Military Review

Security Day

38
December 20 in Russia celebrates the Day of the employee of the security agencies of the Russian Federation. This is a professional holiday for employees of the Federal Security Service, the Federal Security Service, the Foreign Intelligence Service, and other special services of our country. The holiday itself was established on December 20 1995 by decree of the President of the Russian Federation B. N. Yeltsin, but long before this decision the intelligence and counterintelligence officers of our country marked it unofficially - as “the day of the Chekist”. By the way, on this very day in 1958, exactly 60 years ago, the famous monument to the founder of the Cheka, Felix Dzerzhinsky, was unveiled in Moscow. This monument for many years has become a symbol of the Soviet special services, and now the country is seriously talking about the need to restore it.




Why was the day of December 20 chosen as the date of the holiday? The answer to this question is simple and straightforward. It was 20 of December 1917 of the year that the Decree of the Council of People’s Commissars of the RSFSR was issued on the formation of the All-Russian Emergency Commission (VChK) to combat counterrevolution and sabotage under SNK RSFSR. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin personally initiated the creation of the VChK of the RSFSR, perfectly understanding the need for a special structure that would be responsible for ensuring the security of the young Soviet state, for fighting counter-revolution and enemy agents.

To create a new special service, the Soviet state was to be "from scratch" - all pre-revolutionary security agencies were disbanded, and their employees either emigrated or went to the "whites", or were arrested or lived quietly, trying to draw attention to themselves to a minimum. Nevertheless, the Soviet party leaders took up the business with enthusiasm.

The first head of the Cheka of the RSFSR was Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky, one of the most influential Bolsheviks at that time, who was considered, among other things, a man who was crystal loyal to the revolution. No matter how critical the critics of the Bolshevik power were to Felix Dzerzhinsky, the founder of the Cheka should be given his due — he coped with the creation of an efficient intelligence service, laying the foundations for its organization and further development.

Already in the very first months after the October Revolution, the Chekists had to face numerous enemies of the Soviet power - from enemy agents and saboteurs to ordinary gangsters. The civil war became the first baptism of the Soviet security agencies, and the post-war period became the stage of improving the fundamentals of activity. In 1920, 1930, the foundation of the very structure of the security agencies was laid, in which more and more new units were created responsible for foreign intelligence and counterintelligence, government communications and the protection of the country's top leadership, radio interception and decryption, the fight against sabotage and terror and political security. So, December 20 1920 of the year, three years after the creation of the Cheka, was organized by the Foreign Department (INO) Cheka, the NKVD of the RSFSR, responsible for conducting foreign intelligence and intelligence operations outside the Soviet state.



6 February 1922, the Cheka was transformed into the Main Political Directorate (then, after the formation of the USSR - the United Main Political Directorate) under the NKVD. For a certain period, the leadership of both state security and law enforcement agencies (the police) turned out to be within the same structure. Operatively, the police were also subordinate to the state security agencies, which became a key tool of political governance of the state, the main thing “weapon»Parties.

In 1934, the OGPU was transformed into the General Directorate of State Security (GUGB) as part of the NKVD of the USSR. The thirties were a difficult period for domestic security agencies. On the one hand, time remained very dangerous for the young Soviet power - it was necessary to solve tasks in the fight against enemy spies, saboteurs, real political opponents of the country. But there was also a flip side of the activities of the bodies related to collectivization, party “purges”. By the way, the latter have not bypassed the entire governing apparatus of the state security organs. People's Commissars of the Interior Grigory Yagoda and Nikolai Yezhov were both arrested and executed. Do not count the high-ranking and not very security officers, who at the end of the 1930-s disappeared miserably in the camps. The system was cleared of harmful elements, but innocent people often became its victims.

Nevertheless, the formation of updated state security bodies was connected with party “purges”. In March, the 1941 of the NKVD was divided into the NKVD itself and the People’s Commissariat of State Security, which was to be responsible for the competence of the former GUGB, but already in July of that year, after the start of the war, they were merged. However, in 1943, the structure was again divided into the NKVD and the NKGB of the USSR. In 1946, the NKGB of the USSR was transformed into the Ministry of State Security of the Soviet Union.

