War with poland
Poland has interfered in the affairs of the Russian state since the beginning of the Troubles. Poland and the Vatican supported the impostor - False Dmitry, who promised the Poles vast lands and the union of Orthodoxy with Catholicism (in fact, the subordination of the Russian Church to Rome). Detachments of Polish magnates and adventurers actively participated in the Russian Troubles, plundering and smashing cities and villages.
Open Polish intervention began in 1609 year. Polish troops, taking advantage of the collapse of the Russian statehood, were able to occupy vast Russian lands, after a long and heroic defense they took the strategic fortress of Smolensk (1609 - 1611). After the catastrophic defeat of the Russian-Swedish army in the battle near the village of Klushino (June 1610), Moscow was left without an army, and the boyars overthrew Tsar Vasily Shuisky. The boyar government (Semiboyarshchina) in August 1610 of the year signed a treacherous agreement, by which the Polish throne invited the Polish king Vladislav. The Polish garrison was introduced to Moscow. Traitors-boyars on behalf of the new king minted a coin. However, Vladislav's wedding to the kingdom did not happen. Polish prince was not going to go to the Orthodox faith.
Only 1612, the Second Zemstvo militia led by Minin and Pozharsky was able to liberate Moscow from the invaders. The public mind is dominated by the myth, which was formed by the historians of the Romanovs' house, that the surrender of the Poles in the Kremlin was a turning point in the Troubles or even its end. And the accession of Mikhail Romanov finally completed the period of the Troubles in the Russian state. Although in reality, in 1613, the war only flared up with a new force. The new Moscow government had to fight at the same time with the Polish army in the west, the Cossacks Ivan Zarutsky in the south (the ataman planned to impose the son of Marina Mnishek on the Russian throne) and the Swedes in the north. In addition, the war with a gang of thieves Cossacks and Polish troops was fought throughout the state, there was no clear front in this war. Cossack detachments repeatedly approached Moscow, smashed their camps near the capital. With great difficulty, the royal governors managed to defend Moscow and drive off the “thieves”.
Only in 1614, the dangerous uprising of Zarutsky, which threatened the Cossack-Peasant War with a new wave, was suppressed, and he was seized and taken to the capital: , and Marina die in Moscow. " In fact, the Romanovs hid the ends in the water, eliminating witnesses of the Troubles organization. And the murder of 4-year-old (!) “Tsarevich” Ivan will be a terrible sin on the house of the Romanovs. The war with Sweden was unsuccessful and ended with the signing of the 27 in February 1617 of the Stolbovo Peace Treaty. Moscow returned Novgorod, Ladoga and some other cities, lands, but lost the fortresses of Ivangorod, Yam, Oreshek, Koporye, Korela and access to the Baltic (they returned only under Peter the First).
Since the liberation of Moscow and before the Deulinsky truce, war with the Poles did not turn. In 1613, the Russian troops lifted the siege of the enemy from Kaluga, liberated Vyazma and Dorogobuzh, which voluntarily surrendered to them. Then they besieged the White fortress, and in August they forced the Poles to surrender. After this, the royal governors began the blockade of Smolensk, but due to low combat capability, lack of strength, ammunition, provisions and opposition from the enemy, it was dragged out. In November 1614, the Polish pans sent a letter to the Moscow government in which they reproached Vladislav with treason and mistreated noble Polish prisoners. But despite this, the Poles offered to begin peace negotiations. The Moscow boyars agreed and sent Zhelyabuzhsky as ambassador to Poland. These negotiations yielded nothing, resulting in a stream of mutual insults and accusations. The Poles did not want to hear anything about Tsar Mikhail Romanov. According to them, Michael was only the stolnik of Tsar Vladislav.
Alexander Lisovsky (formerly one of the commanders of the False Dmitry II, then transferred to the service of the Polish king) in 1615, made another raid on Polish cavalry across Russia with the aim of diverting Russian troops from Smolensk. His squad (lisovchiki), described a large loop around Moscow and returned to Poland. Lisovsky was a bold and skillful commander, his unit consisted of selective cavalry. Its number ranged from 600 to 3 thousand people. Among the lisovchikov were Poles, representatives of the West Russian population, German mercenaries and thieves Cossacks. In the spring, Lisovsky besieged Bryansk, in the summer — Karachev and Bryansk captured. He smashed the Moscow army under Prince Yuri Shakhovsky under Karachev.
