Military Review

The collapse of the empire of Alexander the Great

95
Legislation stories implacable, all the great empires of the world await ruin and decay. But even against this background, the unusually rapid collapse of the empire created by Alexander the Great is striking.


The collapse of the empire of Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great. Bust. Archaeological Museum, Istanbul


Great states arise when people in the ascending stage are headed by extraordinary (passionary, by definition, Lev Gumilyov), capable of super-strong personalities who surround themselves with people with similar qualities. Even after the master's death, the will of these people, like a tough hoop, binds together diverse pieces of empires. That was how Rome and Byzantium held out, which, even entering the phase of obscuration, managed to scoop passionarity among the neighboring nations for some time. Vandal by origin Stilicho defeated the Visigoths led by Alaric. The last great commander of Rome, Aetius, who stopped Attila himself, was half German, but, after Procopius, we call him "the last Roman," and L. Gumilev considered him "the first Byzantine." When the vital forces of the descendants of Genghis Khan dried up, the banner of the great conqueror was picked up by rootless temniki, and if Mamai failed in this field and died, then iron Timur shook his conquests half of the universe and died at the zenith of fame and power. Alexander, too, was by no means the only passionate in Macedonia: a whole galaxy of brilliant and loyal commanders was fully capable if not to continue conquering the world, then at least for a while to protect the state he created from disintegration. The Macedonian army was the best in the world and as strategists Antipater, Antigonus, Perdiccas and others did not have worthy opponents outside the borders created by Alexander. What is the cause of the fall of the empire? In this case, we have a unique illustration of the statement that not only the lack of drive people, but also their excessive number, are fatal for the state. To Alexander personally, his commanders were, of course, unconditionally loyal, but voluntarily submitting to any of their rivals was beyond the power of any of them.

After reigning over the entire 13 years, Alexander was unexpectedly and suddenly died at the age of 33 in June 323 BC, distinguished by excellent health.


Dying Alexander (unknown sculptor)


Legend claims that during the feast the warlord Kassander secretly poured water from the Styx into his wine - in one place in Greece, this river allegedly came to the surface. Ferried this poison to Babylon either Aristotle himself, or one of his students (as revenge for the death of the philosopher Callisfen). It was believed that the water of Styx corrodes everything - even iron and stone, so it was delivered in a goat hoof. Undoubtedly, there were reasons to hate Alexander for Kassandr: it was quite difficult for him to forget how the king beat his head against the wall when he came to him as an ambassador from his father Antipater (brought up in the Hellenistic traditions of the young man falling at the feet of Alexander). This is how Oliver Stone saw this episode in the film "Alexander" (2004):



Since then, Cassander was so afraid of Alexander that, many years later, as king of Macedonia and subjugating Hellas, he almost fainted at the sight of his statue in Delphi.


Cassander


But in fact, the doctors who acted as experts in this matter have long concluded that the symptoms of Alexander's disease are most similar to those that are characteristic of "West Nile fever." This disease is quite common in Africa, Western Asia and the Middle East. The carriers of the virus are birds and animals, carriers - mosquitoes. This virus received worldwide fame in 1999 after it was imported to the USA.

When the dying Alexander was asked: "To whom do you leave the kingdom?", He whispered: "To the most worthy." And to the question: "Who will be the tombstone victim over you?" replied: "you."

The answers are simply amazing: the great conqueror directly pushes his commanders to "competition" for the title of "the first after God", that is, himself. Unsaturated with blood, Ares demands that the feast be continued through the mouth of his beloved hero. And the situation was already incredibly complicated and extremely confusing: after the death of Alexander, there was no one left from the royal family to whom the generals agreed to obey. Male offspring of a kind were destroyed by Alexander himself immediately after accession to the throne. Heracles was alive - an illegitimate son of Barsina, the daughter of the Persian exile Artabaz (whom Alexander had known since childhood). Barsina was a widow twice - the commanders of the Greek mercenaries Persia Mentor and Memnon, she was inseparable from the king of Macedonia before his meeting with Roxana. The other aspirant was the feeble-minded son of Philip II Arydeus - also an illegitimate. In addition, the wife of Alexander Roxan was five months pregnant. And under such circumstances, Alexander himself refuses to name his successor, or at least the regent! More recently, faithful comrades and combat comrades tried in dozens of battles rushed to divide kingdoms and provinces. The body of the most powerful monarch Oikumena remained for thirty days without burial, it was preserved only because some of the servants had the idea to pour honey on it. The matter is not in the absence of due respect: the king's burial ceremony was to be organized and carried out by his successor (in Greek - diadoh). There were many people who wanted to hold this ceremony - too much for Alexander. As a result, Perdikka was the first among equals to whom Alexander handed over his ring with a seal. The situation became even more aggravated after receiving the prophecy about the great future of the country, in which the remains of Alexander would rest. After fierce disputes that lasted a whole year, the body of the conqueror, immersed in a sarcophagus with honey, was sent to Macedonia (and the city of Pella). However, Ptolemy intercepted him on the way.


Ptolemy I Soter


The best parts of Perdiccas, the color of the Macedonian army, the best of the best, were thrown in pursuit of the kidnappers - and now, to motivate the veterans, it was not necessary to speak long, pathetic speeches or promise a precious reward. But Ptolemy deceived everyone by organizing a brilliant cover-up operation: he put a false caravan with a big guard under attack, while a small detachment with Alexander's body was walking towards Egypt by a different route - quietly and imperceptibly. After a fierce battle with the people of Ptolemy (who were confident of their high mission and were not going to give in), the soldiers of Perdiccas got a skillfully made doll. And Ptolemy, having acquired the body of Alexander, began to lay claim to the title of the first of the diadochi. And for twenty years, the bloody battles in the territory of Alexander's empire did not abate - there were four wars of the Diadochi, and the Babylonian War (between Antigone and Seleucus) was also between the third and fourth. The situation was complicated by the arbitrariness of the veterans of the Macedonian army, who could not disobey the decision of any of these rulers.

“The famous phalanx of Alexander the Great, which passed through Asia and defeated the Persians, was accustomed to glory and self-will, did not want to obey the leaders, but tried to command them, as our veterans now do”
,
- lamented the Roman historian Cornelius Nepos about this.

Dividing the state between themselves, the commanders of Alexander declared themselves strategists, autocrators (commanders-autocrat) of a single power. Most researchers agree that those can be called 12 people:

Antipater, the commander (and friend) of the father of Alexander - Tsar Philip II. During the Asian campaign, he was left by the governor of Macedonia and Greece, defeated the insurgent Sparta, but quarreled with the king's mother - the Olympics, which after the death of Alexander was forced to go to Epirus. He was appointed strategist of Europe.
Cassander, son of Antipater, entrenched in Macedonia and Greece.
Polyperchon, commander of the phalanx, was his, and not his son, Cassandra appointed Antipater to be his successor. After gaining power, he invited the Olympiad in Epirus to Macedonia, which launched widespread repression against its enemies, including against the relatives of Antipater.
Antigonus the One-Eyed, one of the generals of Philip II, even during the life of Alexander, appointed vicar of Great Phrygia. Additionally received Pamphylia and Lykia. In 306 BC declared himself king, the rest of the dyadohi followed suit.
Demetrius, son of Antigone. He was nicknamed Soter (Savior, received it from the Athenians) and Poliorket. Over the years, controlled Hellas, Macedonia, Cilicia, Cyprus. In Athens for some time he lived in the Parthenon and was worshiped by a living god. His descendants owned Macedonia until the conquest of this country by Rome.
Seleucus, commander, who started his career as Alexander’s bodyguard (the tsar’s bodyguards in Macedonia of those years were the closest personnel reserve, from which the army commanders and provincial governors were chosen). After the Battle of Hydasp (326 BC), he received the nickname Nicator (Victorious). When the first section of the empire received Babylon.
Evmen, secretary of Philip II, and then his son - Alexander. A Greek from Cardia, who achieved a high position not because of his origin, but because of his outstanding abilities. Got Cappadocia and Paphlagonia, which still needed to be conquered.
Perdiccas, he began his career as a bodyguard of Tsar Philip II, under Alexander Alexander commanded cavalry units, the last commander of getyrs. Became chiliarch Asia.
Lysimachus, a native of the family of pensions peasants, bodyguard Alexander, who valued him for his great physical strength and courage. One of the commanders of the Macedonian cavalry. Got Ionia and Thrace.
Ptolemy, Alexander's childhood friend, who showed himself to be a commander during the Asian campaign. Harassed and captured the murderer of Darius - Bess. Tradition calls him the illegitimate son of Philip II, which is unlikely. He was an ardent supporter of the division of the state among the generals. He received the Egyptian administration, whose governor, the Greek Clement (a very capable and intelligent manager who built Alexandria from scratch), was to become his deputy. Ptolemy began his reign with the killing of Clement. Soter received the nickname from the inhabitants of the island of Rhodes (who defended it from Demetrius). In his old age, he wrote memoirs about Alexander and the Asiatic campaign, which became one of the sources for the writing of Arrian from Nicomedia, "The Walk of Alexander the Great". The last representative of his dynasty in Egypt was the famous Cleopatra.
Crater, the commander of the foot bodyguards of Alexander, a commander who had great authority and won universal love among the soldiers and officers of the Macedonian army. He was instructed to withdraw the army from 11 500 veterans to their homeland (Polyperchon became deputy). Appointed trustee of the Macedonian kingdom.
Python, Alexander's bodyguard, who supported Perdiccas in his claim to power and obtained the Media, but later joined the conspiracy against Perdiccas. Executed by Antigonus in 316 BC


It could have been 15, but the most experienced commander Parmenion, during the Asian campaign, invariably commanded the left flank of the Macedonian army (the flank of deterrence, which took upon itself the strikes of the elite units of the right wing of the enemy), and his son Filot, the commander of the guards of Getai, were killed by order of Alexander. Personally, Alexander was killed by Cleit, who saved the king in a battle on the river Granik, his nanny's brother, the commander of agema, an elite squadron of getyrs. We can also recall Hephaestion, who undoubtedly would have been appointed regent if he had not died before the death of Alexander. But this appointment would not change anything in further events: "comrades on arms"and" faithful companions "devoured" Alexander's pet, who had no great prestige in the army, even earlier than Perdiccas.

