We all went out of the people,
Children of the family of labor.
Fraternal union and freedom -
Here is our battle motto.
(“Boldly, comrades, in the leg!” Words by L. Radzina)
Children of the family of labor.
Fraternal union and freedom -
Here is our battle motto.
(“Boldly, comrades, in the leg!” Words by L. Radzina)
In the previous article we examined (fluently, of course, but whoever is interested, he can read the entire work on his own) Lenin's famous work “Development of capitalism in Russia”, who did not leave Russian narodniki to talk about building socialism in Russia . He singled out three, three main social layers of the peasants at the time of the end of the 19 century: the poor, the middle peasants and the kulaks. Accordingly, his working class is also heterogeneous. Workers, peasants or migrant workers, “yesterday's peasants”, who became workers from migrant workers, “hereditary proletariat”, the smallest, by the way, since large industry itself has just appeared in Russia, and various intermediate types. Naturally, what kind of consciousness dominated both the peasants and the workers? Patriarchal! It was the first generation of citizens, who had not only grandparents, but also fathers and mothers - where? In the village! Workers in the second and even in the third generation were. In St. Petersburg, in the Urals ... But there were very few of them and "they did not do the weather." Obvious, right? It is enough to read the Zemstvo statistics about migrant workers to make sure that this is exactly how it was. And again, Lenin’s work confirms this. Who does not believe - he can read about it yourself!
Revolutionary Sverdlov Yakov Mikhailovich. Father is an engraver, mother is a housewife. He graduated from the four classes of the gymnasium, then he studied as a pharmacist ... Typical "middle class". After the victory of the revolution, the chairman of the Central Executive Committee.
And, by the way, let us recall one more of his work: “Lessons from the Moscow uprising” dedicated to the 1905 revolution. There he wrote: you cannot “hide from the masses the need for a desperate, bloody, extermination war, as an immediate task of the upcoming performance, means to deceive yourself, and the people. " But then the question arises, who was hiding it? The revolutionaries themselves?
Revolutionary Uritsky Moses Solomonovich. Born into a merchant family, he graduated from the city gymnasium and law faculty of Kiev University. Chairman of the Petrograd Cheka.
"The government kept those who were hesitant with the most diverse, most desperate measures: they were persuaded, they were flattered, they were bribed by handing out hours, money, etc., they were soaked with vodka, they were deceived, they were intimidated, barred them, seized treachery and violence of the soldiers alleged the most unreliable. And we must have the courage to admit directly and openly that we are in this respect behind the government. ” Further, Lenin very insightfully wrote about hand grenades and an “automatic gun”, and then this: “Around the slogan: the overthrow of the royal power and the convening of a constituent assembly by the revolutionary government, we will group and will group an increasing part of the proletariat, the peasantry and the troops”. And here again the question is, and who is this ... are we? Peasants? No, they are petty-bourgeois and unconscious. Workers ... no, this proposal is not visible. This means a kind of “third force,” namely, the “party of revolutionaries,” which at the end of the article Lenin calls “the party of the class-conscious proletariat.” Among her and come from the "middle class". This is already a true, modern term, ”but it reflects the essence well. Just look at Lenin’s comrades-in-arms to make sure that this was not a poor thing, but people who had an education and had the opportunity ... to arrange their own life. Not very rich, but such that they did not clean the floor at home and did not clean the carpets with a vacuum cleaner. And what about the conscious proletariat? He actually was at this time, had an education, read Adam Smith and Karl Marx in the original? No, of course! Those same were yesterday's peasants-migrant workers, just a little earlier than the others moved to the city and some things picked up here. That’s all. The intelligentsia led them all the same, and, in particular, former associate attorney Vladimir Ulyanov, who did not win this field, by the way, not a single case. “Only one of his clients received a milder sentence than the one that the prosecutor insisted on,” later recalled his younger sister, Maria Ilyinichna Ulyanova. Other revolutionaries from the top of the RSDLP had similar biographies, by the way, they are all well known. Moreover, according to the theory of “bringing in consciousness” at that time, it was decided that the industrial proletariat itself is not revolutionary and is inclined only to economic requirements (“trade unionism”), and the necessary “consciousness” is given to it (“introduced” ) from the outside by the party of the “new type”, the party of professional revolutionaries, which is the “vanguard”.
