Military Review

Another Lend-Lease. "Willys MW" as one of the symbols of war

48
Continuing the story about the Lend-Lease, today we present, if we may say so, the "emblem" of Western supplies to the USSR during the Great Patriotic War.


Maybe someone will disagree with us and say that a coat of arms (Air Cobra, for example) or a tank can become the flag or flag ...

But since we are talking about our opinion, then it is he. "Willys MW".



It is clear that our modern knowledge, with numerous additions of ideology and homegrown "historians" from vocational schools, is simply teeming with inaccuracies and obvious inventions. And Lend-Lease itself turned into exactly the same arena of ideological war, like almost any episode at the beginning of the defense, and then the offensive of the Red Army.

And you don’t need to go far for evidence, it’s enough to re-read the comments on any article about Lend-Lease, at least on our resource, anywhere. The result will be the same.

We do not intend to fight "for ours" or "for theirs". Yes, and to answer silly questions, like we could have won without help, too. Could. And they would have won. But how many hundreds more thousands, or even millions, of Soviet people would have perished on the fields of war? Persuading someone in the loyalty of this truism is stupid. We will not, but just continue our stories.

So, the Lend-Lease symbol. A car that even today is known to every Russian precisely as a military, Soviet military man of those years.

This is an American off-road all terrain Willys MB. The one who still drove our officers and generals in domestic films. The one who, during the war, "dragged" anti-tank guns along the leading edge. The one that was used by Soviet scouts to quickly move along the front line.



It is about this car, our story today. And let's start with stories creating this legend. More precisely, the legends. Because this model of army cars went off the assembly lines of plants such as Willys-Overland Motors and Ford (with a different name: Ford GPW). The differences between these cars are lower, especially since thanks to the museum of military equipment of the UMMC, which is in Verkhnyaya Pyshma, we had the opportunity to get acquainted with both models.



So, there is a tenacious, but improbable version of the creation of this car. A version similar to the Soviet one, such as "The party said it is necessary - the Komsomol answered there is!" It took a car - American automakers did. And this version appeared because of the really short development time of this jeep. The Pentagon announced the need for such vehicles for the US Army in the spring of 1940. A serial release started in 1941.

In fact, such a car was needed precisely the American army. And not even to participate in the Second World War. We needed a car for the border areas for transportation of commanders and intelligence of the border areas with the possibility of actions on the territory of the enemy. In the original terms of reference talk about the possibility of transporting guns and mortars was not.

From a technical point of view, the Pentagon has put forward quite stringent requirements. It was strictly stated that the SUV should have a maximum speed of at least 80 km / h, the fordable depth to overcome - from 29 cm, all-wheel drive, curb weight - no more than 585 kg, ground clearance - 16 cm, and carrying capacity - no less than 270 kg The only point on which customers went to at least some kind of a compromise - is the mass. She changed several times and in both directions.

For the auto business, the order was truly a "tidbit." Almost all car manufacturers got involved in the development of the car. However, it quickly became clear that the harsh conditions of the army required many design innovations. Mass producers of such developments refused. Only three of them took the risk to help out their army. The cool guys were American Bantam, Willys-Overland and Ford Motor.

The first problem was solved by engineers and designers of American Bantam. Based on their own car Bantam 60, they created the Bantam BRC SUV.


Bantam 60



Bantam BRC


The car almost completely met the requirements of the army. Except for a fairly serious weight deviation. Army commanders decided to check the car in action, but decided not to start the series.

Be that as it may, the company still released the 2605 units of this car. True to the Americas, they were not used.

And then the detective begins.

The Bantam BRC tests were attended by competing engineers and designers. Both Ford and Willis developed their own cars, but some components, in particular the suspension, did not work. And so, for the first time in the history of the American automotive industry, the designers decided to copy the suspension elements from competitors. In fact, industrial spies worked. Especially well done on the "Willis".







It was Willis who, in two months, presented his own version of an SUV for testing. True stole and the main drawback of Bantam - weight.

Willys Quad, namely this name was given to the new car, weighed 1100 kg. After many improvements, the weight was reduced to 980 kg. The new model is called Willys MA.



But Ford engineers didn’t stand idle either. The Ford Pygmy SUV was created. With the same characteristics and with the same drawbacks.



So, the American army received three cars with the same test score: "Satisfactory." Not good and not bad. Technically, the best car was still Bantam.