After that, the government of Martha (Mikhail Romanov himself was a dummy, so his mother, nun Martha, and Father Fyodor Romanov, Patriarch Filaret, first released by the Poles) ruled for him first) decided to send Dmitry Pozharsky against the foxes. The prince was an experienced and skillful commander, but he was sick from previous wounds, that is, he could not fully pursue the enemy mobile army. In fact, the Romanov government was interested in disgracing Pozharsky, who had recently been a possible candidate for the Russian throne. 29 June 1615 of the year Pozharsky, with a squad of noblemen, archers and a few foreign mercenaries (about 1 in total, thou fighters), went on to catch foxes. Lisowski at that time was sitting in the city of Karachev. Learning about the rapid movement of Pozharsky through Belev and Bolkhov, Lisovsky burned Karachev and retreated to Orel. The scouts reported about this commander, and he moved to intercept the enemy. By way of Pozharsky, a Cossack detachment joined, and in Bolkhov, Tatar cavalry. Detachment Pozharsky doubled forces.
On August 23, in the area of Orel, the head detachment of Pozharsky under the command of Ivan Pushkin suddenly collided with an opponent. Pushkin's detachment could not stand the oncoming battle and retreated. Another Russian detachment under the leadership of the voivode Stepan Islenev also departed. On the battlefield, only Pozharsky himself remained with the 600 fighters. His warriors repelled the attacks of the 3-thousand of the Lisovsk detachment, hiding behind a fortification of concatenated carts. Pozharsky said to his soldiers: "We all die in this place." However, Lisovsky, not knowing about the small number of Pozharsky soldiers, did not dare to go on a decisive assault on the field fortification. Lisowski retreated and burned the Eagle.
Meanwhile, the fleeing troops returned to Pozharsky and he resumed the persecution of Lisovsky. The Poles fled to Bolkhov, but here they were reflected by voivode Fyodor Volynsky. Then the lisovchiki approached Belev, and 11 of September burned him. On the same day Likhvin attacked, but the local garrison repulsed the attack. September 12 Lisovsky took Przemysl, whose governor left the city and fled to Kaluga. Here lisovchikov regained their strength, in the process ruining the surrounding villages. Pozharsky stopped in Likhvin and here he received reinforcements from several hundred warriors from Kazan. After a short rest, the prince resumed the persecution of Lisovsky. He was still retreating. The Poles burned Przemysl and marched north between Vyazma and Mozhaisk.
Pozharsky, after several days of persecution, became seriously ill and handed over command to other commanders. He himself was taken to Kaluga. Without Pozharsky army quickly lost its combat capability. A detachment of Kazan went home without permission. Voivode with the remaining forces were afraid to go to the enemy. And Lisovsky freely went to Rzhev, who defended the voivode Fedor Sheremetev with difficulty, who himself went to the aid of Pskov. Having left from Rzhev, the Poles burned Torzhok, tried to take Kashin and Uglich, but even there the governors coped with their duties. After that, the lisovchiki did not try to attack the cities anymore, but walked between them, devastating everything in their path. Lisovsky went between Yaroslavl and Kostroma to Suzdal district, then between Vladimir and Murom, between Kolomna and Pereyaslavl-Ryazan, between Tula and Serpukhov to Alexin. Several governors were sent in pursuit of the enemy, but they only fruitlessly circled between the cities, not finding Lisovsky. Only in December, the tsarist ratification of Prince Kurakin managed to impose battle on the enemy near the city of Aleksin. But he retreated without significant losses. In early January, 1616, the foxes tried again and unsuccessfully to take Likhvin, and then went to Smolensk, to their own.
Thus, Lisovskiy managed to quite calmly leave for the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after an amazing raid around Moscow that was long remembered in the Russian state. This campaign showed the precariousness of the situation in Russia of that time. Lisowski in Poland became a symbol of elusiveness and invincibility. True, this lightning raid had a negative impact on the health of Lisovsky himself. In the autumn of 1616, he again assembled a detachment to pogrom Russian cities and villages, but suddenly fell from his horse and died. Lisovchikov was led by Stanislav Chaplinsky - another field commander in the former army of the Tushino thief (False Dmitry II). In 1617, Chaplinsky seized the cities of Meshchovsk, Kozelsk and approached Kaluga, where he was defeated by Pozharsky's army.
