionalization of the warrior class.

A miniature of 1200 with a picture of horsemen in hauberg-type mail armor using the spear quilting technique. Spears are equipped with triangular pennants, shields in the form of an inverted drop. Horse blankets, which still served to protect animals from the heat, attract attention. ("Pamplona Illustrated Bible and Lives of Saints", Pamplona, ​​Spain, Library of the University of Augsburg, Germany)

The following is a miniature from the same manuscript. Riders at the top, infantrymen at the bottom, whose weapons are different from equestrians.

By the end of the XI century, military equipment of riders was sufficiently standardized and became very expensive, and its correct use began to require skills that came only as a result of long training. Moreover, the milites trained in the squad, when they were summoned by the lords to their court, and, of course, individually, "at home", in fortified castles. "A knight is one who trains a lot with weapons"- such was the view on knighthood at the beginning of the period under study. Moreover, it went down, and where did he get this weapon from, where did he get his free time for this, as well as food for himself, as well as for his horse. The implication was that he had all this, otherwise what kind of a knight he was!

A typical European chainmail of welded rings, connected with unlocked U-shaped brackets. (Metropolitan Museum, New York)

The combat coordination of the detachments was quite high. For example, the “feigned retreat”, successfully applied in the battle of Hastings, at this time became a common tactic, at least among the Normans and the Bretons. The “spear-quitting” technique, that is, when the rider pinches him under the arm, became the most visible tactical device in Western Europe at the end of the 11th and early 12th centuries. However, heavy and long swords continued to be a very important weapon of cavalry. The fact is that the tips with a crossbar on “winged spears” did not always allow to keep these weapons after the first spear strike, and then the rider had to fight with a sword. This led to the lengthening of his handle, which had previously clamped the warrior's brush, while the crosshair began to bend down to the blade and lengthen to the sides.

Bas-relief depicting the Conqueror in Dives-sur-Mer, Château Guillaume le Concourt, Falez. Attention is drawn to the "armor" of the sewn on the base, and not riveted rings and the long Norman "serpentine shield."

Biblical Goliath. A realistic image of a warrior from the early 11th century, from the Cotonian Psalter or the Psalter of Tiberius (c. 1050, Winchester). The crosshair of the sword is significant because now it is increasingly used by horsemen. (British Museum, London)

The value of archery also increased, although in some areas it was more popular than others. Normandy in this case claims a certain priority in the use of onions. At the same time, in France, as in most other countries of Western Europe, the bow was gradually replaced by a crossbow. The importance of crossbowmen indicates the appearance of horse infantry, armed with crossbows, which began as early as the end of the XII century. Such arrows were also professionals in their field and in the same France were under the authority of the “Grand Master Crossbowmen”, which title appeared in 1230 year. It is believed that the crossbow was largely a response to the spread in Europe at the end of the XIII and the beginning of the XIV century plate armor.

Archers and crossbowmen. Miniature from the World and Marienleben Chronicle manuscript, 1300-1350. Lower Austria. (Library of Halle-Wittenberg University named after Martin Luther, Germany)

Rare depiction of horse archers on a miniature from the World and Marienleben Chronicle manuscript, 1300-1350. Lower Austria. (Library of Halle-Wittenberg University named after Martin Luther, Germany)

The process of military specialization, which began in the 12th and 13th centuries, became especially noticeable later. The kings and their barons began to make more active use of mercenaries. For example, in 1202 - 1203. The French king on the Norman border had a military contingent of 257 horse knights, 267 horse sergeants, 80 horse crossbowmen, 133 foot crossbowmen, and about 2000 foot sergeants, who were also supported by 300 mercenaries, whose identity to the type of military is unknown. That is, it was a small, but sufficiently professional army.

A miniature depicting fighting horsemen, dated 1365 from Rudolf von Ems’s World Chronicle. (State Library of Baden-Württemberg, Germany)

Flanders all this time remained the main source of mercenary troops, both cavalry and infantry, up to the XIV century. Many cities have created their own militia, the soldiers in which supplied the city guilds. Moreover, the infantry continued to play a vital role throughout the first half of the XIV century, although subsequently its role was again reduced. These included light infantry with darts, known as bedouts, who apparently acted in close contact with the knightly cavalry. Firearms first appeared to the French as early as 1338, and were often mentioned in the 1340’s chronicles.