However, better handling and performance cost more than the simplicity of competitors. It was necessary to choose the one that will become the main SUV of the American army.

As, probably, the readers already guessed, in these conditions the main thing was the price of an SUV.

Bantam price was the highest. Ford’s cars were a bit cheaper and “Willis” turned out to be the cheapest - only 738 dollars and 74 cents.

All three versions of cars were almost identical and differed only in small details. It is clear that this determined the choice of the military: with a tight military budget, the number of cars was an important factor.

The contract was signed with the company "Willys", and after she launched the last copy of Willys MA from the conveyor, she immediately started mass production at the Toledo factory of Willys Military Series B.



And here comes the question of “Ford”. How did Ford's factories enter production?

It's simple. Willys was unable to fulfill an order received by itself and had to ask for help from Ford. Naturally, Ford gladly agreed to share the profit. But with one condition. A copy of "Willis" will be named "Ford." Copies of technical documentation for the Willis became the basis for Ford off-road vehicles. And so it appeared on the Soviet front two almost identical cars with different names: Willys MB and Ford GPW.



Now it is worth considering the car more closely. The car is really interesting. Not for nothing, the release of this SUV continued for many, many years in various countries around the world.

The body of the car was completely open, carrying, with a rather high landing and designed for 4 passenger seats. The supporting element of the Willys MB was the frame of the spar type. Through springs with single-acting shock absorbers, continuous axle bridges fitted with locking differentials were connected to the frame.

To ensure the car a good weight distribution, the designers installed the power unit longitudinally, on the front wheelbase. As a result, the supporting elements of the body became perfectly smooth, a complete balance of the chassis was achieved, and even while driving, the weight was evenly distributed to all 4 wheels.



Another feature of the Willis body was the complete absence of doors. This was done so that in extreme conditions it was easy to jump or jump out of the car. However, there was no danger of falling out of the body while driving, as the seats in the cabin were slightly buried.



But if the situation became critical, the process of leaving the car took seconds.

The windshield, which had a fairly wide and strong frame, if necessary, was reclined on the hood. Such a “trick” was developed not only to conveniently aim and shoot forward (especially if weapon massive and heavy, and it should be done while driving), but also to lower the contour of the car when you need to lie low.



Plus, the disguise gave the color a special matte paint that did not give glare in the sun. Patented. But in our realities, the Soviet soldiers fought quite normally with oil paint, and also did not particularly shine.

Designers have not forgotten about the wipers working on the engine. Many critics consider this part completely unnecessary and, given that the body is open - there is some truth in it. But we must not forget the fact that the car was supplied with a folding canvas top, which was stored in the coiled form on the back of the SUV. It was used not very often, even during bad weather.



One spare wheel was mounted behind the car. On the left side of the body one could notice the tool needed in the field conditions - this is an ax and shovels that were fastened with special straps. Also, special handles were welded on the left and right sides. They were present not so much for the convenience of the passengers, as if, if necessary, they could pull the car out of the ford or pit.

The cabin itself was quite close, and the driver’s landing seemed a bit difficult. As for the driver's seat, the tightness, combined with a thin three-spoke steering wheel of a sufficiently large diameter, made it possible to stay more confidently on the roads, firmly hold the steering wheel and not risk losing control, running over large stones or bumps.



In fact, the car just seems so ... small and uncomfortable. Everything is fine there with the landing, one of the authors checked his pretty boar carcass in 90 kg. Accordingly, the soldiers of normal 70-80 kg plus a padded jacket or overcoat could fit comfortably.

The gas tank was located under the driver’s seat (apparently, no one asked for an opinion on the subject), and in order to fill the car, you had to fold the cushion every time. There was a soft sofa without armrests behind, but on both sides (behind the arches of the rear wheels) there were original glove compartments for tools and other equipment.





The front wheels as such arches did not have, and between them and the hood was a large enough gap. Instead of a front bumper, a wide and thick sheet of metal was welded, which came forward at 30 centimeters. This was done to ensure that the car overcame obstacles (for example, bushes, sticks, high weeds, etc.) or that the soldiers could effortlessly pull out the stuck car without any damage, tying the rope to this frame.

The grille had a lot of thin vertical spokes, and the headlights were slightly recessed in it. This was required by their special design, which allowed them to raise the headlights and turn them with diffusers downwards (especially important when you had to repair the engine at night or move around without having additional blackout devices).