Revolutionary Lunacharsky Anatoly Vasilyevich. This is the son of a full state councilor, and a nobleman himself with a university degree. After the revolution Commissar of Education.
And now let's run a little ahead and turn to the well-known novel-warning of the English writer George Orwell “1984”, written in 1948 (hence, by the way, its name!), Which has such impressive lines: “... throughout stories and, apparently, from the end of the Neolithic, there were three kinds of people in the world: upper, middle and lower. The groups were subdivided in a variety of ways, carrying all sorts of names, their numerical proportions, and also mutual relations changed from century to century; but the fundamental structure of society remained unchanged. ”
Revolutionary Kamenev Lev Borisovich. His father was a machinist on the Moscow-Kursk railway, then he graduated from St. Petersburg Institute of Technology and became an engineer; mother graduated from the Bestuzhev Higher Courses. Kamenev himself studied at the gymnasium and at the law faculty of Moscow University.
Revolutionary Zinoviev Grigory Evseevich. Father - the owner of a dairy farm. He studied at the Faculty of Chemistry, University of Bern.
Even after tremendous upheavals and seemingly irreversible changes, this structure was restored, just as the gyroscope regains its position no matter where it is pushed. The goals of these three groups are completely incompatible. The purpose of the higher ones is to stay where they are. The goal of the medium is to swap places with the higher ones; the goal of the lower ones is when they have a goal, because it is characteristic for the lower ones that they are crushed by hard work and only occasionally direct the gaze beyond the limits of everyday life to note all differences and create a society where all people should be equal. Thus, throughout history, a struggle flares up again and again, always the same in general terms. For a long time, the higher ones seem to firmly hold power, but sooner or later there comes a moment when they lose either faith in themselves, or the ability to govern effectively, or both. Then they are overthrown by the middle, and themselves become higher. In the meantime, new averages peel off from one of two groups or from both, and the struggle begins all over again. Of the three groups, only the lowest never succeed in achieving their goals, even temporarily. It would be an exaggeration to say that history was not accompanied by material progress. But no increase in wealth, no softening of manners, no revolutions and reforms brought human equality one millimeter closer. From a lower point of view, all historical changes meant little more than a change of owners. ”
Revolutionary Kalinin Mikhail Ivanovich - one of the most "grassroots revolutionaries" in the cohort of Leninist revolutionaries. He was born in the village, in the family of peasants, but he graduated from the elementary zemstvo school, then he worked in the service of the landowner neighbor DP Mordukhay-Boltovsky. In 1889, he took him to St. Petersburg. There he worked for him as a footman, which allowed him to read many books from the master library. In 1893, he began working as a student at the St. Petersburg Cartridge Plant, and from 1895 as a turner at the Putilov Plant. After the revolution - Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
All for Lenin, eh? The workers themselves are inclined only to trade unionism. But “the party of a new type” “opens their eyes”, “introduces” revolutionary consciousness, finally simply calls on the barricades - more actively than before, and you still need to remember the grenades and stock up with automatic guns and ... everything is a victory for the revolution in the case of universal and Simultaneous performance of this party is provided. And in principle, this point of view, which passed through many Leninist works with a red thread ... fully justified itself both in 1917 in Russia and in 2014 in the course of the Ukrainian Maidan, only there, instead of grenades, bottles of gasoline were used, and snipers acted instead of automatic guns. But ... we are not talking about revolutionary technologies, by no means, but about the working class.
Revolutionary Trotsky Lev Davidovich. The son of wealthy landowner landlords. He studied at the School of St. Paul in Odessa. In emigration he was considered an educated young man.
So, we knocked out “trade unionism” from it, the need and calamities were aggravated by the war (of the First World War, wasn't it?) To the limit. “The tops cannot, but the bottoms don't want,” and so the Romanov dynasty is overthrown. And what about Lenin, what does he write soon after this significant event? In his work The Tasks of the Proletariat in Our Revolution, he writes the following:
“Russia is in full swing now. Millions and tens of millions, politically sleeping for ten years, politically hammered by the terrible oppression of tsarism and hard labor for the landlords and manufacturers, woke up and reached for politics. And who are these millions and tens of millions? Mostly petty proprietors, petty bourgeois, people standing in the middle between capitalists and wage workers. Russia is the most petty-bourgeois country of all European countries.