Lisovchiki - participants in the raid Lisovsky. Painting by Polish artist J. Kossak
Moscow campaign of Vladislav
In the summer of 1616, Russia and Poland traded blows. The Russian commanders raided Lithuania, defeating the surroundings of Surezh, Velizh and Vitebsk. In turn, a detachment of Lithuanians and Cossacks acted from Karachev and Krom. Our governors chased after them, but without much success. Most Lithuanians went abroad.
Inspired by Lisovsky's raid, the Poles decided to organize a big march on Moscow led by Prince Vladislav. However, the army was not entrusted to one prince, the army was headed by the great Lithuanian hetman Jan Chodkiewicz, who had already led troops to Moscow in 1611 - 1612. In addition, the Seym sent eight special commissioners with the King - A. Lipsky, S. Zhuravinsky, K. Plichta, L. Sapega, P. Opalinsky, B. Stravinsky, J. Sobesky and A. Mentsinsky. They had to ensure that the prince did not oppose the conclusion of peace with Moscow. After the seizure of the Russian capital, the commissioners had to make sure that Vladislav did not back down from the conditions worked out by the Sejm. The main conditions were: 1) connection of Russia and Poland into an inseparable union; 2) the establishment of free trade; 3) the transfer of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth - the Smolensk principality, from the Seversk land - Bryansk, Starodub, Chernigov, Pochep, Novgorod-Seversky, Putivl, Rylsk and Kursk, as well as Nevel, Sebezh and Velizh; 4) Moscow’s rejection of rights to Livonia and Estland. It is clear that the strife and intrigue in the Polish command did not add to the army's combat capability.
Portrait of Vladislav Vaz brush workshop Rubens, 1624
The second half of 1616 and the beginning of 1617 were held in preparation for the march. There was no money, so with great difficulty 11 -12 thousand soldiers scored. Basically it was the cavalry. In Lithuania, they even introduced a special tax to pay mercenaries. The Polish army consisted of two parts: the crown army under the command of Vladislav and the Lithuanian troops of Hetman Chodkiewicz. At the same time, a significant part of the crown army had to be sent to the southern borders because of the threat of war with the Turks. Meanwhile, in the western and southwestern parts of Russia, the gangs of thieves Cossacks, among whom there were almost no real Don and Zaporizhzhya Cossacks, continued to rage. Many of them were delighted with the campaign and the new opportunity to "walk" in Russia. They joined the royal army.
In May, the advanced Polish troops, under the command of Gonsevsky and Chaplinsky, unblocked Smolensk. The Russian siege army headed by Mikhail Buturlin left the fortifications near Smolensk and retreated to Belaya. Vladislav stepped out of Warsaw in April 1617 of the year, but he walked around Volyn to frighten Turkey. In the summer, a significant part of the army had to be sent to the southern border to the army of the great hetman of the crown Zolkiewski because of the threat of war with Porta. Therefore, the prince returned to Warsaw for a while. Only in September, Vladislav arrived in Smolensk, and Khodkevich’s troops approached Dorogobuzh. In early October, voivod Dorogobuzh I. Adadurov went over to the side of the Poles and kissed the cross to Vladislav as the Russian Tsar. This caused a panic in Vyazma, local governors with a part of the garrison fled to Moscow and the fortress was surrendered to the enemy without a fight. Obviously, this caused great enthusiasm in the Polish ranks. The Polish command, hoping to repeat the success of the False Dmitry in 1617, when it occupied Moscow without a fight, sent several governors led by Adadurov to the Russian capital in order to "seduce" the Moscow people. But they were arrested and sent into exile.
The advanced Polish detachments reached Mozhaysk and tried to take the city with a sudden blow. Mozhaisk governors F. Buturlin and D. Leontiev closed the gate and decided to stand to the death. From Moscow, reinforcements were immediately sent to their aid under the command of B. Lykov and G. Valuev. On the way of the enemy, the Moscow government put up three ratifications led by D. Pozharsky, D. Cherkassky and B. Lykov. Some advisers of Vladislav proposed to attack on the move the poorly fortified Mozhaisk and the weak Russian army stationed there. However, the time for the campaign was lost. Mercenaries and Polish gentry demanded money. The treasury was empty. Winter came, food was scarce. The Cossacks, not seeing the loot and money, began to desert. As a result, the Polish army stopped in the Vyazma area to “winter apartments”.