Since March, 1942, the grille has already had seven spokes and stamped lining, and after 5 months, an additional headlamp appeared on the left wing with a “visor” and a protective metal ring in front.

An interesting motor is Willis, which is recognized as the longest-running in the world. The four-cylinder engine of the Willis was in-line, had a volume of 2199 cm cube and horsepower 60. Refueling with A-66 gasoline and, and despite the highest quality and durability, was very sensitive to low-quality gasoline, which could quickly fail.



Another important part is the manual transmission. Three-stage and fully interlocked with the engine itself. On the 2-th and 3-th steps, synchronizers were installed, and a transfer case was docked to the gearbox itself. Thanks to the cardan shafts with hinges, power is evenly distributed to the rear and front axle.



Now, it was necessary to drive the car not only with one gear lever, but also with two more - transfer case levers, one of which served to connect the front axle and the other to turn off and downshift.

The brake system of the car was hydraulic and spread to the 4 wheels, which was a huge plus.

Despite the fact that all the wheels were leading, the engineers for some reason did not provide a differential between the axles, so the time between the front and rear axles was not distributed. Traction was distributed only between the wheels themselves, and the usual bevel differentials without blocking nodes.

Since the car was designed for the most difficult and extreme conditions, he often had to overcome deep fords, which in some cases reached almost one and a half meters. Therefore, the designers decided to make a drain hole in the bottom of the body, which was closed with a stopper.

After a fairly serious description of the car itself, it’s worth “seeing” the little things that made Willys popular.



If you look closely at the fastening of the headlights on the Willis, you can see the "utter nonsense" of American engineers. Headlamps fastened "lambs". Why do I need a wing nut for mounting the headlights under the hood of the car? Nonsense, but when repairing an engine at night, the headlamp is easy to unscrew, turn 180 degrees to the side of the engine and work like a king. Trifle? In war, little things do not happen ...

By the way, according to the memoirs of veterans, the headlights of the “Willis” were suitable for almost all American equipment. And vice versa. Even the Harley's motorcycle headlights were interchangeable with this SUV.

Another interesting detail that makes the "Willis" just perfect for the army. This car requires almost no battery. Even a cold engine in normal condition starts up with several turns of the “curved starter”. True, you can get a decent hand ... And on a hot engine, the engine starts up almost “from a half a nose”. Those batteries that were still installed on the “Willis” were weak, 6-volt.

And another find "Willis". A windshield that can be lowered onto the hood. How simple it is to reduce the dimensions of the car and solve the problem of firing from machine guns and machine guns in the direction of travel ... We later used the same scheme on the landing variant GAZ-66 and jeep GAZ-69, UAZ-469.



By the way, the very name “jeep” came to our language precisely from “Willis”. This is the usual abbreviation for the military designation of cars General Purpose, GP, sounds like "GI", or "jeep." But this is only a version. Although Willys-Overland Motors registered the Jeep trademark in February 1943 at the height of the war in February ...

If we consider the numerous surviving and restored "Willis", we can draw attention to the rather frequent differences, not only between "Willis" and "Ford", but also between "Fords" or "Willis" from different parties. What is the reason?

So, what was the difference between Ford GPW and Willys MB?

Let's start with the main. Machines of both companies were continuously modified and it happened not so much because of changes in customer requirements, but because of production capabilities. That is why it is difficult to classify modifications by time. It is much easier to see differences in shipments.

Both cars (and in the USSR both were called “Willis”) have three modifications each. Depending on the delivery time.

"Willis":
early (November 1941 of the year-March of the 1942 of the year),
standard (March 1942 of the year - December of 1943 of the year),
Composite (December 1943 of the year - October 1945 of the year).

Ford:
standard (April 1942 of the year - December 1943 of the year),
transition (December 1943 of the year - January 1944 of the year),
Composite (January 1944 of the year-June 1945 of the year).

Let's start with the body. The early “Willis” had a relief stamping of its name on the rear panel, the radiator was from 10 knitting needles, and the glove box was missing. The stamping of the Standard “Willis” was already located on the wheel arch under the lock of the tool niche. He also got the glove compartment, the bottom of two reinforcing ribs, footrest and a rectangular rear seat bracket.