Of those who took part in the division of Alexander's empire, only three died in their own bed: Antipater, Cassander and Ptolemy (the circumstances and exact date of Polyperkhon's death are unknown, but most likely he died of old age after living for 90). Diadoci attempted to preserve the appearance of unity by making Philip Arridea the kings, the mentally retarded son of Philip of Macedon and the unknown dancer (choice of the Macedonian army) and Alexander IV, the newborn son of Alexander (choice of diadochi) under the regency of the commander Perdiccas.


Distribution of Satrapies Perdikkoy


The first section of the empire did not suit anyone, and the borders began to crumble literally in front of shocked contemporaries.


The kingdom of the Diadochi in 315 BC.


In Europe, the aged, but very authoritative commander Antipater, who was joined by the most popular commander after Alexander himself, was recognized as the regent of the royal house.


Antipater



Crater in the O. Stone film "Alexander", 2004


But already in 321 BC. Ptolemy, the son of Laga, the one that captured the body of Alexander and buried him in Alexandria, refused to obey Perdiccas. Antipater and Cassander also opposed Asia's chiliarch, but their blow was successfully repelled by the former secretary of Philip and Alexander Eumenes, who now showed himself to be an outstanding commander.


Eumenes


Having defeated the former satop of Armenia Neoptolem (formerly Alexander is the commander of the shield bearers in the army of Alexander - the commander of the shield bearers) Eumenes, who was defeated by the satrap of Armenia, he was forced to fight the favorite commander of the Macedonian army, the idol of Alexander veterans and his friend - Crater. Sure that the Macedonians would not fight against him, the crater went out to this battle without a helmet. But Eumenes directed against the Crater Asian riders, one of whom and inflicted a mortal wound. Joining the crater Neoptolem in that battle, he found his death in a duel with Eumenes. The description of this battle by Plutarch, worthy of a heroic poem, has been preserved:

“With terrible force, like triremes, they both let go of the reins and, clinging to each other, began to pull the helmet off the enemy and break the shell on their shoulders. During this fight, both horses slipped out from under their riders and sped off, and the horsemen, falling to the ground, continued their fierce struggle. Neoptolem tried to get up, but Eumenes cut his knee, and he jumped to his feet. Leaning on a healthy knee, and not paying attention to the injured, Neoptolem desperately defended himself, but his blows were harmless, and finally struck in the neck, he fell and stretched out on the ground. All in the grip of anger and old-fashioned hatred, Eumenes, with curses, began to rip off his armor, but the dying imperceptibly stuck his sword, which he still held in his hand, under Eumene’s armor and wounded him in the groin, where the armor loosely adjoins the body. The blow struck with a weakening hand was harmless and scared Eumenes more than hurt him. ”


The Macedonian Crater Army, which was considered invincible (which included more than 11 000 veterans of Alexander!), Suffered a complete defeat.

But Pericque, who had gone on a campaign to Egypt, was killed in 321 BC. in his tent after an unsuccessful crossing over the Nile (then about 2000 soldiers drowned). The conspiracy was led by Python and Seleucus. The help that Ptolemy gave to the Macedonians of the army of Perdiccas made such an impression on everyone that he was offered to become the regent of the empire and the chiliarch of Asia. However, Ptolemy apparently knew his former comrades-diadochi very well in order to create illusions about the possibility of preserving the state of Alexander. "Tit in arms" in the form of a stable and self-sufficient Egypt seemed to him more valuable than a "crane" of a crumbling empire. Python was appointed interim regent; in this post he was soon replaced by Europe's strategist Antipater, who has now become the sole ruler of the state. After his death in 319 BC, Eumene, already familiar to us, became the main defender of the dynasty. By virtue of his origin (we recall that he was a Greek, not a Macedonian), he was the only Diadochoi who could not claim the royal throne and therefore was not interested in eliminating the heirs of Alexander. The old comrades of Philip and Alexander did not like Eumenes and did not forgive him for the death of Crater, popular in the army. Eumenes was sentenced to death in absentia, Asia’s strategist Antigonus the One-Eyed sent a large army against him, which was unable to either storm the Phrygian fortress Nora, in which Eumenes hid, or prevent him from retreating from it. The Olympiad, which came to power in Macedonia, appointed Eumenes a strategist of Asia, he was supported by the governors of the Indian and Central Asian provinces. Antigonus suffered a series of defeats, but, during the last battle (in Susian), thanks to the treachery of the satrap Persis Peukeste, he managed to capture the convoy of Eumenes. And, who did not suffer a single defeat on the battlefield, Eumenes was issued by his Argyrospid warriors - they simply traded their commander for a wagon train captured by the enemy.

In the meantime, the Olympiad, called Polyperchon in Macedonia (317 BC), ordered Arridea to be killed (his wife Eurydice was ordered to strangle what she performed by wishing the same fate to the Olympics) and unleashed a campaign of terror against noble Macedonian families, first of all - against the family of Antipater hated by her.


Olympiad, mother of Alexander


Taking advantage of the general discontent, Cassander conquered Macedonia, captured the Olympics, which, thanks to his efforts, was sentenced by a troop assembly to death. There were problems with the Olympics: Cassandra really wanted to get rid of her, but he didn’t want to be known as the murderer of the great Alexander. He offered her to flee - the proud queen refused. I had to send the executioners to her nevertheless, but when they saw the Olympiad in full royal robes, they did not decide to execute the order. Then the relatives of the people executed were sent to her by her order: the Olympics were stoned. And all the moral barriers collapsed in one hour: Cassander began to destroy in Macedonia the memory of his former idol - Alexander. Soon, on his orders, Roxana and her son, already deprived of all royal privileges, were actually taken into custody, and in the position of captives they were in the city of Amphipolis. During the III war of the Diadochi, Antigonus made a demand to restore his son Alexander to the throne, hoping, therefore, to cause unrest in Macedonia. But this had no effect on the fate of the juvenile king. Meanwhile, the Macedonians increasingly began to turn to Cassandra with questions, when did he finally return Alexander IV to the court, so that the future king began to join the government. And these questions are very unnerving and Cassandra, and the rest of the diadoes, who were still in 306 BC. declared themselves kings and began to mint coins with their portraits (until that time Alexander the Great was depicted on the diadohek coins). Cassander did not want to give the throne, the other diadohi awakened at night in a cold sweat when they had nightmares about the son of the great Alexander in the crown of the legitimate king of Macedonia. When Alexander IV turned 14 years (310 BC), Cassander ordered to poison him and Roxanne: the mother and son were buried secretly, and in Macedonia they did not immediately learn about their death. And in 309 BC. by order of Polyperchon, Barsin and Hercules were killed. This was a huge mistake for Polyperkhon: he had excellent chances of winning in Macedonia - no one, not even Cassander, who doubted the loyalty of his soldiers (who suspected that Roxana and Alexander IV did not die without his help) did not dare to oppose him. the last son of the great Alexander. But the aged commander was flattered by the promise of Cassandra to support him in the Peloponess. Satisfied with his pliability, Cassander did everything he could to learn about this murder in Macedonia and Greece: terrible damage was inflicted on Polyperkhon’s reputation, the diadoch descended from the historical scene, he still controlled 2 of the city (Corinth and Scyon), without even thinking about it more. The last mention of him relates to 303 BC, there is no clear information about the place and time of his death. We add that Alexander's two sisters were also killed: Cleopatra - by order of Antigone, Thessalonica (became the wife of Cassandra, the city of Thessaloniki was named on her behalf) - was killed by her own son. This was the end of the Macedonian dynasty of Argead.

Outside of Macedonia, meanwhile, in the civil war, fighting against Seleucus and Lysimachus, Antigon the One-eyed (301 BC) died in the battle of Ipsa.


Antigone the One-eyed


In this battle (on the side of Antigonus), for the first time, the little-known young king of Epirus, who will be the first of the great opponents of Rome, took part in the hostilities, but will be told about it in the next article.


Translated into Russian, his name means "Fiery" or "Red." Monument in the Greek city of Arta


Four dyadoch were still alive - too much for Alexander’s long-suffering empire. They now divided the provinces as follows:

Cassander received Macedonia, Thessaly, Hellas, Epirus.
Lysimachus - Thrace, Black Sea Coast, Phrygia, and then also Bithynia, Paphlagonia and Heracleia Pontic.
Seleucus added to his possessions in Syria a part of Phrygia.
Evading the battle, Ptolemy seized the lament of Seleucus Palestine.


The son of Antigone Demetrius, who turned Seleucus' cavalry to flight, but, being carried away by the pursuit, was cut off by the enemy’s elephants from his father’s phalanx (which was the reason for the defeat), was left without a kingdom.