Having received the news about the "seat" of Vladislav in Vyazma, the Seym sent a letter to the commissars with a proposal to start peace negotiations with Moscow. At the end of December 1617, the royal secretary Jan Gridic was sent to Moscow with a proposal to conclude a truce before 20 on April 1618, exchange prisoners and begin peace talks. Moscow boyars refused him. The Sejm decided to continue the fighting. Vladislav was returned to the units that had previously been sent to the southern border and transferred new forces at the head of Kazanovsky. As a result, the number of the Polish army was brought to 18 thousand people. In addition, the Poles were inclined to speak out against the Zaporozhian Cossacks led by Hetman Peter Sagaidachny.
In early June 1618, the Polish army launched an offensive from Vyazma. Getman Khodkevich offered to go to Kaluga in the lands less devastated by the war so that the troops could find provisions. But the commissioners insisted on a campaign against Moscow. But on the way of the enemy was Mozhaisk, where he stood with the army of voivode Lykov. Fighting for the city began in late June. The Poles stood under the city, but could not lead a full siege. To take this relatively weak fortress by storm the Poles could not because of the lack of siege artillery and lack of infantry. And they were afraid to leave the Russian fortress in the rear. Fierce fighting near Mozhaisk lasted more than a month. Then the main forces of the Russian army under the command of Lykov and Cherkassky, due to food shortages, went to Borovsk. At the same time, the garrison of Fyodor Volynsky was left in Mozhaisk. He beat off the attacks of the enemy for a month. September 16, without taking Mozhaysk, Vladislav spoke on Moscow. At the same time, part of the Polish-Lithuanian army, without receiving a salary, returned home or fled to plunder Russian lands.
As a result, Vladislav and Khodkevich were brought to Moscow by about 8 thousand soldiers. September 22 (October 2) Polish-Lithuanian army approached Moscow, located on the site of the former Tushino camp. Meanwhile, the Sagaydachny Cossacks broke through the weakened south-western borders of the Russian state. The main forces of Moscow were connected by battles with the Polish army, so they could not stop the Cossacks. The Cossacks took and looted Livny, Yelets, Lebedyan, Ryazhsk, Skopin, Shatsk. The main part of the Cossacks crumbled for robbery, several thousand people brought Sagaidachny to Moscow. Cossacks are located at the Donskoy Monastery. The garrison of Moscow numbered about 11 -12 thousand people, but mostly it was the city militia and the Cossacks. The main line of defense was for the fortifications of the White City.
Chodkiewicz did not have artillery, infantry and supplies for the correct siege. He did not even have the strength for a full blockade, reinforcements could penetrate the city. Tightening the operation led to the strengthening of the garrison, there was a threat of the appearance of strong Russian troops in the rear. The troops were unreliable, standing in place led them to rapid decomposition. Therefore, the hetman decided to take the city almost immediately. Only a cheeky attack could lead to success. On the night of October 1 (11) 1618, the Poles launched an assault. Zaporizhzhya Cossacks had to undertake a distracting attack in Zamoskvorechye. The main blow was delivered from the west to the Arbat and Tver gates. The infantry was to crack the fortifications, take the gate and clear the way for the cavalry. The successful breakthrough of the Poles led to the blockade of the Kremlin or even to seize it with the Russian government.
The assault failed. Cossacks were passive. The defectors warned the Russians about the main threat and reported the time of the attack. As a result, the Poles ran into stubborn resistance. The storming of the Tver gates drowned out immediately. Cavalier of the Order of Malta Novodvorsky made a breach in the wall of the Earthen city and reached the Arbat gate. But the Russians made a sortie. Enemy attack repelled. Novodvorsky himself was wounded. In the evening, the Poles were knocked out of the fortifications of the Earthen City. Forces for the new assault from the Poles was not. But the Moscow government did not have the resources to go into a decisive counter-offensive and throw the enemy away from the capital, to drive the Poles out of the country. Negotiations began.