Viking Funeral. The painting by Ch. E. Butler (1864 - 1933), 1909. The soldiers are depicted in scaly shells, which in general does not contradict historical facts. At the same time, due to the greater weight and high cost of metal, chainmail has become more widespread, despite the considerable labor intensity of its manufacture.

Segment helmet VII. (German National Museum, Nuremberg, Germany)

PS Interestingly, in his message about the Battle of Hastings in 1066, written before 1127, William Melsmbery says that before the beginning of the battle, cantilena Rollandi, that is, a song about Roland, “as an example of a belligerent husband to inspire the fighters, was performed”. You, a Norman poet of the 12th century, adds to this that Tylefer sang her, who also asked for the honor of delivering the first blow to the enemy.

Использованная литература:
1. Bridgeford A. 1066. The hidden history of the Bayeux Tapestry. L: Fourth Estate, 2004.
2. Nicolle D. The age of Charlemagne. L .: Osprey (Men-at-arms series No. 150), 1984.
3. Nicolle D. Arms and Armor of the Crusading Era, 1050 - 1350. UK L .: Greenhill Books. Vol.1.
4. Verbruggen during the Middle Ages from the Eight Century to 1340. Amsterdam - NY Oxford, 1977.
5. Gravette, K., Nicole, D. Normans. Knights and Conquerors (Transl. From English A.Kolina) M .: Eksmo, 2007.
6. Cardini, F. The Origins of Medieval Knighthood. (abridged translation from Italian by VP Haiduk) M .: Progress, 1987.

To be continued ...
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 7 February 2019 06: 36
    "Just some kind of holiday!"
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    1. kalibr
      7 February 2019 06: 41
      Thank you, Anton! If everything goes as planned, then there will be about such materials ... 40! Went to this with 2000 year and here's the result.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 7 February 2019 06: 45
        Great !!!
        My question is: why is the upper bar limited to 1350?
        1. kalibr
          7 February 2019 06: 54
          Good question! There are two reasons: the first is the end of the monograph by D. Nicolas this year. The second is the starting point of the "white armor". Two eras are taken here - chain armor and mixed armor. "White armor" has gone 100% since 1400. 1350 - taken as its lower threshold!
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 7 February 2019 06: 58
            You know, I never have "bad" questions! laughing
            Although I assumed a different answer.
          2. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 7 February 2019 11: 41
            Quote: kalibr
            Here are taken two epochs - chain mail armor and mixed armor.

            The formation and flourishing of European chivalry.
            At the same time, at the word "knight" in the minds of most non-specialists, something like a "statue of a commander" in plate armor appears in front of the mind's eye, or, at worst, Eisenstein's crusaders with in-oh-from such horns on bucket helmets, "sinking under by the weight of your own armor " smile
            And ask someone who it is: an open sphero-conical helmet, chain mail, a teardrop shield, a straight two-edged sword - most will answer "Russian warrior". smile
            In France, if my memory serves me, one knight has been stocked with approximately hectares of farmland with 120 - to feed, buy equipment, a horse ...
            We would have such figures, wet fantasies of Fomenko and other "patriots from history" could be quite realizable. But...

            We watch and enjoy how the zero isotherm diligently bypasses the territory inhabited by the Slavs, the "-4" isotherm, in fact, describes the western borders of Russia in the XIII century, and "-8" - the modern western borders of Russia.
            With such a weather, we couldn’t knock knights and do not set up locks ...
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 7 February 2019 17: 38
              Michael, all zashib! Only the medieval isotherm was somewhat different.
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 7 February 2019 19: 06
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                Michael, all zashib! Only the medieval isotherm was somewhat different.

                That is exactly the medieval did not find. But somewhere I met the thesis that the configuration of isotherms for the last thousand years has not changed significantly, since the movements of the main air currents are caused by the location of large bodies of water, mountains, lowlands, etc. and in this area there was no significant change. Add to the values ​​of modern isotherms a degree or two - get approximate, but, in general, sufficient for analysis data on the climatic optimum, subtract - get a small ice age. And in 1250 - 1350. average values ​​were close to our modern ones. smile
                So, how not to twist on the East European Plain average annual temperature almost 10 degrees lower than in the Loire Valley, for example. So it is now, so it was 1000 years ago, so, most likely, it will be in 1000 years.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 7 February 2019 19: 28
                  They did not find it, because it is not there. Because, there is still no unequivocal opinion among paleoclimatologists about the reasons for the beginning of the Small Ice Age, in contrast to the Late Antique.
                  1. Trilobite Master
                    Trilobite Master 7 February 2019 20: 29
                    Quote: 3x3zsave
                    no single opinion among paleoclimatologists