As for the Ford, its standard modification had an ACM II type front support bracket, the body number was missing, the punching of the name was in the wheel arch under the niche lock, and the logo on the rear panel; the rear seat had a triangular bracket, and the rear lights - vertically mounted brackets. In addition, compared with the "Willis", the early models of "Ford" already had a glove compartment, and the bottom with two reinforcing ribs, and support for the legs of the rear passengers.

The transitional Ford was equipped with a triangular amplifier of the rear panel of the body, a rectangular bracket was mounted on the back seat, but the stamping of the car name on the side portions of the wheel arch on either side of the rear seat bracket disappeared.

Now the frame. In Willis, the front crossbar was tubular in shape, and the shock absorber brackets were rectangular-box-shaped, while Ford had a rectangular beam (like an inverted U), and the brackets were flush.

The battery stand also had differences - the Willyse was in the form of a rectangular metal sheet, and the Ford one additionally had an oval hole in the center.

Comparing both cars, you can notice differences in the image of license plates of the frame and engine. By the way, it was by engine number that one could determine the car as accurately as possible: the Willys MB number consisted of an MB index and six digits, and the Ford GPW had a GPW index and the same six digits.

Specifications car Willys MB



Year of production: 1941-1945.
Body: bearing, open, bezdverny
Dimensions (length / width / height): mm 3335 / 1586 / 1830
Weight: 1020 kg
Load capacity: kg 250 (with driver and passenger - kg 363)

Maximum speed: 104 km / h
Fuel consumption: 13,2 l / 100 km.
Entry / exit angles: 45 / 35 degrees
Towing weight (max.): 453 kg
Turning radius: 5,3 m

Engine: 4-cylinder, petrol, lower valve
Cylinder bore: 79,37 mm
Displacement: 2,2 l.
Power (at 3600 rpm): 60 hp

Transmission: Manual, 3-speed
Transfer case: manual, 2-speed, with a multiple ratio

During the war, both companies produced almost 700 000 (real 659 031) cars. Of these, 52 thousands were sent to the USSR.

Another Lend-Lease. "Willys MW" as one of the symbols of war


Think about this number: 52 000 cars!

Moreover, it is possible for some readers this will be a revelation, but ... Some of these cars were delivered to the Soviet Union in disassembled form in boxes. And they gathered in Omsk and Kolomna on special assembly sites. So the American has Siberian roots.





This car is actually nothing to compare with. The USSR could not produce everything at once. Therefore, it is worth remembering this indifferent war worker, on board of which it is justly possible to place the inscription: “I took everything and everyone”.


And the cart from the "Vilis" is completely out



Transportation of wounded



Anti-tank guns and mortars ...



Commanders of all levels




52 thousands. With all that our industry has produced a very small number of all-wheel drive cars. Yes, and it is worth remembering that the “Willis” became the father of “Ivan-Willis”, that is, a whole family of Soviet military all-wheel drive vehicles.

Well, some more information from the UMMC military equipment museum in Verkhnyaya Pyshma:

Author:
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  1. Uncle lee
    Uncle lee 28 November 2018 06: 12
    +8
    Japanese "Willis", 15 years on this went.
    1. domokl
      domokl 28 November 2018 06: 48
      +4
      The Japanese companies Tayota and Mitsubishi have officially bought the license and documentation for the Jeep release. Like the Korean Kia and Ssang Young
      1. VictorZhivilov
        VictorZhivilov 28 November 2018 23: 16
        +2
        Alfa also had such a car ...

        Alfa Romeo 1900 M AR51 (1412) '1952–54
    2. vkl.47
      vkl.47 28 November 2018 08: 57
      +3
      My father's dream
      1. venik
        venik 28 November 2018 09: 39
        +6
        Quote: vkl.47
        My father's dream

        =======
        And we, with a friend, in the early 80s almost bought a "Willis" .... And in good condition! The man wanted only 350 Soviet rubles for him !! While we were running, collecting, borrowing (where did the senior students get 350 rubles ?!) ... In general, we were one day late !! That was the "ambush" !!! Until now, I will not forgive myself for slowly poking around!
        1. vkl.47
          vkl.47 28 November 2018 11: 57
          +3
          It's a shame. Here and the father in the 60s all dreamed of this machine. I love minimalism.
          1. VictorZhivilov
            VictorZhivilov 28 November 2018 23: 14
            +1
            winked
            http://military-photo.com/unsorted/3241-photo.html
  2. svp67
    svp67 28 November 2018 06: 33
    +4
    "Willys MV" as one of the symbols of war
    And the symbol of VICTORY, our VICTORY.
    1. VictorZhivilov
      VictorZhivilov 28 November 2018 23: 21
      +1
      And the symbol of VICTORY, our VICTORY.