Demetrius Poliorket


He tirelessly fought in different countries, earning the nickname "Poliorket" ("besieging the city"). Agree, the nickname of the heir to Antigonus is much more pretentious and much more decent than that of the heir of the diadoch Ptolemy - “Loving sister” (Philadelphus), and “loving” is by no means platonic. And at once everyone understands who approached the border: a great warrior or ...

In 285 BC Demetri's strength and fortune dried up, he suffered a final defeat in Asia Minor, and he surrendered to Seleucus in 283 BC. died in jail in syria. But his son Antigonus Gonat (from the city of Gonna) will nevertheless become the king of Macedonia. The fate of the sons of Kassandra, who actually destroyed the Macedonian dynasty of Argead (it was his mother, two wives and two sons of Alexander who died) was both terrible and pitiful. The eldest, Antipater, who killed his mother (Alexander the Great's sister: a family tradition, apparently, such as killing someone from the relatives of the great king), was expelled from the country by Pyrrhus, who was called to help his younger son, Alexander, who later shared Macedonia with him. Alexander's mistake was also an appeal to Demetrius Poliorket. Demetrius was a little late, but he came nevertheless, frowned at Alexander, who was satisfied, and told him that “you have to pay for the challenge”, and in general, what are these things: “Where is my half of our kingdom”? Sure that all his problems are behind, the son of Cassandra, advised the diadochi to “hold on”, wished “more health and good mood,” and, as compensation, invited him to a feast. On which Demetrius and slaughtered Alexander. Pierre, whose sister was married to Demetrius, advised the somewhat discouraged Macedonians not to worry about trifles. Really, what problems? Do you need a king? So he already has - Demetrius, also a Macedonian, from a respected family, and neither he nor his dad killed any of the relatives of the former king, live and rejoice. In general, the typical raider seizure in the style of our 90's, only not business, hired as a "roof", the gangsters "squeezed", and the kingdom. And not the bandits, but the great heroes of Antiquity, thousands of pages of chronicles, monographs, and historical novels are devoted to the lives and feats of which. It happened in 294 BC. However, the allies of Pierre and Demetrius were not for long, very soon they began a war in which their armies passed each other and, as a result, each of them won: Demetrius - in Epirus, Pierre - in Macedonia. And later united against Demetrius Lysimachus, Ptolemy and Pyrrhus forced him to flee from Macedonia. After that, Lysimachus and Pyrrhus also advised to leave this country as soon as possible.

The winners in the confrontation of the Diadochs ended up in Ptolemy, who entrenched in Egypt, Seleucus (repeating Alexander's campaign in India and receiving 480 elephants from the Indian king Chandragupta) and Lysimachus (who once fell in love with Alexander because he defeated the lion with his bare hands). After the death of Ptolemy, Lysimachus and Seleucus entered the final battle - probably because, as in a famous film, only one was left to remain.


Lysimachus, bust, museum of archeology of Naples



Seleucus I Nicator


As a result, not one was left alive.

So, in 283 BC Ptolemy Lag died in Alexandria, Demetrius - in prison (Apamea, Syria), and 70-year-old Lysimachus and 80-year-old Seleucus took personal part in the Battle of Couroupedia (Syria). Lysimachus fell in battle, his soldiers went over to Seleucus (because he was now the only living comrade of Alexander). Macedonia also agreed to recognize the power of Selevka, and it seemed that now everything would be calm and good in the territory of the empire. What is there! Unfortunately, he received Ptolemy Keravna (Lightning), the son of Ptolemy I, the grandson of Antipater, who fled from his younger brother, who inherited his father’s throne, at his court. On the way to Macedonia, Seleucus was treacherously murdered by Kerawne. In the subsequent war for the long-suffering Macedonia, Ptolemy defeated the son of Demetrius - Antigone, but he himself soon died in the battle with the Galatians: he fell from a battle elephant and was captured. Galatians planted his severed head on a spear and carried them to intimidate enemies. For Macedonia, the result was very sad: the country lost a huge number of young healthy men and received nothing in return. All representatives of the chances of becoming a great dynasty of Argead, including the sons of Alexander himself, were destroyed. Greece again was fragmented into tiny city-states. But on the eastern and southern coasts of the Mediterranean Sea - in Egypt, Syria, Asia Minor - there were Hellenistic states, the top of which consisted of immigrants from Macedonia and Greek mercenaries from Alexander's army. Diadokhov wars ended, replaced by wars of their descendants and epigones. The Seleucids, the Ptolemies, the Antigonids, and other dynasties continued to wage hard and stubborn wars for a long time, until they were absorbed by the Roman Empire.
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  1. Theodore
    Theodore 26 November 2018 06: 14
    +2
    In general, everyone died ........
    1. antivirus
      antivirus 26 November 2018 17: 02
      0
      is democracy in action.
      1. Tutejszy
        Tutejszy 26 November 2018 17: 51
        +1
        Quote: antivirus
        it is democracy in action.

        Demetrius, son of Antigonus. Had the nickname Soter (Savior, received it from the Athenians)

        And then ... After the liberation of Athens from the troops of Kassander, in addition to the appropriation of the nickname "Soter", the National Assembly adopted the following decision: “The Athenian people decides - everything that King Demetrios commands may be blameless in the eyes of the gods and fair in the eyes of men"(Plutarch," Demetrius ").
  2. DimanC
    DimanC 26 November 2018 06: 39
    11
    On the account of passionarity, the author, of course, grabbed. This theory itself is a notion, and control processes leading to prosperity and decline, a little others
    1. IGOR GORDEEV
      IGOR GORDEEV 26 November 2018 07: 25
      0
      Quote: DimanC
      On the account of passionarity, the author, of course, grabbed. This theory itself is a notion, and control processes leading to prosperity and decline, a little others

      I have not yet come across any historical theory except Gumilev's theory, which would explain historical processes in this way.
      1. Hantengri
        Hantengri 26 November 2018 10: 00
        +8
        Quote: IGOR GORDEEV
        I have not yet come across any historical theory except Gumilev's theory, which would explain historical processes in this way.

        Collided collided! Phrase: "Everything is God's will." explains any process no worse, if not better than Gumilyov's "theory", and with the same degree of scientific knowledge. laughing
      2. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 26 November 2018 10: 33
        +5
        Quote: IGOR GORDEEV
        I have not yet come across any historical theory except Gumilev's theory, which would explain historical processes in this way.

        One bad thing about Gumilyov's theory is that it is unscientific. Until someone selects and measures the cosmic radiation that allegedly shells our planet, which, according to Gumilyov, generates passionarity, it is not necessary to speak of this theory as scientific. Using such assumptions, you can fit anything you want to fit anything, just look at Fomenko. The difference between "new chronology" and "the theory of passionarity" is only in the fact that building his theory, Gumilev introduced only one factor, the very existence of which was hypothetical and strictly monitored so as not to produce new ones, and Fomenko bakes these factors like pancakes to patch holes in his concept, without hesitating to use fraud and manipulation. However, Gumilyov, too, did not disdain them.
        And the theories that explained historical processes, there is a mass. What are you familiar with?
        1. alebor
          alebor 26 November 2018 10: 56
          +5
          For example, there is the theory of "cultural circles" by Grebner, which explains the "bursts of passionarity" by the discovery by some people of a certain important technology that gives it a temporary advantage over its neighbors. In the light of this theory, a similar technology of the Macedonians was the organization of military affairs, which provided them with a temporary dominance over the rest.
          Well, and how not to recall the famous Toynbee theory: challenge-response. And the Marxists have their own quite reasonable materialistic and economic justification of history without any cosmic radiation.
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 26 November 2018 11: 08
            0
            Quote: alebor
            For example, there is the theory of Gröbner’s “cultural circles”,

            There are lots of them. For example, offhand, there is still the theory of Spengler, which we discussed here not so long ago. I’m just not sure that IGOR GORDEEV, making statements regarding the theory of drive, is familiar with at least two or three other theories, including Marxist. If not right - I am pleased to apologize.
        2. Hantengri
          Hantengri 26 November 2018 12: 17
          +7
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          Until someone selects and measures the cosmic radiation with which our planet is allegedly bombarded, which, according to Gumilyov, gives rise to passionarity, one cannot speak of this theory as scientific.

          With cosmic radiation, everything is in order. Both its electromagnetic component and the corpuscular component are monitored and measured, and all this is clearly divided into primary (which, in turn, is divided into galactic and solar) and secondary ... etc. etc ...
          The trick, with Gumilev’s passionarity, is that at every particular moment in time this thing (radiation) is poured with the same intensity on the entire surface of the Earth. (Well, it does not have the property of homing! laughing ) I.e. with an increase in the radiation intensity, all the ethnic groups of the Earth, at the same time, should receive the same charge of an invigorating passionarity and, apparently, safely cut each other.
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 26 November 2018 12: 49
            +3
            Quote: HanTengri
            Cosmic radiation is just fine.

            The background is understandable. It roasts the planet like a grilled chicken - evenly from all sides. But who and what on our planet is spitting like a machine gun, leaving bullet marks of "passionarity" on its surface, I personally do not understand. Yes, in my opinion, Gumilev himself admitted that this "ray" of passionarity is purely hypothetical, like, it is possible that it exists, but not a fact. It is impossible to take seriously such a theory as scientific, although there is certainly a "noble madness" and some grace in it. If in a couple of years this "ray" is caught, described and able to repeat these measurements with the same results in a couple of years, and then substantively and in figures prove its (ray) influence on the number of born "passionaries" (they still need to be calculated and counted , why first define precisely the criteria "a passionate - not a passionate") then we will have nothing to do but say that Gumilyov is a genius who "turned ideas", "raised science", etc. And honestly, in this case, I will go through all the repentance procedures with great pleasure and publicly admit that I was wrong in front of everyone who wants to listen to me. For now I will refrain. I think the chances that this "ray" actually exist are woefully small.
            1. Hantengri
              Hantengri 26 November 2018 20: 52
              0
              Quote: Trilobite Master
              The background is understandable.