                    But with the fact that there was a warming, and after it a cold snap, they all agree, regardless of whether they consider the activity of volcanoes or the salinity of the water in the Atlantic to be the causes of these changes. smile
                    And the fact that both warming and cooling affected the whole of Europe, from the Urals to the Pyrenees, is also not in any doubt. Like the routes of the air masses, which determine the weather in these territories - the wide gates to Eastern Europe from the Arctic, from the north-north-east (while from the South the path to the air masses is closed by mountains) and relatively free access of warm air from the Atlantic to France and England. What, actually modern isotherms to us and draw.
                    How all this is happening (and happened) can now be clearly seen on the Yandex service "Weather", "Weather on the map".
                    So ... We can only shrug and continue to live in cold and severity, as our ancestors did. smile
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 7 February 2019 20: 53
                      Everything is very controversial and varied. The fact that the plague pandemic affected the northwest of medieval Russia, but did not go further to the southeast, indirectly indicates the dependence of isotherms on factors that are not subject to accounting, analysis and control, at least for the moment.
    2. Spartanez300
      Spartanez300 7 February 2019 09: 36
      The article is interesting and instructive, five points. good
  2. Sibiriya
    Sibiriya 7 February 2019 07: 00
    Interesting article. Thanks to the author.
  3. XII Legion
    XII Legion 7 February 2019 08: 05
    Trends are very interesting and revealing.
    We look forward to continuing
  4. igordok
    igordok 7 February 2019 08: 50
    Thank you, an interesting topic.
    ... shields in “inverted drop shape”.

    As a rule, they are called almond-shaped.
  5. brn521
    brn521 7 February 2019 13: 43
    However, not everyone still holds the spears under his arm. Some are preparing to throw them the old fashioned way.
    Why be sure to quit? It is more convenient to hold a spear with a lower grip, but not to strike. For example, when ramming. Upper grip - force and accurately strike with any weapon, because a strong muscle group is involved. As for throwing a spear, the wisdom of the North American Indians is applicable: the warrior who threw the tomahawk will most likely not achieve this and will continue to fight like a fool, without weapons. So here it makes sense to throw not a spear, but darts. Which are few and which are short, comfortable and cheap (they can even be made of bone and stone tips and they can still pierce chain mail). And the spear is the main weapon of the rider, which is easiest to reach from the horse to the enemy.
    Sitting astride a beautiful horse, he marched between the two armies and, as on the military ridge, showed what he was capable of, pranced on his horse, threw a spear into the air, catching him on the fly. I effortlessly threw it from one hand to another. He was proud of his dexterity in these matters.

    Here it is just described how the rider should have managed the spear. The same tool as a sword or ax.
    However, heavy and long swords continued to be a very important weapon of the cavalry
    Rather status. If you can afford a sword and know how to handle it, then you are definitely a professional warrior, not a random peasant with a cheap ax. But long swords are too complicated and expensive to manufacture. And they could deteriorate from any accidental blow. With ordinary, non-plate armor, cheap axes and maces could handle it. I was surprised at the time that cavalry axes and hammers were used by riders more often than swords, stereotypes are so strong.
    It is clear that Clovis in 486 simply could not wear such armor, which indicates the lack of historical thinking among artists of that time.