      Victory is common ... and therefore the symbols are common. smile
      http://military-photo.com/unsorted/4866-photo.html
  3. Major48
    Major48 28 November 2018 08: 21
    +9
    Thanks to the authors for this series of articles. And it’s good that you don’t listen to bad commentators and do not answer stupid questions. For me, Willis is a memory of a garrison childhood, my father was a battalion commander in an automobile battalion and rode such an apparatus. And before that, after wounding and concussion, he served on acceptance of Lend-Lease equipment in Iran.
  4. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 28 November 2018 08: 47
    +5
    It is strange that the author does not consider our GAZ 64 \ 67 "classmate" of "Willis". According to my data, the machines were created at the same time, the tasks were similar and it was possible to spy on the solutions overseas only by spy photos. In any case, it is possible and necessary to compare with it.
    1. venik
      venik 28 November 2018 10: 00
      +5
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      It is strange that the author does not consider our GAZ 64 \ 67 "classmate" of "Willis".

      ==========
      The GAZ-64 is not a "classmate, but an almost EXACT copy of the Bantam BRC40 (or Ford Pygmy - I don't remember exactly) !!! Only minor external differences (hood, fenders ...)." According to the recollections of the Chief Designer, they proposed to make some changes to the design of the American car in order to get rid of some "congenital defects" (in particular, to widen the track) ..... But the then People's Commissar Malyshev demanded in an ultimatum that "everything should be" one to one "! !! Only after the resumption of production at GAZ (in 1943), some changes were made to the design and assigned the GAZ-67B index.
      1. Alex_59
        Alex_59 28 November 2018 10: 49
        +4
        Quote: venik
        GAZ-64 is not a "classmate - but an almost EXACT copy of Bantam BRC40

        I doubt something. It is difficult to make an exact copy from the photo, but apart from the photos, the developers of GAZ-64 could not have anything - it was before the war. Here's the GAZ-67 - wherever else they could, they could delve into the Lend-Lease jeeps and refine their own.
      2. Potter
        Potter 29 November 2018 13: 53
        +1
        Not a copy at all. Malyshev instructed to make a car for a similar purpose, and not to reproduce the design. The construction of a pair of photographs from the press cannot be reproduced.
        The design of the GAZ-64 was based on units at that time adopted by the GAZ-61, but with a 50hp engine. instead of 70 hp on the last one. Gazovskie bridges, transmission and more. The GAZ-64 was heavier than the Americans - 1320kg, but the cross-country ability was better (in the GAZ-61 it was generally excellent, even for our time). But on the GAZ-67B eliminated the shortcoming of both Bantam and Willis - a narrow gauge. The narrow-gauge car was unstable and walked poorly through the mud in a convoy of trucks.
    2. Amurets
      Amurets 28 November 2018 10: 44
      +8
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      In any case, it is possible and necessary to compare with it.

      It is impossible, because, at the heart of Gaz-64 / Gas-67 is another machine, NATI AR.
      In the winter of 1940-1941, NATI did not yet know that cars of a similar purpose were being created in the USA - American Bantam and Willys Overland were developing the company. Soviet designers could not take these machines as a model, which means that AR-NATI was a completely domestic model. The only conditional analogue that its creators knew about was the Gorky GAZ-61.


      https://topwar.ru/150275-drugoj-lend-liz-willys-mv-kak-odin-iz-simvolov-vojny.html
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 28 November 2018 17: 23
        +8
        Quote: Amurets
        In the winter of 1940-1941, NATI did not yet know that cars of a similar purpose were being created in the USA - American Bantam and Willys Overland were developing the company. Soviet designers could not take these machines as a model, which means that AR-NATI was a completely domestic model.

        An article on "Pygmy" in Automoutive Industries was published on December 15, 1940. Then she caught the eye of the head of the GBTU, who on February 1, 1941 asked the People's Commissariat for the production of prototypes of machines modeled on the American Pigmy car. The work was entrusted to GAZ and NATI. The deadline is April 15, 1941.
        1. Amurets
          Amurets 28 November 2018 23: 33
          +2
          Quote: Alexey RA
          An article on "Pygmy" in Automoutive Industries was published on December 15, 1940.