              Strictly speaking, the background is intergallactic radiation ranging from long-wave radio to hard gamma. In addition to him, everything that our native Galaxy produced fell on our unfortunate mother Earth. And most of all (in terms of power), the old woman gets from our Source of Life, in strict accordance with the 11th, 22nd, and centuries-old cycles of solar activity.
              Quote: Trilobite Master
              But who and what on our planet is spitting like a machine gun, leaving bullet marks of "passionarity" on its surface, I personally do not understand.

              So, you know who! Judging by the precision and selectivity of the "passionary" radiation, an invisible (!!!) source, or a repeater thereof, must hang somewhere, in one of the geosynchronous orbits and be able to move between them. So, that - without the Danunakhs from Nibiru, it certainly could not do here! wassat
      3. odometer
        odometer 26 November 2018 13: 10
        0
        In a series of books by Prof. S. Saveliev everything is simple and accessible stated and, perhaps, the most reliable ...
      4. andrew42
        andrew42 26 November 2018 16: 01
        0
        I also like the theory of passionarity, but .. This theory only states the facts and systematizes them, plus taking into account climatic changes in the environment, plus changing religions / worldviews. The reasons for passionarity (according to Gumilev, this phenomenon occurs suddenly) are not disclosed. Yet better than nothing.
  3. tlauicol
    tlauicol 26 November 2018 06: 40
    +4
    it is always a little pity when good articles worthy of discussion overshadow any political events that happened out of time, and the material remains unappreciated. An interesting topic after all!
  4. lucul
    lucul 26 November 2018 06: 57
    +1
    As soon as I see the mention of Gumilyov, the desire to read further immediately disappears))
    Passionaries)) There are alpha / betta / gamma males, not fictional passionaries. In our country, this topic is taboo, but in the East (Asia) it blooms and smells. I don't know of a single scientific work devoted to this topic (alpha / betta / gamma of males) in our country, the only one who thoroughly considered this topic is Oleg Novosyolov, in his book, with the chaotic title "Woman - a textbook for a man." I recommend it for reading to all males, regardless of age.
  5. Adjutant
    Adjutant 26 November 2018 07: 08
    +7
    Interesting topic! Semi-detective. And the personalities are very famous. So who is the killer? It is clear, after all, that the great Alexander himself did not leave.
    The collapse of an empire created exclusively by military means is a matter of time - but what kind of thing?
    The main source is Plutarch, and rightly so. The filmmakers of the bad film (because of which the Greeks were very unhappy) should have better study history
    1. Nehist
      Nehist 26 November 2018 11: 57
      +2
      All empires were created only by military means! As long as there is expansion, the empire will expand and flourish, as soon as the expansion period ends, the slow and steady collapse of any empire begins
  6. Olgovich
    Olgovich 26 November 2018 07: 42
    +2
    But even against this background, the unusually rapid collapse of the empire created by Alexander the Great strikes.

    Not surprisingly: unlike the Roman Empire, which formed around the center of Rome, Alexander's empire stretched far to the East, stretching for thousands of kilometers to India. Too alien peoples were united.
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 26 November 2018 07: 51
      +3
      Elementary there was no heir. And there were many associates laughing And all with ambition.
    2. Hole puncher
      Hole puncher 26 November 2018 09: 08
      +2
      Quote: Olgovich
      Too alien peoples were united.

      Rome united no less alien peoples, but existed not longer than the empire of Alexander.
      1. Stirbjorn
        Stirbjorn 26 November 2018 09: 54
        0
        Quote: Puncher
        Rome united no less alien peoples, but existed not longer than the empire of Alexander.

        Moreover, in terms of civil wars, Rome was not inferior to the Hellenes, in fact, after the defeat of Carthage, the Romans did not have any worthy rivals, right up to the fall of Rome. However, it’s been so long
      2. alebor
        alebor 26 November 2018 10: 41
        +3
        quote] Rome united no less alien peoples, but it existed much longer than the empire of Alexander. [/ quote] Rome grew slowly, gradually, step by step, he had time to "digest" what he had swallowed, and he united primarily the Mediterranean Hellenistic world , i.e. peoples, like Rome itself, have long been under the cultural influence of the Greeks and, accordingly, had much in common.
        1. Operator
          Operator 26 November 2018 13: 24
          +1
          The Roman Empire had an advantage over any other empire of that time - internal logistics in the form of developed sea transport between parts of the state located on the coast of the same sea - the Mediterranean. Means of land logistics of the same throughput, all-weather and security at that time did not exist .

          An attempt to include in the Roman Empire distant areas from the Mediterranean Sea (Germany, Britain, Parthia) led to the collapse of the empire.
      3. Olgovich
        Olgovich 26 November 2018 12: 59
        +2
        Quote: Puncher
        Rome united no less alien peoples, but existed not for an example longer than the empire of Alexander.

        but did it not for 13 years, and for 13 centuries.

        Such is the "little difference ..
      4. tiaman.76
        tiaman.76 27 November 2018 15: 46
        0
        Rome as an empire was built over the centuries for about 120 years, only enmity with Carthage, which is worth 4 Roman Macedonian wars. 3 Mithridates ... territories joined gradually and developed, romanizing at least partially them, the state experience of managing these lands was also created, and Macedonia was a jerk conquered vast territories even by modern standards, and the logistics of managing such open spaces were simply not possible
    3. naidas
      naidas 26 November 2018 16: 56
      +3
      Quote: Olgovich
      Alexander's empire stretched far to the East, stretching for thousands of kilometers to India. Too alien peoples were united.

      I agree, but there is one more such country thousands of kilometers to the East, and where people in the East have almost worked a day, and the government has only had breakfast. And nothing lives.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 27 November 2018 07: 14
        +1
        Quote: naidas
        I agree, but there is another such country thousands of kilometers to the East, and where in the east people have almost worked a day, and the government has only had breakfast. And nothing lives.

        Created in 13 years, as the empire of Alexander?
        1. naidas
          naidas 27 November 2018 18: 49
          0
          Quote: Olgovich
          Created in 13 years, as the empire of Alexander?

          Olgovich are you kidding or serious?
  7. baudolino
    baudolino 26 November 2018 08: 05
    +6
    Alexander's empire had no chance of not disintegrating. Unconnected parts of this "empire" were not interesting to each other. As in the case of Bonaparte, the grabbed lands did not grow together.
    1. Stirbjorn
      Stirbjorn 26 November 2018 09: 56
      +2
      So essentially the same Hellenes ruled these fragments, right up to Bactria. Here rather the civil strife inherent in them, characteristic of them, prevented the preservation of a single empire
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 26 November 2018 10: 24
        +4
        Yes, not that it was peculiar to them ... He had a team of young, ambitious guys, Alexander was the glue between them - he was gone and everything fell apart. The empire rested on the identity of one person.
  8. Boris55
    Boris55 26 November 2018 08: 16
    13 th
    Cyrus, Darius, Alexander, Romans, Swedes, Turks, Poles, French, Germans already twice in a row ... I don't seem to have forgotten anyone. What impoverishes them is hatred of Russia and the fact that they were all beaten by us. No, well, you can certainly think that they themselves disintegrated, such as how the USSR "itself" collapsed. Conveniently, and most importantly, how many theories can be built on this, and how much dough to grab for it. The most important thing is that no matter what we never understand, who hates us so much that for millennia has been trying to destroy us.
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 26 November 2018 10: 47
      +9
      Quote: Boris55
      Cyrus, Darius, Alexander, the Romans, the Swedes, the Turks, the Poles, the French, the Germans already twice in a row ... like no one has forgotten. What impoverishes them is hatred of Russia and the fact that they were all bits of us.

      You know, Boris, I have somehow got used to your battles with Olgovich over our Soviet past. I don’t interfere and don’t even read. This is your fiefdom with him, you honestly deserve the right to challenge each other in this area for the title of, shall we say, ... "convinced" ideological fighter.
      Until now, I was hoping that your interests outside of this plane that you have mastered still do not extend. I ask you: let us do what you love and know how to fight against Ol'govich for the Communists and against the Trotskyists, since you understand this concept, and leave the earlier periods of history alone, it is not yours. Save time and forces for war with your real enemies.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 26 November 2018 13: 16
        -2
        Quote: Trilobite Master
        Until now, I was hoping that your interests beyond the limits of this plane that you have mastered still do not extend. I ask you: let us do what you love and know how to fight with Olgovich

        and what does not suit you? belay request

        The level of arguments and knowledge of a friend in this thread isabsolutely the sameas in Trotskyist-communist themes.
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 26 November 2018 13: 46
          +2
          Quote: Olgovich
          and what does not suit you?

          If you and Boris start deploying your polemics here, all you have to do is pick up things and get them off somewhere far away. Do not touch him, please, and if he touches you here - do not pay attention. Reduce your abacus in the profile branches, and not in antiquity or the Middle Ages.
          So tell him: "Boris, let's walk to Samsonov, we'll talk there." smile
          1. Boris55
            Boris55 26 November 2018 19: 35
            -1
            Quote: Trilobite Master
            Collect your scores in specialized branches, and not in antiquity or the Middle Ages.

            laughing
            Your authorities have brought life on Earth to a global economic, political, humanitarian and environmental catastrophe. I do not recognize them. hi
          2. Olgovich
            Olgovich 27 November 2018 07: 24
            -2
            Quote: Trilobite Master
            If you and Boris begin to unleash your polemic here, all that remains is to collect the little things and wander away. Don't touch him please

            Sweet man, do you even hear yourself? belay It was YOU who wrote a rather caustic and insulting message to a comrade, not me.
            Quote: Trilobite Master
            Collect your scores in specialized branches, and not in antiquity or the Middle Ages.
            So tell him: "Boris, let's walk to Samsonov, we'll talk there.