It is the period of 1940-x - the beginning of 1950-x. accompanied by numerous organizational changes in the system of state security organs. For example, in 1947, foreign intelligence was transferred to a specially created Information Committee under the USSR Council of Ministers, which became part of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1949, but already in 1952, intelligence was returned to the Ministry of State Security.

The death of Joseph Stalin also had a major impact on the fate of the security forces. First, almost every other day, March 7, 1953, the state security agencies were included in the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs. Secondly, when Lawrence Beria was dismissed from his post and arrested, the authorities underwent a “purge” of the “Beria” team. A number of close associates of Lavrentiy Beria were shot, others were sentenced to various terms of imprisonment or dismissed from organs. But fundamental changes were associated with the creation of the State Security Committee at the Council of Ministers of the USSR in 1954 year. This structure for many years 36 years was the only Soviet intelligence service responsible for the widest range of areas in the field of state security.



The KGB was in charge of foreign intelligence, general, military and economic counterintelligence, political security, radio interception, encryption and decryption, protection of senior officials of the Soviet state, protection of the state border of the Soviet Union. The activities of the KGB of the USSR was put at the highest level.

The Soviet secret service was very high on the world level, quietly competing with the special services of the United States and Great Britain, not to mention the special services of other states. The system of careful selection of personnel, professional training of intelligence officers and counterintelligence officers contributed to this level. But there were, of course, problems. So, in 1960-x - 1980-x. Not so few KGB officers went abroad and began to work against their home state.

On the other hand, the state security agencies were forced to perform the functions of political investigation, the fight against dissent, often dealing with issues that really had nothing to do with genuine protection of the interests of the country. And, nevertheless, for the presence of certain problems, the greater part of the servicemen of the KGB of the USSR honestly and selflessly served their homeland.

The exploits of the Soviet security officers were rarely covered in the press due to the nature of their activities. The exception was the border guards, but this is a separate issue. In the post-war period, they preferred either to keep silent about the exploits of the scouts and counterintelligence, or to submit information in extremely compressed and modified form.

History The USSR State Security Committee ended almost simultaneously with the history of the Soviet Union itself. Since the KGB of the USSR was considered the most odious Soviet structure, it was not surprising that it was decided to simply disband it. The new democratic authorities were actively pushing this decision by Western "partners" who were suddenly enrolled as "friends" of Russia.

Formally, the “August putsch” of 1991 put an end to the history of the KGB. One of the active participants of the State Emergency Committee was the chairman of the KGB of the USSR, Army General Vladimir Aleksandrovich Kryuchkov - on the night from 21 on 22 in August 1991, he was arrested. Defendants in criminal cases became the first deputy chairmen of the KGB G.E. Ageev and V.F. Grushko, Deputy Chairman of the KGB V.A. Ponomarev, head of the 9-th GU KGB Yu.S. Plekhanov, his deputy V.V. Generalov, Head of the KGB Department for Moscow and Moscow Region V.M. Prilukov. A symbol of the end of the KGB was the dismantling of the monument to Felix Dzerzhinsky 22 August 1991 by the insurgent Muscovites.



29 August 1991 was appointed Vadim Viktorovich Bakatin, who had previously served as the Minister of Internal Affairs of the USSR, as the Chairman of the KGB of the USSR. Under his leadership, the KGB of the USSR and 3 December 1991 of the year ceased to exist. General directorates were transformed from the KGB, transformed into several new special services. A new, post-Soviet era began in the life of the country's state security system. She was associated with no less dramatic events and shocks.

Starting from the 1990's. Russian security agencies had to face a number of practically unknown phenomena in Soviet times - drug business and drug mafia, mass corruption in government, organized crime, terrorism, political extremism.

Security Day


Accordingly, the role of the antiterrorist units of the state security organs, as well as the structures responsible for the protection of the constitutional order, has increased. On the other hand, the fight against economic crime and corruption, including in the state apparatus, law enforcement system, and the armed forces has become a very important activity in a market economy.