    A strange accusation. History is the servant of politics. The artist carried out the order. And he is no worse, and maybe even more honest and better than today's European historians, for example. Thanks to which, not so long ago, an OSCE memorandum was born that the USSR is equally guilty of the outbreak of the Second World War on an equal basis with Germany. Blatant lies and rewriting of history. But the formalities were met, the necessary pieces of paper were taken out of context and attached. In the same way, as all the formalities were observed during the division of Czechoslovakia with the direct participation of the "allies".
  6. Decimam
    Decimam 7 February 2019 13: 48
    The article is good, but it starts with a completely incomprehensible passage: "Pwhy in the Bible, where the horseman meets 39 times, are the horsemen from Thrace mentioned, how did they deserve this honor along with all the others? And the thing is that Thrace was famous precisely for its horsemen, and it is not for nothing that many Roman emperors, beginning with Marcus Aurelius, included the name “Sarmatian” in their title. Although ... they were cunning before their people, since all their victories over the equestrian peoples of the Great Steppe were short-lived and fragile. But it is indicative of how important the riders had a chance to play in the history of mankind, especially if they were well armed."
    What connection does the author see between the Thracians and the Sarmatians? And what relation do the Thracians have to the peoples of the "Great Steppe"? Vyacheslav Olegovich, the Thracians never lived in the steppes.
    1. kalibr
      7 February 2019 17: 32
      quote = Decimam] What connection does the author see between the Thracians and the Sarmatians? And what relation do the Thracians have to the peoples of the "Great Steppe"? [/ Quote]
      Riders are just mentioned ... both are ... and that's the whole connection.
  7. IGU
    IGU 7 February 2019 14: 27
    Thank you!

    “armor” from sewn onto the base, not riveted rings

    Upon closer inspection, not all plates are rings.
    I did not find confirmation of the prevalence of such armor either among reenactors or archaeologists.
    1. kalibr
      7 February 2019 17: 28
      Cardini has a lot about it - look if you're interested.
      1. sivuch
        sivuch 7 February 2019 22: 52
        Are you sure that everyone knows who Cardini is? By the way, if sclerosis does not change, he just wrote that stirrups were used everywhere already in the dark ages. (And the fact that in your illustration, I think, can be attributed to the illustrator’s mistake - the images are generally rather conditional there)
        And yet - in my opinion, just Cardini had a division into chain mail of braided rings and armor from sewn or threaded through belts.
  8. Decimam
    Decimam 7 February 2019 15: 03
    On this miniature from the manuscript 869 - 950. riders still have no riders. (Saint-Omer, France, Regional Library of Saint-Omer, France)

    And on the next page from the same manuscript, as you see, is.
    This suggests that such miniatures must be taken critically, because their authors did not always pay attention to details. In this case, the absence of stirrups among riders of the Carolingian era clearly contradicts historical data, the Carolingian-Viking type of stirrups of a triangular shape with a straight footboard and a yoke-shaped rectangular ear is just in miniature and is depicted.
  9. Looking for
    Looking for 7 February 2019 15: 12
    A typical European chain mail made of welded rings joined using uninhibited U-shaped brackets. Maybe the author will enlighten. Where was welding in the 11th century?
    1. kalibr
      7 February 2019 17: 24
      Forge welding is a term like that.
  10. BAI
    BAI 7 February 2019 15: 19
    Why in the Bible, where the horseman meets 39 times, are the horsemen from Thrace mentioned, why did they deserve such an honor, along with everyone else?

    Or maybe it's like the Roman horsemen of the II century BC - not warriors, but the estate?
    Moreover, the Thracian horseman -
    The Thracian Horseman is the object of worship of a cult common in ancient Thrace. Known mainly for sculptures and inscriptions relating to the period from the IV century BC. e. by the beginning IV century AD e.
  11. 27091965
    27091965 7 February 2019 15: 42
    Interesting article. I myself am not very versed in armor, but perhaps those who are fond of this topic will be interested in the following scan.
  12. hohol95
    hohol95 7 February 2019 17: 06
    And when will there be such articles about the development of a military suit and weapons in the territory of the current Russian Federation?
    As we Russians LOVE the whole world ... except for our COUNTRY!
    I understand - it is difficult and "TIGHT" because of the impossibility of photographing in museums!
    1. kalibr
      7 February 2019 17: 23
      Quote: hohol95
      And when will there be such articles about the development of a military suit and weapons in the territory of the current Russian Federation?
      As we Russians LOVE the whole world ... except for our COUNTRY!
      I understand - it is difficult and "TIGHT" because of the impossibility of photographing in museums!