            Stop the bad habit of giving advice that no one needs. hi
    2. parma
      parma 26 November 2018 11: 14
      +4
      Quote: Boris55
      Cyrus, Darius, Alexander, Romans, Swedes, Turks, Poles, French, Germans already twice in a row ...

      zaaaaaaaaaaaaaa-borna grass you .... Forgot)) reptilians with alpha centauri 7 ....
    3. naidas
      naidas 26 November 2018 17: 05
      +2
      Quote: Boris55
      Cyrus, Darius, Alexander, Romans. What impoverishes them is hatred of Russia,

      Draws to the Nobel for history.
      1. ver_
        ver_ 27 November 2018 04: 54
        0
        ... just like the tales of Shahrazada = Scheherazade ..
  9. tegezen
    tegezen 26 November 2018 08: 31
    -6
    Nizami in the history of "Iskander Name" (the history of Alexander) gave the horoscope of Alexander, according to it it turns out that Alexander was born in 1152 and was the ruler of Rum. Byzantium. The events of A.'s life in the official history and in Nizami's are similar. The official history of Albania was written in Italy in the 15th century, copied from a Vizntian source, and presented as antiquity. Even in the annals of Ivan the Terrible, 800 pages with miniatures are dedicated to Alexander, and there he is also a Byzantine king. And also the Koran, etc. There was no ancient A. Macedonian, there was a Byzantine king Alexander in the 12th century.
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 26 November 2018 10: 57
      +5
      Quote: tegezen
      There was no ancient A. of Macedon, there was a Byzantine king Alexander in the 12 century.

      And Andrew Bogolyubsky = Jesus Christ, we know, passed.
      Will you continue to enlighten us here, orphaned and needy, or limit yourself to what was said? And then I haven’t had a word with one of the new victims of the past few months, I feel that I’m starting to lose shape.
      Well, let's bend us about the Great Tartary, the Cossack horde, the 18th-century Flood, dynastic parallelism, the maps of Danil Ouspensky or anyone else there ...
  10. Decimam
    Decimam 26 November 2018 08: 47
    +1
    When reading the author’s articles, there is a suspicion that a competitor appeared on Samsonov’s site. Samsonov’s historical events are the result of thousands of years of struggle between the superethnos and the World Evil.
    Ryzhov clearly has a tendency to interpret historical events through passionarity.
    As for the article itself, there is some superficiality both in the presentation of events and in the explanation of the reasons. One gets the impression that, having reported at the beginning of passionarity, the author considered the task accomplished and further wrote without inspiration.
    In reality, the question, as usual, is much more complicated than the squad of diadochs, on the one hand. On the other hand, there is a good Spanish proverb attributed either to Talleyrand or Napoleon. She says that you can rely on bayonets, but you can’t sit on them.
    That is, military force is good only for military purposes (defeating the enemy, armed coup, etc.), but for the government itself to do something much more than just power is needed - intelligence, ideas that unite society, social harmony, common will are needed etc.
    Alexander of Macedon conquered a vast territory, but the state never created on this territory - either there was not enough time, or the charge of passionarity was exhausted, or all together.
    So the dyadohs, in fact, completed what they had begun - in the conquered territory they built states - Hellenistic.
    1. Decimam
      Decimam 26 November 2018 09: 26
      +1
      For the umpteenth time I am convinced of the fallacy of the idea of ​​anonymous minuses. It is not necessary to put a lot of brains a lot, but something concrete to object - it is already necessary, at least a little.
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 26 November 2018 10: 30
        +3
        You have two pluses from me, but I will object to you anyway laughing
        Each author-historian is a supporter of a particular theory around which he builds everything. Well, there are historians who derive these theories themselves. )) in any case - the author raised an interesting topic, there would be more articles on History and weapons on the site. And less news with politics.
        1. Decimam
          Decimam 26 November 2018 11: 03
          0
          I agree with you, the main thing is that the theory does not turn into an Idée fixe. And the fact that the author can write interesting articles, I spoke earlier.
          1. Decimam
            Decimam 26 November 2018 13: 54
            0
            That's interesting, what guided the creature who put a minus under this comment. We are not talking about thoughts, they cannot be there by definition, but reflexes are interesting.
      2. jhltyjyjctw
        jhltyjyjctw 28 November 2018 12: 55
        -1
        Quote: Decimam
        For the umpteenth time I am convinced of the fallacy of the idea of ​​anonymous minuses. It is not necessary to put a lot of brains a lot, but something concrete to object - it is already necessary, at least a little.


        I set a minus and have no desire to explain why. Trite I do not want to fight with windmills. You believe that the hypothesis of Nosovsky and Fomenko does not have a right to exist only because, apparently, the innate laziness of the mind (due to an excess of brains) does not allow you to analyze it and explain to the poor what its lies are. Unlike the official historical concept, which has no other evidence base besides the authority of a couple of dozen writers (I do not consider Plutarch, Karamzin, Schletser, Muller, etc. as historians, these are paid fiction writers fulfilling a momentary social order), Nosovsky honestly calls his work a HYPOTHESIS. He does not claim to be the ultimate truth, he suggests that you think and draw your own conclusion. You are stupidly repeating: this cannot be, because it cannot be. He carried out tremendous work on the calculations of Easter calendars, the trajectory of the movement of celestial bodies, and a mathematical analysis of the structure of historical documents. Where is he wrong? If you are so smart, argue the fallacy of his method ...
        1. Decimam
          Decimam 28 November 2018 13: 23
          +1
          The folkhistories of Nosovsky and Fomenko have been disassembled for a long time and, therefore, because of common sense, I don’t see the need to repeat these arguments, especially the amateur folkhistory. I do not want to carry water with a sieve. And I give you the opportunity to prove the correctness of his methods. Work hard.
          1. jhltyjyjctw
            jhltyjyjctw 29 November 2018 01: 02
            0
            Quote: Decimam
            The folkhistories of Nosovsky and Fomenko have been disassembled for a long time and, therefore, because of common sense, I don’t see the need to repeat these arguments, especially the amateur folkhistory. I do not want to carry water with a sieve. And I give you the opportunity to prove the correctness of his methods. Work hard.


            Who is it taken apart when it is taken apart? Give a link, professional folk historian. This is all your essence, pouring from empty to empty. I'm not going to prove anything to you and your like. For it is said: do not give sanctuary to the dogs and do not throw your pearls before the pigs, lest they trample it under their feet and, turning, do not tear you to pieces ...
            1. Decimam
              Decimam 29 November 2018 01: 33
              +1
              What pathos, what aplomb! And who asked you to prove something? You yourself drew in front of me in third position and began your epic recitation. Are you glad that at least someone paid attention to you? I hope you won’t sing and dance, pearl thrower?
              1. Decimam
                Decimam 29 November 2018 01: 46
                +1
                I almost forgot about “Who disassembled, when disassembled?” Most of all I like the article about Fomenko on Lukmore. Briefly and to the point.
                1. jhltyjyjctw
                  jhltyjyjctw 3 December 2018 11: 27
                  0
                  Quote: Decimam
                  I almost forgot about “Who disassembled, when disassembled?” Most of all I like the article about Fomenko on Lukmore. Briefly and to the point.


                  Is this such a wikipedia? The link to the Internet resource chatterbox characterizes you as a competent and demanding researcher. Regarding pathos and other clever words, you flatter yourself. Communication with you is tiring, like a conversation with a smart janitor ...
                  1. Decimam
                    Decimam 3 December 2018 11: 32
                    +1
                    You remind me of the heroine of a famous joke. Did I invite you to chat? Tired - rest on your health.
  11. 89067359490
    89067359490 26 November 2018 10: 53
    +2
    I advise you to read who wants the book. Everything that tsar Demetrius wants is written by Victor Talakh. But the dyadohs and their descendants then shared and redrawed the legacy of Alexander.
  12. Oleg Kolsky 051
    Oleg Kolsky 051 26 November 2018 12: 05
    +4
    Uh-huh, on his deathbed, Alexander left his newly-conquered Empire - "the best", not a son, not a child not yet born by Roxanne, but "the best"? What a convenient version for "friends" - the king himself "so bequeathed"! All these Antigones, Ptolemies, Seleucus turned out to be rotten ..., Alexander's body had not yet cooled down, and they had already betrayed him, who of them made historical figures. Without A.M. they would be nothing and nothing, so the rulers of several hills in Macedonia at a distance of spitting from each other. Hypocritically condemning Alexander for having put on the clothes of the Persian kings, sama, as soon as they became kings, jumped out of the Macedonian chlamys.
    Looking at the dyadohs, you understand the severity of Alexander to Filot and Parmenion, all of these performers who thought of themselves, had to be kept strict.
    What is most surprising is that it was not the Macedonian, but the Hellene Eumenes, who remained faithful to the house of Alexander, and everyone who called himself "friend" of Alexander immediately betrayed his children.
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 26 November 2018 12: 35
      +1
      Instinct of reproduction. I want the best children. The best children come from the best heifers. The best chicks go to the best guys. And the best guys are those who have power and money. Actually, therefore, it is not surprising that the young guys pulled the empire into pieces - each piece of power and a handful of money laughing
  13. Operator
    Operator 26 November 2018 13: 18
    +2
    There is doubt in the reliability of the image of the Macedonians in the form of busts, coins, etc. - when in our time in northern Greece, archaeologists found a royal burial (presumably the father of Alexander Philip and his relatives), then after the restoration of their faces by the method of Gerasimov, the faces of all men turned out to be degenerative, which indicated their degeneration due to frequent closely related incest - the birth of offspring from cousins ​​(as with Jews who lived in Ukrainian and Belarusian towns until the 1917 year).