Now in the Russian Federation three main special services are responsible for the security of our country. All of them are successors of the KGB of the USSR and organizations that existed after its collapse. First, it is the Federal Security Service (FSB) - the most powerful and extensive structure, in charge of which - counterintelligence and military counterintelligence, economic security and the fight against corruption, anti-terror and the protection of the constitutional order, the protection of state borders of Russia (after being included in the FSB FPS - Federal Border Service), the fight against highly dangerous forms of crime, information security. In the FSB bodies there are a variety of people - from anti-terror commandos to top-level programmers, from investigators and counterintelligence operatives to coast guard troops.

The second special service, the Foreign Intelligence Service, is responsible for foreign intelligence, for the security of Russia's interests abroad. This is the heir to the glorious traditions of the First Main Directorate of the KGB of the USSR. For obvious reasons, we hear about the activities of the SVR less often than about the activities of the FSB, but this does not mean that the results of this activity are not visible, especially now when the West has unleashed a new phase of the Cold War against Russia.



The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation solves very specific tasks. In her competence - not only the protection of the head of state, the head of government, other important officials and government facilities, but also government communications, information security, maintenance and operation of presidential and government infrastructure. In addition, the FSO, within the framework of its authority, is engaged in anti-terrorism activities and operational work. Since the majority of the abolished Federal Agency for Government Communications and Information (FAPSI) became part of the FSO, the number of FSOs increased markedly compared with the Yeltsin period. But, we must pay tribute, this structure copes with its responsibilities.

Thus, for more than a century of its existence, the security agencies of the USSR and Russia have traveled a difficult path, accompanied by numerous organizational transformations, human losses, and blows to their reputation. But they performed and are performing their very complex and dangerous tasks to protect the security of the Russian state. Their service is not always known to us, half-true and frankly false myths and legends circulate about it, but it remains extremely significant for the country. Indeed, without a security agency, there can be no significant state, especially such as Russia, and even in the current world political situation.

"Military Review" congratulates all current and former (although "former Chekists do not exist") security officers of Russia and the Soviet Union with their professional holiday. Honor and praise to those who serve in the defense of state interests, eternal memory to those who gave their lives for Russia.
Author:
Photos used:
sevoborona.info, pikabu.ru
38 comments
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  1. Conductor
    Conductor 20 December 2018 05: 37
    +11
    Colleagues, though former, happy holiday !!!
    1. ANCIENT
      ANCIENT 20 December 2018 06: 10
      +8
      conductor hi - and I, as a reserve of special services, congratulate you hi drinks hi
      1. Conductor
        Conductor 20 December 2018 06: 29
        +5
        Thank you sin not to drink today !!!!
    2. 210ox
      210ox 20 December 2018 06: 27
      +6
      There are no past in this sphere ... Happy Holidays, fighters of the "invisible front!"
      1. Andrey Yuryevich
        Andrey Yuryevich 20 December 2018 07: 52
        +5
        Congratulations to the true, faithful oath. soldier
        1. Conductor
          Conductor 20 December 2018 09: 21
          +4
          EXCELLENT !!!!!! THIS OATH WAS !!! in 1992, even at the time we also tried something like this. or maybe a new oath (though it’s not clear to anyone, I served in Turkmenistan), such a bucha was in the brigade. Then, in the National Security Committee of the Republic of Kazakhstan (I served there), the old said that they tried, to mark, in the army, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the National Security Committee, about a new oath to Kazakhstan, E.L.D.A.K. showed such a fact that Nazarbayev personally spoke. that whoever swore allegiance to the USSR will not be given any new oath. By the way, I came to the KNB in ​​1994, I didn’t take the oath of the RK, the military oath is worth the oath of the USSR.
        2. Cheslav Tsursky
          Cheslav Tsursky 20 December 2018 09: 24
          +5
          Happy holiday to FSB officers of all directions. Let every business end in victory and every step will be directed towards success! Health to you, your family and friends! Good luck God bless you!
        3. Conductor
          Conductor 20 December 2018 10: 00
          +1
          This moment would show Putin and ask, Have you violated the oath?
    3. Lord of the Sith
      Lord of the Sith 20 December 2018 11: 24
      +1
      Happy first line of defense! drinks
  2. ANCIENT
    ANCIENT 20 December 2018 06: 08
    +4
    it doesn’t matter how someone personally relates to the FSB, but this service is necessary for the country, therefore I congratulate them on the Holiday hi drinks yes drinks
  3. faiver
    faiver 20 December 2018 06: 40
    +4
    All involved in the holiday ...
  4. Kapkan
    Kapkan 20 December 2018 06: 43
    +8
    Happy serious people! hi
    And in general, I would have returned the name of the KGB. Somehow dearer ...
    1. sergo1914
      sergo1914 20 December 2018 08: 38
      +1
      Quote: Kapkan
      Happy serious people! hi
      And in general, I would have returned the name of the KGB. Somehow dearer ...