The giant petty-bourgeois wave swept over everything, the conscious proletariat suppressed not only with its numbers, but also ideologically, that is, it infected, captured very wide circles of workers with petty-bourgeois views on politics.
The petty bourgeoisie in life depends on the bourgeoisie, living itself in a businesslike and not proletarian way (in the sense of a place in social production), and in the way of thinking it follows the bourgeoisie. ”
Revolutionary Stalin Joseph Vissarionovich. The son of a shoemaker, prone to drunkenness and bouts of rage, who beat his wife and son. Mother peasant woman, daughter of a serf gardener. He graduated from the Gori religious school. He studied at the Orthodox Tiflis Theological Seminary, but he did not graduate and did not become a priest. But he received a certificate that he graduated from four classes and can teach in elementary public schools. In 1931, in an interview given to the German writer Emil Ludwig, and answering the question of what pushed him to opposition: “Perhaps poor treatment by parents?” Stalin gave the following answer: “No. My parents treated me quite well. Another thing is theological seminary, where I studied then. Out of protest against the mocking regime and the Jesuit methods that the seminary had, I was ready to become and really became a revolutionary, a supporter of Marxism ... ”But Lenin was hanged by a brother ...
The first page of the list of 46 "arrested, registered for the NKVD of the USSR" from 29 in January 1942. I. Stalin's resolution: "Shoot everyone named in the note. I. Art. ”According to the“ Stalinist death lists ”, 43768 people were convicted, mainly from administrative structures, military, NKVD employees and members of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), most of whom were shot.
But the question is, of whom was this “petty-bourgeois wave” consisted? From bourgeoisie with canes and bowlers? H-th-th-th! It was just like that that Lenin called small proprietors, to which all peasants, even the poor, and also merchants, merchants, shopkeepers, sex workers and many more ... and ... the overwhelming majority of ... the workers could rightfully be attributed. First, it is all those who, working in the city, had allotments in the village. Secondly, who had deposits in banks (and there were such) and bonds of military loans, and relatives - again, sex, merchants, peddlers, salespeople who went to the police and ... and ... and ... Thirdly - this is the working elite! Masters of workshops, masters in workshops, who had a reservation from the call "turners of the first hand" ... And who then could be considered "conscious"? Again, people who came yesterday from the village and ... a little less fortunate than others. Brother clerk no, uncle - head. Tea "Society of Sobriety" is absent, the master of the workshop for youth has not yet become, but I want to live well! That is, the stratum of such “conscious” workers was very thin. Lenin himself uses the word “giant”, that is, he understood that there are a lot of such people in the country, because Russia was the most peasant country among all European states!
Revolutionary Rudzutak Yan Ernestovich. Father and mother are farm laborers. Before 14, he was a shepherd, then a farmhand, a gardener, a loader and a foreman at the plant. After the revolution, an active supporter of Lenin, at the end of life - People's Commissar of Workers and Peasants Inspection of the USSR.
Revolutionary Shlyapnikov Alexander Gavrilovich. He was born in a petty bourgeois, and besides also an old believer family. He graduated from the three classes of the Murom Primary School. By the age of twenty he had become one of the best turners in Petersburg, but at the same time he spent most of his salary on self-education and books. He worked in the factories of England, Germany, France. He knew German and French well. The first people's commissar of labor of the RSFSR and the head of the “workers' opposition”. V. Molotov said about him: "Unprepared working man."
And when we don’t say how, it’s best to read the participant of those events John Reed - “Ten days that shook the world”, Lenin’s party was in power, this giant wave didn’t go away. Not resolved! She remained, suppressing everyone with her size, mentality, patriarchal consciousness, and in order to stay in power, the Bolsheviks needed ... to please her! But how to win the sympathies of people with a petty-bourgeois, patriarchal consciousness (and it also did not disappear anywhere!), Should have been thought, because it’s one thing to take power, and the other to keep it. The easiest and most successful way is to give these people what they want, and this is exactly what the Bolsheviks did.
Revolutionary Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov-Lenin. The son of a real State Councilor, which according to the "Table of Ranks" corresponded to the military rank of Major General and gave the right to hereditary nobility. He graduated from high school and law faculty of St. Petersburg University.
To be continued ...