    In addition, Alexander the Great was very likely a brunette, or at least a red one (the so-called golden-haired), since all Greeks and Macedonians were basically hamites - relatives of North African Berbers and today's Albanians.

    In general, Hollywood with Brad Pitt is resting laughing
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 26 November 2018 16: 10
      0
      Brad Pitt Achilles))
      1. Operator
        Operator 26 November 2018 16: 20
        +1
        A Soviet Greek studied with me at school - a spitting image of a "golden-haired" Hellene in a Homeric form factor: a Greek nose, reddish-golden hair (like some Berbers and Jews), Albanian facial features (like the current president of Bulgaria).

        With the light hand of a school history teacher, the Soviet Greek served as a visual aid in studying the history of ancient Greece laughing
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 26 November 2018 16: 29
          +1
          I have a wife, a Russian Greek woman. The names of my relatives are Hepocrates, Neophyte, Archimedes, and Hepocrates is a doctor laughing
      2. The comment was deleted.
    2. Bashibuzuk
      Bashibuzuk 26 November 2018 16: 20
      +2
      The very existence of Alexander the Great is already in doubt.
      On the basis of the writings of which author, on the basis of the "scientific" developments of which Academy of Sciences, which country did such a stunning chronicle of Alexander's empire and its collapse turn out? A saga, in which there is much more material about fellow antagonists and just crooks than about Alexander the Two-horned himself.
      Okay, they don’t want to hear and hear about NH, Finn, because of "passionarity" turns many (me included), but who, for example, is familiar with the "Scaliger Matrix" by Vyacheslav Lopatin, with "Critical Study of Chronology" by Mikhail Postnikov, with the book "The Greatest Deception. The Fictional History of Europe" by Uwe Topper, with difficulty "The Universal Falsification of History" by Wilhelm Kammeier, with the research of Hans Gottlieb Leopold Delbrück about the places of "historical ancient battles" (where it turned out that at best in the place of the battle (certain) instead of 10 thousand people, barely 200 will accommodate), etc. etc
      It is surprising that having been dealing with the issue of falsification of history for a rather long time, more precisely - inventions history (because it is impossible to falsify something that never happened) - I come to the conclusion that the more material becomes available, the more aggressive the barrage of indiscriminate shouting of new approaches becomes.
      Why would you? It seems that the entire chronicle of science testifies precisely to the rejection of outdated concepts and paradigms, because no one will now, in sweat and hysterics, defend the "pudding" theory of the structure of the atom.
      And "real historians", like wood grouses during the current, only hear themselves and consider themselves correct.
      Well, a fantasy hunt on the theme of Alexander the Great - so be it.
      Since I myself am from Central Asia. it was just in childhood that I PERSONALLY wandered around the ruins of Alexandria Extreme, "the fortress of Alexander the Great" - a clay hill 40 km from Leninabad - present Khojent. Touched, so to speak, to hoary antiquity - clay clay, I tell you.
      Good luck, colleagues.
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 26 November 2018 16: 38
        0
        Jews keep tales of him from the time of his conquest of Judea. It was so popular that Alexander has since become including a Jewish name. In Jewish sources, he is described by a charming, friendly and intelligent brow. Conqueror, who was adored by the local population. For Jews, this is an extremely rare occurrence. laughing
        1. Bashibuzuk
          Bashibuzuk 26 November 2018 16: 47
          +1
          Alexander the Great conquered Judea belay I’ll tell you frankly how much I read about Macedon, but this is new to me.
          Logically, of course, he could not pass by. Although there is a white spot on the empire’s map attached to the article, the first map, it’s just the Khmeimim airbase in the area (weren’t our VKS allowed to take this place - it’s a joke), but it’s said that it’s about the capture of Judea ......
          Judea then was what? By whom - the empire, satrapy, portofranco republic, the enclave of Rome, or what else is there that needs to be specifically mentioned.
          Or are our fellow Jews a bride at every wedding, and a dead person at every funeral?
          1. Operator
            Operator 26 November 2018 17: 07
            +1
            Before the conquest by Alexander the Great in 322 BC Judea (Palestine) was part of the Persian state of the Achamenides (from 586 BC). The Jews themselves opened the gates of Jerusalem in front of Alexander the Great, because he promised to deliver them from the Persians.

            After the death of Alexander, Judea was alternately included in the Macedonian states of the Seleucids (Syria) and the Ptolemies (Egypt). The Macedonians tried to eradicate Judaism, made a pagan sanctuary from the Second Temple, as a result of which in 167 BC the Maccabees revolted and Judea became independent. From 67 BC by 1948 year A.D. Judea was consistently a part of the Roman Empire, the Arab Caliphate, the Christian kingdom, the Byzantine, Ottoman and British empires.
        2. VLR
          26 November 2018 17: 02
          +2
          Krasnodar, on behalf of Alexander from the Jews: The situation there is a little different - Alexander's representatives demanded to install his statues in the temples (as a god, whom he, it seems, finally began to seriously consider himself). This was impossible for the Jews, but they found a clever solution to the problem: they suggested not to erect statues, but to name all male babies after the year in honor of the king. Alexander agreed. As a result, the name Alexander became popular with the Jews for a long time - later sons were named after fathers or grandfathers.
          I could not refrain from commenting :)
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 26 November 2018 17: 21
            0
            In 332 BC On the way from Lebanon to Egypt, Jerusalem was visited by the great commander Alexander of Macedon. His army reached the outskirts of Jerusalem in the area of ​​the current Mount of Ferris A group of ministers of the Jerusalem Temple led by the high priest Yaddua climbed the mountain towards Alexander. And then the unexpected happened - the commander knelt before the high priest and received a blessing from him. To the surprised questions of his comrades, Alexander replied that he had a dream in which a priest, like Yaddua, predicted a great future for him.

            Having received the blessing, the commander went to Jerusalem and, visiting the Temple, found his architect and the decoration worthy of attention. True, apparently out of ignorance, he proposed to put his bust in a prominent place in the Temple. The priests could not agree with this and proposed something else, more in their opinion, essential for perpetuating the name of the great Alexander: all the boys who are born this year will be called Alexandra. The commander agreed. So the name Alexander was included in the number of Jewish names.
            This story is briefly offhand copy-paste from the network. )) The Jews loved him, if you want, I will find you links to Jewish sources.
          2. Operator
            Operator 26 November 2018 17: 57
            +1
            Quote: Krasnodar
            the commander knelt before the high priest and received a blessing from him

            The idea of ​​Alexander the Great was to build a multi-ethnic and multi-confessional empire, so he showed attention to representatives of local religions in Judea, Babylon and Parthia.

            His political heirs (with the exception of the Ptolemies in Egypt) created their purely pagan kingdoms on the basis of the Greek pantheon of gods, and also assimilated the local population culturally and linguistically (the so-called Hellenistic period). In particular, the Syrian Seleucids pressed to the full of Jews in Palestine, reformatted all synagogues into pagan temples and forbade Jews to learn their native language.

            Due to the high efficiency of the Macedonian policy of cultural and linguistic assimilation of the local population at the time of the arrival of the Romans, the main language of the Middle East was Greek, which in the Roman Empire turned into the lingua franca of the whole Mediterranean and was therefore used as the canonical language of the New Testament - and not Aramaic (spoken by Jesus Christ and the apostles) or Latin (spoken by the inhabitants of the metropolis).
        3. Tutejszy
          Tutejszy 26 November 2018 17: 54
          +2
          Quote: Krasnodar
          Alexander has since become including a Jewish name.