          Alexei, there is a distinguishing version of Andronov, subsequently the chief designer of AZLK. An article on the Drive website, I incorrectly gave the link without first checking. https://www.drive2.ru/l/459566724425996964/
      2. kitt409
        kitt409 28 November 2018 23: 16
        +3
        Supplement a little, if you don’t mind - a model, or analogue, for the AR-NATI (reconnaissance vehicle) was originally a German Temro car with two Ilo engines, one of them stood behind, the second in front, each 16 hp, with a spinal frame and independent suspensions — a push-and-pull scheme, but they started to create the ARs from a different engine, with one engine, originally planned from KIM-10, the GABTU in December 1940 prescribed the engine from GAZ-MM, and ultimately took the engine from GAZ -M1.
        One of the main differences between AR and Willis is “... Andronov recalled that in the work on AR-NATI, the layout was not carried out from car to people, but from people to car. In the USA, they did everything the other way around. In addition to high sides and soft springs, convenience AR-NATI passengers were provided with separate bucket-shaped seats ... "(c)
        The R-1 at GAZ was developed in a slightly different way, and at first it did not at all resemble what it became a bit later - the GAZ-64. So to consider that the GAZ 64/67 is based on the AR is a little wrong, even though the AR instance was sent to the GAZ, but by that time they already had their own development, which the GAZ employees had finalized and began to produce as the GAZ-64, and the AR -NATI, as having no production base, remained out of work ...
  5. Vladimir Teplov
    Vladimir Teplov 28 November 2018 09: 29
    +1
    The first time I hear that bridges were blocked on the jeep.
  6. BAI
    BAI 28 November 2018 09: 47
    +2
    From a technical point of view, the Pentagon put forward quite stringent requirements.
    ground clearance - 16 cm

    Is there no mistake? The photo is clearly more clearance.
    1. domokl
      domokl 28 November 2018 10: 28
      +5
      Quote: BAI
      Is there no mistake? The photo is clearly more clearance.

      You took the requirements of the Pentagon. But, the eye is a diamond. Indeed, Willis's ground clearance was 22. Less cannot be purely for technical reasons. Jeep...
  7. The comment was deleted.
  8. Arkady Gaidar
    Arkady Gaidar 28 November 2018 10: 58
    +3
    "The price of Bantam was the highest. Ford cars were a little cheaper and the Wilis were the cheapest - just $ 738 and 74 cents."

    All three variants of the cars were almost identical and differed only in small details. It is clear that this determined the choice of the military: with a tough military budget, the number of cars was an important factor. "

    As always, cheapness wins!)))
    1. svp67
      svp67 28 November 2018 11: 27
      +4
      Quote: Arkady Gaidar
      As always, cheapness wins!)))

      Sometimes it is for the good ...
  9. Arkady Gaidar
    Arkady Gaidar 28 November 2018 12: 07
    +3
    I would like to ask the authors of the article. Can they further, also compare in detail Willis Fords with GAZ-64 / 67? Do they have such an opportunity? With the photo application, of course.
    And then, in the comments, butch starts again. So that all readers can see with their own eyes the similarities and differences)
  10. VictorZhivilov
    VictorZhivilov 28 November 2018 12: 41
    +4
    Willys - the legendary Car, which gave a whole direction in the automotive industry. smile
  11. Narak-zempo
    Narak-zempo 28 November 2018 13: 54
    +3
    From a technical point of view, the Pentagon put forward quite stringent requirements

    There was no Pentagon yet, even construction had not begun.
  12. dgonni
    dgonni 28 November 2018 14: 22
    -1
    He looked at the bridges of the jeep and received his sight! Already in those years, the states made continuous bridges for a mass car! Well, how many years did the union lag behind the states in terms of engineering if gas-69 and UAZ-469 rode on split bridges before the collapse of the union?
  13. Schreibikus
    Schreibikus 28 November 2018 15: 12
    +4
    “Despite the fact that all the wheels were driving, for some reason the engineers did not provide a differential between the axles, so the moment between the front and rear axles was not distributed.”