"In the siege seat." Trinity Bridge and Kutafya Tower. A. Vasnetsov
Negotiations began on 21 (31) on October 1618, on the Presnya River, near the walls of the Earthen City. The Poles were forced to forget about the accession of Vladislav in Moscow. It was about the cities that were supposed to depart Poland, and the timing of the truce. Both Russians and Poles rested. Therefore, the first negotiations did not give anything.
Winter came. Vladislav left Tushino and relocated to the Trinity-Sergius Monastery. Zaporozhtsy Sagaydachnogo went to the south, ravaged Posad of Serpukhov and Kaluga, but could not take the fortress. From Kaluga, Sagaidachny went to Kiev, where he declared himself hetman of Ukraine. Going to the Trinity Monastery, the Poles tried to take it, but were repulsed by artillery fire. Vladislav withdrew troops from the monastery on 12 miles and camped near the village of Rogachev. The Poles scattered across the region, robbing the surrounding villages.
In November 1618, negotiations on an armistice resumed in the village of Deulino belonging to the Trinity Monastery. From the Russian side, the embassy was headed by: boyars F. Sheremetev and D. Mezetskaya, okolnichy A. Izmailov and clerks Bolotnikov and Somov. Poland was represented by commissioners assigned to the army. Objectively, time worked for Moscow. The second wintering of the Polish army was even worse than the first: the troops did not winter in the city of Vyazma, but almost in an open field, the distance to the border of Poland increased significantly. Hired soldiers grumbled and threatened to leave the army. Moscow could at this time strengthen the defense, the army. Appeared the prospect of defeating the enemy. At the same time, the foreign policy situation was dangerous for Warsaw. Poland was threatened with war by the Ottoman Empire and Sweden. And in Moscow they knew about it. In addition, the Thirty Years War began in Western Europe in 1618, and the Polish king Sigismund immediately climbed into it. In conditions when prince Vladislav could get bogged down with an army in Russian forests.
However, subjective factors intervened in the affairs of the Russian embassy. Thus, the leadership of the Trinity Monastery of St. Sergius was little worried about the fate of the western and southwestern Russian cities, but was concerned about the prospect of overwhelming the enemy army in the area of the monastery and, accordingly, ruining the monastic estates. And most importantly, the government of Mikhail Romanov and his mother wanted to free Philaret at any cost and return him to Moscow. That is, the Romanov government decided to make peace at a time when the Poles had no chance of taking Moscow and could lose the army from hunger and cold. In the face of the threat of war with Turkey and Sweden.
As a result of December 1 (11), a truce was signed in Deulino for a period of 1618 years and 14 months in Deulino. The Poles received the cities they had already captured: Smolensk, Roslavl, Bely, Dorogobuzh, Serpeysk, Trubchevsk, Novgorod-Seversky with districts on both sides of the Desna and Chernigov with the region. Moreover, Poland was given a number of cities that were under the control of the Russian army, among them were Starodub, Peremyshl, Pochep, Nevel, Sebezh, Krasny, Toropets, Velizh with their districts and counties. Moreover, the fortress passed with guns and ammunition, and the territory with residents and property. The right to go to the Russian state was received only by nobles with their own people, clergy and merchants. Peasants and townspeople remained in their places. Tsar Mikhail Romanov refused the title of "Prince of Livonian, Smolensk and Chernigov" and granted these titles to the Polish King.
The Poles promised to return the previously captured Russian ambassadors headed by Filaret. The Polish king Sigismund refused the title of "Tsar of Russia" ("Grand Duke of Russia"). At the same time, Vladislav retained the right to be called "the Tsar of Russia" in the official documents of the Commonwealth. The icon of St. Nicholas of Mozhaisk, captured by the Poles in 1611, was returned to Moscow.
Thus, Smoot in Russia ended with a very “obscene” world. The border between Poland and Russia moved far to the east, almost returning to the borders of the times of Ivan III. Russia has lost the most important strategic fortress in the western direction - Smolensk. The Commonwealth for a short time (before the Swedes captured Livonia) reached its maximum size. stories. Warsaw has retained the opportunity to claim the Russian throne. National interests were donated in favor of the interests of the house of the Romanovs. In general, the new war with Poland was further inevitable.
The agreement between Russia and Poland on the truce for 14 years concluded in the village Deulino. Original on parchment. Signed by six Polish ambassadors with their stamps attached.
Orange color shows on the map of the territory, passed to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth on the Deulinsky truce. Source: https://ru.wikipedia.org