          In addition to Alexander, only Kurush (Cyrus the Great), who released the Jews from the "Babylonian captivity", received such an honor among the Jews.
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 26 November 2018 18: 42
            0
            That's right. Cyrus was considered almost the Messiah.
      2. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 26 November 2018 17: 19
        +2
        Quote: Bashibuzuk
        who, for example, are familiar with the "Scaliger Matrix" by Vyacheslav Lopatin, with the "Critical Study of Chronology" by Mikhail Postnikov, with the book "The Greatest Deception. An Invented History of Europe" by Uwe Topper, with difficulty "Universal Falsification of History" by Wilhelm Kammayer, with the research of Hans Gottlieb Leopold Delbrück about the places of "historical ancient battles" (where it turned out that, at best, in the place of the battle (certain), instead of 10 thousand people, barely 200 will be accommodated), etc. etc

        On average, a person lives about 650 thousand hours in his entire life, a third of them spends in a dream, leaving, say, 430 thousand. If you take an ordinary person who does not know the methods of fast reading (me, for example), then in order to read everything the books you named (for example, on each of them I will spend 24 hours of pure time), then I have to spend on this (24x4, since I read Delbrück's "General History") 96 hours, plus a couple of Fomenko's books - another 48 hours in total 144 hours. Of the 430 thousand, of course, not very much, only 0,03%, but it's still a pity, especially since I've already spent about 4-5 hours listening to Fomenko's lectures (YouTube rules), I wanted to hear what he says himself, personally. I think that's enough, I don't want to anymore.
        Apart from Delbrück, who can be considered a historian, despite the criticism to which his works were subjected, all other authors have the same attitude to history as Fomenko himself.
        As a supporter of the "new chronology", I recommend that you go to have your teeth treated, for example, to a jeweler, contact a hydraulic engineer for legal advice, and let a tailor cut out your appendicitis. I think then you will quickly realize the difference between a specialist in the area you need and an amateur, it would not be too late.
        Will you tell about the "worldwide conspiracy of historians to hide the truth about the greatness of the Russian people" now or next time?
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 26 November 2018 17: 39
          +1
          I read it from some afftor a la Fomenko about Ermak-Cortes. Like one person, conquered both Siberia and Latin America. About 150 years ago. Having reached this point, I closed the book laughing
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 26 November 2018 19: 35
            +1
            Quote: Krasnodar
            Having reached this point I closed the book

            I really feel sorry for the time to lose these creations. There are many excellent books that I would like to read, but do not have time. And I can listen to these when, for example, I do something with my hands that does not require great concentration.
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 26 November 2018 21: 32
              0
              I then lived in two countries, flew a lot, grabbed something extraordinary on a plane)) I bought this book in Domodedovo, I regretted that I did not take Playboy. laughing
        2. Bashibuzuk
          Bashibuzuk 26 November 2018 17: 52
          -2
          I will answer.
          You advise me to the dentist, but to the surgeon.
          And I to you to the neuropathologist - to treat nerves.
          Something you, my friend, an aggressive hefty.
          It will not help - then go to a psychiatrist, obviously you have concerns about wasting time and the syndrome of distribution of "smart advice".
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 26 November 2018 19: 28
            +4
            Quote: Bashibuzuk
            You advise me to the dentist, but to the surgeon.

            Well, you're looking for answers to historical questions and mathematicians, so be consistent. For a tooth seal - for a high-class jeweler, for advice on inheritance law - for the best engineer, etc. And for my nerves do not worry - as long as I hit the keys on the keyboard, everything is in order.
            Quote: Bashibuzuk
            Does not help - then to the psychiatrist

            You, without thinking, wrote, or maybe I am a psychiatrist and now I am doing a core business - saving people, in particular you, from a dangerous and difficult to cure mental disorder - new brains of the brain ... Note, for free! laughing
      3. jhltyjyjctw
        jhltyjyjctw 28 November 2018 13: 21
        +1
        Quote: Bashibuzuk
        And "real historians", like wood grouses during the current, only hear themselves and consider themselves correct.


        I agree. For example: the technology of building Egyptian pyramids. There is a film showing traces of formwork. Those. Pyramids are concrete structures. Concrete has been used since the 16th century. Conclusion: the pyramids are no more than 500 years old. But official historians continue to mutter - the pyramids are 5000 years old. Where is the logic, Karl? ..
  14. Bogatyrev
    Bogatyrev 27 November 2018 00: 39
    +2
    What an instructive story.
  15. parma
    parma 27 November 2018 06: 47
    +3
    Quote: Bashibuzuk
    And "real historians", like wood grouses during the current, only hear themselves and consider themselves correct.

    It's simple ... These are the "truth-lovers" who will build their "theory" in the bushes (and knowing in advance that the theory has been sucked out, don't understand where) ... No evidence is given plainly - neither excavations nor analysis of all sources ... Simply if 1 out of 20 sources does not coincide (well, all the authors expressed their point of view) with the rest, it means forgery, etc. And the poor men, scientists then prove for years that the theory of lies, analyze this rubbish (theory), but while they do it, it appears disciples - "lovers of truth" who immediately adjust the theory to new refutations as the most irreconcilable, and again everything goes in a circle ...
    We know, they saw ... I had such a classmate at the institute who believed that the Etruscans were our ancestors, they rebuilt the empire from ocean to ocean, but the Jewish Masons came and ruined everything, and it was almost yesterday ... But with the help of Slavic languages, the writing of the Etruscans ... And to the questions of where we have cities like Rome were buried or why not all were then translated, he could not give an answer ... He did not have one, for smart "truth lovers" did not come up with (well except everything was stolen and taken to Europe) ...
    1. Bashibuzuk
      Bashibuzuk 27 November 2018 09: 49
      -3
      In my first post I asked the simplest question - "...who, for example, are familiar with the "Scaliger Matrix" by Vyacheslav Lopatin, with the "Critical Study of Chronology" by Mikhail Postnikov, with the book "The Greatest Deception. An Invented History of Europe" by Uwe Topper, with difficulty "Universal Falsification of History" by Wilhelm Kammayer, with the research of Hans Gottlieb Leopold Delbrück about the places of "historical ancient battles" (where it turned out that, at best, in the place of the battle (certain), instead of 10 thousand people, barely 200 will be accommodated), etc. etc
      Please note - and no more.
      Question! To which he never received a response from anyone.
      I did not begin to build theories about who, when they perverted someone, deceived, spoke, sentenced.
      But in response - to the simplest question - have you read this or not - I received a bunch of answers from clever people who offered me to undergo treatment from someone unknown, then a certain PARMA in general wrote me a "truth lover" who built a "theory".
      People, humans, are you able to understand what is printed? Or not?
      You do not answer me, you yourself invent for yourself anyway! For what? What do you want to prove to yourself?
      That is why I wrote that - "real historians", like wood grouses during the current, only hear themselves.
      .
      Not only that, the precious Trilobite Master, it turns out, is generally a psychiatrist. So who else but a psychiatrist should know what human thinking is capable of? Especially if it is completely swallowed up by a single disconnect goal - to leave a mark on history. Name the writers who were somehow monitored by psychiatrists? Or does the owner himself know such people?
      Well, about PARMA - there's nothing to say. Empty idle talk, pointless accusations, empty hypotheses - I, unlike parma, do not hide at all who I am and what I am talking about. Not about the Etruscans. neither about liquid masons, nor about stolen and taken to Europe, nor about conspiracies - he did not say WORDS.
      .
      You are capable of unbiased, critical thinking. Whatever the story?
      It seems not.
      Regrettably.
      1. Hantengri
        Hantengri 27 November 2018 11: 05
        +3
        Quote: Bashibuzuk
        ... who, for example, is familiar with the "Scaliger Matrix" by Vyacheslav Lopatin,

        Quote from "The Matrix":
        The first thing that catches your eye when reviewing the historical past is this is the lack of evolution, which is clearly visible on the example of weapons. Is it possible that for thousands of years nothing has changed?

        Is it true? !!! laughing Those. according to Vyacheslav Lopatin, for example, topfhelm X || - X ||| cc

        technologically and functionally, exactly the same as arme XV | - XV || cc

        And caroling | X in is the same foil XV | - XV || in ?! wassat laughing
        Maybe Michael is right and, indeed, should not waste his precious time on the works of citizens with a heavily leaked roof? What do you think, Bashibuzuk?
        1. Tutejszy
          Tutejszy 28 November 2018 10: 44
          0
          Quote: HanTengri
          topfhelm X || - X ||| centuries technologically and functionally, absolutely the same as arme XV | - XV || cc

          It is even better to compare chain mail and full-plate. A chip in the development of metallurgy as such: chain mail was made not because they could not think of a cuirass, but because. that they could not produce a sheet of uniform thickness and appropriate size (and the main problem was to uniformly heat it under quenching).
      2. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 27 November 2018 11: 06
        +2
        Quote: Bashibuzuk
        People, humans, are you able to understand what is printed? Or not?

        Tell me, tell me the forest,
        Are you with or without mushrooms?
        ...
        I'm with mushrooms, said the forest
        Are you with or without eyes?

        I do not remember whose poem. laughing
        Apparently with the understanding of the read problem you have. Okay, I will explain at a primitive level, so that you yourself need to think at least.
        You asked if anyone was familiar with the specific works of certain authors. Personally, I am not familiar (except Delbrück) and am not going to get acquainted. The chronology is one of the auxiliary historical disciplines and special scientific works of historians are devoted to it. The authors mentioned (except Delbrück, again) are not. I do not consider it expedient to spend time studying the works of amateurs when there are works of professionals. So clearer? Well, the proposal for you to seek medical or legal assistance from professionals in completely different fields was an attempt to illustrate with a concrete example the destructiveness of such an approach. And note that I didn’t pass on personalities and didn’t send anyone to a psychiatrist.
        Quote: Trilobite Master
        As a supporter of the "new chronology", I recommend that you go to have your teeth treated, for example, to a jeweler, contact a hydraulic engineer for legal advice, and let a tailor cut out your appendicitis.