      Then the Cheka. More authentic.
  5. taiga2018
    taiga2018 20 December 2018 07: 17
    +5
    happy holiday!
  6. Sarmat Sanych
    Sarmat Sanych 20 December 2018 07: 32
    +6
    "A security officer must have a warm heart, a cold head and clean hands. A person can only sympathize with social misfortune if he sympathizes with any specific misfortune of each individual person" (F.E.Dzerzhinsky).
    1. svp67
      svp67 20 December 2018 07: 43
      +4
      Quote: Sarmat Sanych
      Chekist

      Alas, the certificate is not that, it belongs to the counterintelligence officer of the GU of the People’s Commissariat of Defense .... in this case there should be
  7. Mouse
    Mouse 20 December 2018 08: 07
    +3
    Congratulations!!!

    drinks
  8. Baloo
    Baloo 20 December 2018 08: 15
    +4
    Congratulations to the Stirlitz on their holiday! Good luck, patience, health, stars on shoulder straps, happiness and prosperity to families and loved ones. drinks
  9. aszzz888
    aszzz888 20 December 2018 08: 43
    +1
    To the office, in the best word, I congratulate you on the holiday !!! All of mine - especially !!! drinks soldier drinks
  10. Million
    Million 20 December 2018 08: 57
    -1
    Where were they when the USSR was betrayed? A rhetorical question
  11. Tank jacket
    Tank jacket 20 December 2018 09: 30
    +4
    Men are pleased with their professional work. So many prevented attacks this year, well done and congratulations !!!
  12. Alexey-74
    Alexey-74 20 December 2018 10: 17
    +2
    All security officers with a holiday !!!!!
  13. Rusfaner
    Rusfaner 20 December 2018 10: 53
    +1
    The young lieutenant suddenly woke up in the middle of the night from an insight that he began to understand the connection of people, times and events! And until the morning he tossed around the kitchen, dreaming of coming to the Office as soon as possible and sharing his discovery with colleagues ...
    In the next apartment, the old colonel also did not sleep for a long time, silently smoked in the window and tried to remember those who still remember what he knows ...

    Happy Holidays, comrades!

    PS
    - Uncle, uncle, and you operas?
    - Yes, son. Do you want to tell something?
    - Nah ... but what's in your folder?
    - Business.
    “Why is it gurgling there?”
    - Because not yet disclosed.

    Memo to a security officer:
    Do not store vodka in a safe, along with secret documents. Keep it in a more secure place!
  14. Radikal
    Radikal 20 December 2018 11: 38
    0
    On the other hand, the state security organs were forced to perform the functions of political investigation, the fight against dissent, often addressing issues that in reality were not related to the genuine protection of the country's interests.
    In all countries, local intelligence services perform these functions .... bully
  15. Radikal
    Radikal 20 December 2018 11: 48
    0
    Quote: Andrew Y.
    Congratulations to the true, faithful oath. soldier

    good good good drinks soldier
    1. Conductor
      Conductor 20 December 2018 13: 37
      +1
      Again. For the record. It is necessary to show everyone, servicemen.
  16. German Titov
    German Titov 20 December 2018 12: 19
    +1
    Happy Holiday of People who have not changed their oath! Yesterday was the centenary of the Military counterintelligence "Shut up, shut up")))
  17. German Titov
    German Titov 20 December 2018 12: 27
    0
    Quote: Million
    Where were they when the USSR was betrayed? A rhetorical question