      Alexey! The above is written - 40 materials. There is a place for us.
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 7 February 2019 17: 28
        FOR US (according to American TRADITION) there should be only FIRST PLACE ...
        WHAT IS EUROPE better than the territory in which the RF was formed?
        WHAT am I - simple RUSSIAN (with Ukrainian surname) WORSE worse than ordinary GERMAN (HENRIKH)?
        1. kalibr
          7 February 2019 19: 06
          Only because the structuring of the material and the selection of illustrations takes time. Don't want to get one text? Or diluted with "pictures" from Razin? Probably you will say then - why is it better with them, and we have such a g ...? And with us, in fact, with this g ... You will not pay me a photo from the State Historical Museum and the Kremlin's Armory Board? So bear with me while I get photographs appropriate ... for the situation in our country. Interesting, worthy, previously unpublished. In the meantime, throw a mow under a hurray-patriot and wait until they give you everything on a silver platter.
  13. kalibr
    7 February 2019 17: 20
    Quote: brn521
    Why must throw?

    Because on the "carpet" they throw them! I see!
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 7 February 2019 20: 05
      They may throw it (by the way, the Bayeux carpet is the most unique animated artifact in terms of image dynamics), however, this is an outdated battle tactic, at that time rooted in Norman tradition and not at all suitable for the emerging imperative of heavy cavalry. Atavism, in short.
      1. kalibr
        7 February 2019 22: 22
        Yes, it also depicts the reception of the spear spear, that is, the old and the new existed in parallel.
  14. Hantengri
    Hantengri 7 February 2019 20: 00
    A typical European chainmail of welded rings, connected with unlocked U-shaped brackets. (Metropolitan Museum, New York)

    This is a shell! Did he already exist at the time described in the article?
    1. kalibr
      7 February 2019 21: 23
      In 1350, yes!
  15. Kawado
    Kawado 8 February 2019 10: 54
    Very interesting and informative article.
    Typical European chain mail from welded rings

    "forged", not "welded" [probably]
    1. kalibr
      8 February 2019 15: 25
      There is a term "forge welding".
      1. Kawado
        Kawado 8 February 2019 16: 10
        There is a term "forge welding".

        Thanks, I didn't know. I'm not an expert in "blacksmithing", I just visualized it and thought it was a typo.
        1. kalibr
          8 February 2019 17: 02
          Always ask. All know is impossible and not necessary!
      2. Senior seaman
        Senior seaman 9 February 2019 18: 14
        There is a term "forge welding".

        There really is a term like that. Only it refers to the type of connection of parts. And the chain rings in the photo are fastened with double riveting, probably by the very U-shaped staples which are mentioned in the text. That is, the bracket was inserted into the holes on the ring and its ends were riveted with hammer blows.
        1. kalibr
          9 February 2019 19: 17
          Yes, but the photo shows that the connection was heated, U-shaped brackets were firmly connected to the metal of the rings, and not just bent.
          1. Senior seaman
            Senior seaman 10 February 2019 10: 14
            Sorry, but the rivets are clearly visible in the photo. And the details connected by forge welding look something like this:

            The question is temperature. When hot riveting, it is approximately 400 degrees, when welding to 1300 (Celsius essno). And for welding, it is necessary to heat up the ring too, and not just the bracket ... and what will happen to chain mail if all its rings are repeatedly heated to this temperature? (It’s impossible not to heat it up, it’s too painful for the details to be small and close to each other.)
            1. kalibr
              11 February 2019 17: 48
              I can tell you nothing more. I have no time machine. I myself did not see there we both are the same.
  16. kalibr
    9 February 2019 16: 45
    Quote: sivuch
    And yet - in my opinion, just Cardini had a division into chain mail of braided rings and armor from sewn or threaded through belts.

    I wrote "a lot" precisely because he has a lot. His book was published in Russia only one, it is difficult to be mistaken. And chain mail with belts ... the British think that this is nonsense ...
  17. cat Rusich
    cat Rusich 3 March 2019 01: 10
    They all started the same way - the ruler’s squad. In the west in Europe, the king's warriors received allotments for feeding (destinies) - small countries - small allotments, turned out - knights. In Russia, allotments received large (estates) - the boyars turned out. The pressure of the steppes somehow prevented the Russian knights (petty nobility) from appearing in Mother Russia, the threat of the steppes disappeared (under Ivan the Terrible) - nobles (knights) appeared right there. Under Peter 3, the nobles were exempted from military duty - the era of chivalry ended in Russia. (knight - hidalgo - chevalier - nobleman)
  18. vlakos
    vlakos 20 March 2019 00: 47
    Thank you very much, it seems to me that the photo is not an eared spear, this is a bit later. Great