        "Walk" and not "go", "apply" and not "apply" - do you feel the difference?
        About the psychiatrist:
        Quote: Trilobite Master
        You wrote it without thinking, or maybe I am a psychiatrist

        Maybe eat, but maybe not. I did not make any statements regarding my profession, but you operate with my phrase as if it was uttered in a categorical form.
        So on the subject of "understand the printed" question, rather to you. It is you who understand this most "printed" as you want, and not as it is "printed". Learn to read.
        1. Bashibuzuk
          Bashibuzuk 27 November 2018 11: 28
          -1
          Clear.
          Hopelessly.
    2. jhltyjyjctw
      jhltyjyjctw 28 November 2018 13: 28
      0
      Quote: parma
      I had such a classmate at my institute, who believed that the Etruscans are our ancestors, they built an empire from ocean to ocean,


      Your classmate was right. If you get up from the couch and bother to find and read some Etruscan inscription, then make sure that it is Old Slavonic. The very name of the people is etrusci. In France there is a region of RUSSILLON. In modern Germany, hundreds of cities and towns have Slavic roots in the name. If you wish, read the works of Y. A. Kessler, especially regarding the coming to power of the Pig-Romanovs.
  16. parma
    parma 27 November 2018 12: 11
    +2
    Quote: Bashibuzuk
    In my first post I asked the simplest question - "...who, for example, are familiar with the "Scaliger Matrix" by Vyacheslav Lopatin, with the "Critical Study of Chronology" by Mikhail Postnikov, with the book "The Greatest Deception. An Invented History of Europe" by Uwe Topper, with difficulty "Universal Falsification of History" by Wilhelm Kammayer, with the research of Hans Gottlieb Leopold Delbrück about the places of "historical ancient battles" (where it turned out that, at best, in the place of the battle (certain), instead of 10 thousand people, barely 200 will be accommodated), etc. etc
    Please note - and no more.
    Question! To which he never received a response from anyone.
    I did not begin to build theories about who, when they perverted someone, deceived, spoke, sentenced.
    But in response - to the simplest question - have you read this or not - I received a bunch of answers from clever people who offered me to undergo treatment from someone unknown, then a certain PARMA in general wrote me a "truth lover" who built a "theory".
    People, humans, are you able to understand what is printed? Or not?
    You do not answer me, you yourself invent for yourself anyway! For what? What do you want to prove to yourself?
    That is why I wrote that - "real historians", like wood grouses during the current, only hear themselves.
    .
    Not only that, the precious Trilobite Master, it turns out, is generally a psychiatrist. So who else but a psychiatrist should know what human thinking is capable of? Especially if it is completely swallowed up by a single disconnect goal - to leave a mark on history. Name the writers who were somehow monitored by psychiatrists? Or does the owner himself know such people?
    Well, about PARMA - there's nothing to say. Empty idle talk, pointless accusations, empty hypotheses - I, unlike parma, do not hide at all who I am and what I am talking about. Not about the Etruscans. neither about liquid masons, nor about stolen and taken to Europe, nor about conspiracies - he did not say WORDS.
    .
    You are capable of unbiased, critical thinking. Whatever the story?
    It seems not.
    Regrettably.

    Personally, I didn’t write a word about you, so I apologize if I didn’t put it very clearly (by the way, that you didn’t understand my post, it’s not necessary to insult you, but you can think about it and re-read it a couple of times) ...
    I just described my opinion why, as you put it, "real historians" so sharply criticize new trends in history as a science .... The answer is simply because the old theories are backed by years of work, research, excavation, and behind the new trends there is one person without intelligible evidence - invented it myself, found it myself ...
    Regarding the fact that, for example, they cannot find places of major battles, and those that find evidence of 200 wars and not 10000 on each side, everything is simple: first, the relief and landscape today may not coincide with the relief of 2000-3000-10000 years ago. .. Secondly, in places such as Egypt, BV, Italy (and Europe in general), the population has always been relatively large, because there were many battles and it is difficult to find and understand that these are utensils of 500 or 1500 years ago (especially considering how trophies were loved at all times .. for example, almost half of Hannibal’s infantry at the end of its war in Italy had Roman trophy equipment, go find in large quantities something after the battle on / in the land in those days, not like today so many years)
  17. tiaman.76
    tiaman.76 27 November 2018 15: 30
    0
    Droysen described these events well in the books "History of Hellenism".
  18. Talgarets
    Talgarets 29 November 2018 10: 03
    +1
    Game of Thrones...
    1. VLR
      29 November 2018 16: 05
      0
      No, the real war diadohi steeper :)
  19. Seal
    Seal 14 January 2019 12: 56
    0
    Quote: Operator
    Means of land logistics of the same throughput, all-weather and security at that time did not exist.
    Are you serious ? To begin with, I would like to note that you are confusing the concepts of "bandwidth" and "carrying capacity". In water transport, the concept of carrying capacity is applied only to regulated sections of waterways. As a rule, these are either inland waterways or straits and other narrows.
    Year-round shipping? Can I just laugh?
    Shipping security? From whom ? From pirates or from bad weather? May I still laugh?
  20. Seal
    Seal 14 January 2019 12: 59
    0
    Quote: Trilobite Master
    I think, then you quickly realize the difference between a specialist in the field you need and an amateur, it would not be only too late.

    The problem is that historians brew exclusively in their own environment and therefore reproduce the next generation of historians exactly the same as they are now. And further. A professional in something is, as a rule, a narrow professional. For example, a chemist may know nothing about military science, music, or shipbuilding. A shipbuilder may know nothing about medicine and military affairs, painting, music, and so on. For example, a soldier from the infantry may not know anything about naval affairs. But professional historians, not being specialists in anything and not knowing anything from the field of military affairs, metallurgy, chemistry, physics, medicine, music, sculpture, painting, shipbuilding and so on, nevertheless brazenly undertake to explain all this to us. Moreover, they undertake to explain not even the current state of affairs in these areas (here they will be quickly put in their place by professionals), but how it was there, in these industries, it was earlier, 1000 years ago, 1500 years ago, 2000 years ago, and so on. !!! What is the main problem? Let's say a historian wrote a huge professional work on some antique topic. The military man read it and from his professional point of view noted that in the part of the description of ancient military campaigns and battles or the "Tatar-Mongol invasion" (and in winter !!!!) this shtafirka wrote complete nonsense. But over 50 percent of all historical works are precisely the description of ancient military campaigns and battles. But since a military man is also not a chemist, not a physicist, not a metallurgist, not a shipbuilder (and a land military man does not understand in naval affairs either); not a doctor; not an artist .. .. he understandably, thought it was only for him, for the military part, the historian wrote nonsense. Well, I wrote and wrote that the military has other affairs, except for this historian to poke his muzzle in his stupidity? Of course, the military man read ... ... and forgot. Simultaneously with the military, I read the work of a historian, well, let's say a doctor. And he also noted that from his professional point of view, the historian wrote complete nonsense about ancient medicine. But since the doctor is not a specialist in the military sphere, in painting, physics, chemistry (although he probably is a little in chemistry), shipbuilding, music, and so on, and the doctor is full of his own affairs, he did not bother with refuting the work of a professional historian. And in the same way the work of the historian was read: - chemist; - physicist; - sculptor; - artist; - metallurgist - shipbuilder and so on. Everyone noted that complete nonsense was written in their area !!! But since none of them sees the overall picture, and even the book is full of enthusiastic reviews from the historian's colleagues - the same historians as he (she) himself (herself) - the book is published, children learn from it, films are made from it , and after some time the next generations of historians consider that work as a "document".
    1. Seal
      Seal 14 January 2019 13: 00
      0
      Earlier and now, a lot of historians enthusiastically describe all possible various military campaigns and battles. Name at least one modern official historian with a higher military education, writing on the topic of "ancient campaigns" of someone? ? We don't have such !!! At best, a military historian describing, for example, Napoleon's campaign or the Crimean War, in the preface will in vain mention Caesar or A. Macedonian, but only because “ancient history” is not his topic. And without mentioning the "campaigns of the ancients" it is somehow not accepted to describe the campaigns of Napoleon or Skobelev. Well, like, as in the years of Soviet power, not a single scientific work could be published without mentioning the role of Comrade Stalin, and then simply the role of the CPSU in the issue considered in the work. Other historians, who did not even build boats with their own hands, enthusiastically describe the huge five-decker, or even ten-decked antique ships. Name at least one official historian with a higher education in shipbuilding or navigation? We don't have such. How many historical dissertations and "works" on the topic "ancient military campaigns and conquests" were submitted for review to the Academy of the General Staff? ZERO !!! Historians are well aware that it is necessary to discuss all their "works" exclusively in their own environment. Since if their "works", for example, on the topic of "ancient campaigns and battles" are officially reviewed by the professional military, it will be such a shame !!! Likewise, historians have long divided all the glades. And all historians cultivate exclusively their own meadows, not climbing into other people's meadows of their neighbors, historians. And they have from these glades who are just bread, and who are already bread and butter. Some historians even have bread and butter and red caviar. And there are those with black caviar. And none of the historians wants to lose their piece of bread. With butter. And caviar.
  21. Seal
    Seal 14 January 2019 13: 11
    0
    But what about the author neglected the stories about ARRIVING TO ROME ???

    Alexander, however, declined to Rome. Hearing the same Romans Alexander Idusha to them and confused and co-created. “Yes, let’s do it,” rekosha, “whether we should have goodness to Alexander in Rome with many honors and gifts, and on fatherly statutes and towns, mercy invincible to the law of being.” But to his god Amon in the church of the tributary, I pray to proclaim them of Alexander. In the dream appear to them God Amon, a speech: “Men of Romans, do not be afraid of Alexander — my son is; when I came to Macedonia, his mother Alimpiyad became impurity and Alexander was born; but in honor of his mercy, bow to the tsar and glorify the autocracy. "
    The Romans, with honor and great glory, are wondrous, byashe their comparison is marvelous: 4 thousand of his crowned knights on the parish and 2 thousand maidens of his midst, scarlet gold robes are tied to them .... ". And so on. A lot. you can't write - a violation of the rules.
    1. Ua3qhp
      Ua3qhp 29 January 2019 13: 38
      0
      We replace Alexander with Ilya Muromets, Alyosha Popovich, etc. it turns out a fairy tale.
      There was no empire of Alexander. In the best case, an armed gang raided India on foot, if historians did not lie and returned in some kind of composition. That’s the whole empire.