    Listened to a VK veteran. He served in the Baltics. The locations of the "amerikosov" and "Sayudis" were identified, but no command was given. The KGB is not in itself. In the absence of political will, it did not work. The answer is also rhetorical. Chekists with the Holiday.
  18. Starmaster
    Starmaster 20 December 2018 12: 59
    +1
    All with a holiday, separately in military unit 13955 !!!
  19. Conductor
    Conductor 20 December 2018 13: 36
    +1
    A little cabbage laid out sauerkraut, pickled cucumber, cutlet, compote home. and used for our 150 alcohol of the present, and then listened - Do not think about the seconds down !!! For ours, who served and serves. !!!!
    1. German Titov
      German Titov 20 December 2018 14: 28
      +1
      Vodka "Pepper on honey", tomatoes with grapes. I remembered my grandfather - Ivan Alekseevich Alekseev "mamleya of border troops". Probably "grandpa" did not find all the caches. He has 2 Orders of the Red Star for Western Ukraine and Belarus. Okay, let's finish it.
      1. Conductor
        Conductor 20 December 2018 15: 19
        +2
        Grandfather respect, and once again I accept, on a hundred. Animal hunting
        1. German Titov
          German Titov 20 December 2018 15: 34
          +1
          Yes, grandfathers about 15 years already. He was buried in the hero city of Tula. drinks Then I was a stupid granddaughter born and raised in Donbass. Let's be friends with the "animal-hunting" do not "overdo it." I was just recently at the range, it turns out I have not forgotten how to shoot "no hiba".
  20. Doliva63
    Doliva63 20 December 2018 21: 22
    0
    I have comrades who, after the army, served in Alpha and Vympel - I congratulated them with pleasure today, because I love and respect them in a comradely manner. But the "office" does not like them. I do not despise, I do not despise - in general, it is a necessary organization, but from childhood I was brought up in love exclusively for the army. And the rest are intended to ensure that the army fulfills its tasks. So happy "office" from the army! drinks
  21. ODERVIT
    ODERVIT 20 December 2018 22: 01
    +1
    Happy holiday, fighters of the invisible front !!!
  22. Sewer krainiy
    Sewer krainiy 20 December 2018 22: 16
    +1
    Dear colleagues in retirement, reserve, active - with the Day of the Cheka-KGB, yesterday's 100th anniversary of military counterintelligence. All wishes in encryption smile By the way, Russia and Belarus celebrate these holidays on the same days. Who else....?
  23. asv363
    asv363 21 December 2018 03: 00
    0
    The FSB of Russia in the city of Stavropol implemented a set of measures to curb the activities of members of the international terrorist organization “Islamic State”

    19.12.2018

    The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation in the city of Stavropol has implemented a set of measures to suppress the activities of members of the Islamic State, an international terrorist organization banned in Russia.
    In an attempt to detain the bandits armed resistance to the special forces of the FSB of Russia. In response, members of the Islamic State international terrorist organization were neutralized. There were no injured among the FSB officers of Russia.
    A criminal case under part 1 of art. 30, paragraph "a" part 2 of article 205, part 2, article 205.5, part 2 of article 222 of the Criminal Code of Russia. Investigative actions and operational-search measures are ongoing.
  24. Radikal
    Radikal 21 December 2018 05: 59
    -1
    Quote: German Titov
    Vodka "Pepper on honey", tomatoes with grapes. I remembered my grandfather - Ivan Alekseevich Alekseev "mamleya of border troops". Probably "grandpa" did not find all the caches. He has 2 Orders of the Red Star for Western Ukraine and Belarus. Okay, let's finish it.

    good good good drinks soldier