    This is just obvious. With the front axle being switched off, the center differential is not needed. Otherwise, when driving on the same bridge, this differential would require constant blocking (i.e. most of the time it simply would not work). Well, why does the military machine need an extra expensive, complex, but almost useless mechanism?
  14. Decimam
    Decimam 28 November 2018 15: 54
    +10
    "So, the symbol of Lend-Lease. A car that even today is known to every Russian just as a military, Soviet military of those years."
    Americans are also very kind to this car. Hyde's book The Arsenal of Democracy: The American Automotive Industry in World War II says about him: "In many ways, the Jeep became an iconic vehicle of World War II, with an almost mythological reputation."
    "It is clear that our modern knowledge, with numerous additions of ideology and home-grown" historians "from vocational schools, is simply teeming with inaccuracies and obvious inventions."
    This is absolutely true. The number of all kinds of fables is very large. Some of them, despite the efforts of the authors, still ended up in the article. For example, the fact that almost all (about 100) car manufacturers were involved in the development of the car.
    This is a special commission Quarter Master Corps sent its requirements to exactly 135 companies. But given the stringent requirements (the general layout had to be issued in five days, the prototypes should be issued in 49 days, and if 70 cars were approved for testing in another 26 days), only two companies agreed: Bantam and Willys-Overland. Later, Ford joined them.
    The legend is that "industrial spies worked". In fact, although the military liked the prototype of the Bantam very much, they understood that the company would not be able to pull the order either technically or financially. Therefore, already in the process of testing, the project was declared the property of the American government and competitors were given not only the opportunity to study in detail, but also transferred the drawings.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 28 November 2018 17: 19
      +7
      Quote: Decimam
      The legend is that "industrial spies worked". In fact, although the military liked the prototype of the Bantam very much, they understood that the company would not be able to pull the order either technically or financially. Therefore, already in the process of testing, the project was declared the property of the American government and competitors were given not only the opportunity to study in detail, but also transferred the drawings.

      By the way, this is the standard practice of the US government in that war. Competition and the free market operated strictly until a decision was made on the choice of a particular model for arming the army / navy and its serial production. And after that the American Gosplan came into effect, scattering the order for all core enterprises, including competing firms. However, collective farm - voluntary business - either take this order, or ... suck your paw until the next. smile
    2. domokl
      domokl 28 November 2018 17: 40
      +1
      Quote: Decimam
      they understood that neither technically nor financially would the firm pull out an order.

      If you agree with your statement, then Willis, too, could not be chosen. Things were going very badly with them. It’s not just that Willis suggested Ford to become a partner in the production of these cars
      1. Decimam
        Decimam 28 November 2018 19: 32
        +3
        "If I agree with your statement"
        Firstly, this is not my statement, but the Americans (Arsenal of Democracy: The American Automobile Industry in World War II).
        Secondly, I have written "during the trials, the project was declared the property of the US government and competitors not only was the opportunity for detailed study provided, but the drawings were also handed over. "
        That is, already in the testing process, the drawings were handed over to competitors participating in them (i.e., Willis and Ford).
  15. NF68
    NF68 28 November 2018 16: 34
    +1
    Interesting article.
  16. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 28 November 2018 17: 11
    +5
    There is practically nothing to compare this car with. The USSR could not produce everything at once.

    Just in the "Willis" niche, the USSR had an analogue - GAZ-64. But in connection with the supply of LL GAZ-64 was "eaten" by an armored car BA-64 on its base.
    It's funny that the Soviet 4x4 jeep was started by development based on an article in Automoutive Industries about "Ford Pygmy" that caught the eye of the head of the GBTU.
    1. domokl
      domokl 28 November 2018 17: 42
      +3
      Exactly. And in the USSR there was simply no necessary production capacity.
    2. Potter
      Potter 29 November 2018 20: 08
      0
      However, before the end of the war, 5523 GAZ-64/67 / 67B were produced, and a total of 93000. And the BA-64 was 8175 pieces, and a total of 9030 pieces. So with full confidence we can talk about the presence of a classmate of Willis, and his competitiveness. But, this is the only (apart from the limited-edition GAZ-61) worthy Soviet car in comparison with autolandlysis.
  17. faiver
    faiver 28 November 2018 18: 33
    +2
    The article was plus, but the emblem of Lend-Lease was and remains a student, trucks, workhorses of the war ...
    1. VictorZhivilov
      VictorZhivilov 28 November 2018 23: 42
      +1
      The article was plus, but the emblem of Lend-Lease was and remains a student, trucks, workhorses of the war ...

      I agree, but not quite ... but not as "workhorses of war" ... but as a chariot of the god of war. smile
  18. Decimam
    Decimam 28 November 2018 20: 41
    +2
    "Jeep's four-cylinder engine was in-line, had a volume of 2199 cc and a capacity of 60 horsepower. It was fueled with A-66 gasoline and, despite the highest quality and durability, was very sensitive to low-quality gasoline, which could quickly break down . "
    Gasoline type A-66 did not yet exist.
    According to the factory instructions, the engine ran on gasoline with an octane rating of at least 68.

    However, the pre-war and military OSTs did not normalize the octane number of gasoline and fluctuated within very wide limits, which often led to rapid engine wear.
    1. Decimam
      Decimam 28 November 2018 22: 26
      +2
      "Despite the fact that all the wheels were driving, for some reason the engineers did not provide a differential between the axles, so the moment was not distributed between the front and rear axles."
      In 4x4 all-wheel drive vehicles with a front axle that is connected, the center differential is often not used; it is also absent on the UAZ 469. Such vehicles are not recommended for driving on paved roads with the front axle turned on. The Willisv manual also has such an indication.
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 29 November 2018 10: 39
      +3
      Quote: Decimam
      However, the pre-war and military OSTs did not normalize the octane number of gasoline and fluctuated within very wide limits, which often led to rapid engine wear.

      In addition, in those days, due to the lack of gasoline, the use of surrogate fuel was widespread, which also did not add engine resources.
      In the first half of 1940, the supply of the USSR fleet with fuel was made intermittently and in an amount that did not satisfy the need. ... Due to lack of fuel, vehicle downtimes continued. On the farms, surrogates and gasoline substitutes are used - mainly benzene, pyrobenzene, naphtha, butyl mixture, methanol, kerosene, synthetic waste, rubber, fuselage, aniline-paint and sulfate ski

      Original Russian Text © L.P. Beria. Report "On the state of motor transport in the USSR" dated December 18, 1940
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 30 November 2018 01: 22
        +1
        Quote: Alexey RA
        In addition, in those days, due to the lack of gasoline, the use of surrogate fuel was widespread, which also did not add engine resources.

        According to the recollections of veterans during the Second World War, the national economy on communication vehicles, rear units, gas generators were used for the Gaz and ZiS automobiles. They lasted until the beginning of the 70s when they started disposing of old apasses and actually he participated in the disposal of MOBreserve warehouses in 1971, in the fuel warehouse were packed and preserved parts of gas generators (gas generators, filters and attachments for UralZiS cars themselves), I don’t remember the full package. But I definitely remember that there was still fuel in the bag and boxes (Charcoal and wood chocks, cubes, measuring somewhere between 5X5 and about 10 X10 cm.
  19. vnord
    vnord 30 November 2018 13: 31
    0
    Quote: dgonni
    Well, how many years did the union lag behind the states in terms of engineering if gas-69 and UAZ-469 rode on split bridges before the collapse of the union?

    From the point of view of repair, Spencer bridges have an advantage, and from the point of view of cross-country ability, split bridges are better ...
  20. Kogan Mikhail
    Kogan Mikhail 30 November 2018 23: 25
    0
    Back in 81 I was patrolling in the Sinai in the American JIP. There were many of them in the Israeli army at that time. Then the Japanese were already producing similar machines, but they did not supply them to Israel because of the oil embargo. There were also British Range Rovers. , but there were few of them. To change the punctured wheel, they used a 'jack aravi' sleeve from a 155 mm cannon. They put a sleeve under the bumper and ran over. The jeep lifted up and it was possible to change the wheel without problems. After the First Lebanese War, Hammers and all sorts of Japanese jeeps began to be imported, and JIPs began to write off and sell on a competitive basis. And a lot went for scrap.
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  22. Corsair71 (Anatoly)
    Corsair71 (Anatoly) 11 December 2018 00: 07
    0
    Alexander Staver, Roman Skomorokhov thanks for the interesting articles. He did not know anything; his horizons were expanded by articles.
  23. Andrey Shmelev
    Andrey Shmelev 22 January 2019 05: 50
    +1
    Thanks, great article good
    If you ever come to comparisons, it will be just super hi
  24. Major48
    Major48 24 January 2019 17: 20
    0
    The car of my childhood.
  25. Catfish
    Catfish 24 February 2019 21: 53
    0
    Luxury car for all occasions! good