Military Review

Japanese musketeers

47
I don't remember already whom I promised, but I do remember exactly what I promised the material about the Japanese firearms weapon Sengoku era. And once promised something, you should fulfill the promise. And it should immediately be said (and this is unlikely to be an exaggeration) that this era just became a kind of reaction of Japanese society to a new weapon that entered the country of the rising sun in 1543 year.


Then three Portuguese merchants threw a storm on the shore of the island of Tangegashima, and this seemingly insignificant event was for all of Japan a true gift of fate. The Japanese were amazed at the very appearance of “long-nosed barbarians”, their clothes and speech, and what they were holding in their hands - “something long, with a hole in the middle and an ingenious device closer to the tree, which they rested on the shoulder ... then fire flew out of it , there was a deafening thunder and a lead ball thirty feet away killed a bird! "

Daime of the Tanegashima Totikata Islands, having paid a lot of money, bought two teppos, as the Japanese called this strange weapon, and gave it to its blacksmith to make an analogue no worse. Since the Portuguese were shooting from “this” without a stand, it should be assumed that it was not the heavy musket that fell into the hands of the Japanese, but a relatively light arquebus, the dimensions and weight of which allowed shooting from the hands. However, to make an analogue at first did not work. The Japanese blacksmith was able to forge the barrel without much difficulty, but he found himself unable to cut the internal threads in the back of the barrel and insert the “plug” into it. However, a few months later, another Portuguese got to the island, and here it is, as the legend tells, and showed the Japanese masters how to do it. It was not difficult to make all the other details. So very soon on the island of Tanegashima was the beginning of the production of the first stories Japan firearms. Moreover, from the very beginning, the production of "tanegashima" (the Japanese began to call it that way), went at an accelerated pace. For six months, 600 Arquebuses was made on the island, which Totikata immediately sold out. As a result, not only enriched himself, but also contributed to its widespread distribution.


Modern Japanese "musketeers" - participants of demonstrations with shooting.


And this is the real “Tanegashima” of the Edo era from the Tokaido Museum, in Hakon.

Already in 1549, daimyo Shimazu Takahisa applied tanegasimu in battle, and then every year its popularity grew more and more. Takeda Shingen, for example, already in 1555 year, paying tribute to these weapons, bought at least 300 such arquebuses, and already Oda Nobunaga (this one loved everything European, starting with wine and ending with furniture!) 20 years later had 3000 arrows at his disposal in the battle of Nagashino. Moreover, he used them very modernly, having built in three lines so that they fired over each other’s heads, and from the attacks of Katsuri's cavalry they would be covered by a lattice fence.


Japanese teppo from the museum in the castle of Kumamoto. In the foreground is the “handgun” of kakae-zutsu.


The same museum, the same arquebus, but only the rear view. The device of their wick locks is clearly visible.

Moreover, it should be noted that, although for some reason it is considered otherwise, in fact, samurai in the era of Sengoku did not disdain to use teppo at all and use it personally. What, they say, is “mean” and not a proper samurai weapon. On the contrary, they very quickly appreciated its advantages and many of them, including the same Oda Nabunaga, turned into apt shooters. Continuous wars of all against all at just this time caused a truly mass production of this type of weapon, but the fact that it began to fall even into the hands of the peasants, they, of course, did not like. And very soon the number of arquebuses in Japan exceeded their number in Europe, which, by the way, was one of the reasons why not the Spaniards or the Portuguese did not even try to conquer it and turn it into their colony. Moreover, the Japanese in the manufacture of their teppo have achieved real craftsmanship, as evidenced by the samples of these weapons that have come down to us and are kept in museums today.


Tanegashima and pistora. Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco.

Note that the word “teppo” in Japan denoted a whole class of weapons, but at first it was the arquebuss that was made according to the Portuguese model, although this name is also known as Hinava-ju or “matchball gun”. But over time, the Japanese masters began to make their own powder guns, no longer similar to the original samples, that is, they developed their own style and traditions of its production.

Japanese musketeers

Samurai Niiro Tdamoto with teppo in hand. Uki-yo Utagawa Yoshiyku.

So what is the difference between the Japanese and European arquebuses? Let's start with the fact that they have the opposite arrangement of serpentine (cock) with Hibasa wicks. The Europeans, he was in front and reclined "to himself." The Japanese - he was attached to the breech and bent back "away from himself." In addition, it seemed to them, not without reason, that the burning wick, located at a close distance from the shelf with a seed powder, called hidzara, is not the best neighborhood, and they came up with a shifting hibut cover that securely closed this shelf. The lid moved and only after that it was necessary to press the trigger to make a shot. The length of the trunk of Japanese arquebuses was approximately 90 cm, but the calibers varied - from 13 to 20 mm. The bed was made of red oak wood, almost the entire length of the trunk, which was fixed in it with traditional bamboo pins, as well as the blades of Japanese swords, fastened to the handle in the same way. By the way, the locks of Japanese guns were also fastened on pins. The Japanese did not like screws, unlike the Europeans. The ramrod is a simple wooden (caruka) or bamboo (seseri), recessed into the box. In this case, the feature of the Japanese gun was ... the absence of the butt as such! Instead, there was a pistol grip daijiri, which was pressed to the cheek before the shot! That is, the recoil was perceived on the barrel and then on the arm, went down and moved back, but the gun did not give to the shoulder. That is why, by the way, the Japanese loved so much faceted - six and octahedral trunks. They were both stronger and heavier and ... better extinguished recoil due to their mass! In addition, their face was convenient to make out. Although, we will note this, the special decoration of the Japanese teppo trunks did not differ. Usually they were represented by monks - the emblems of the clan who ordered the weapon were covered with gold or varnish.


Bajo-zutsu is a rider's pistol, and richly trimmed. Edo Epoch. Anne and Gabriel Barbier-Muller Museum, Texas.


The Tandzutsu is an Edo-era short pistol. Anne and Gabriel Barbier-Muller Museum, Texas.

Details of the locks, including the springs, were made of brass. It did not corrode like iron (and in the Japanese climate it is very important!), But most importantly, it allowed all parts to be cast. That is, the production of locks was fast and efficient. Moreover, even brass springs proved to be more profitable than European steel ones. Than? Yes, the fact that they were weaker !!! And it turned out that the Japanese serpentine with a wick approached the seed slower than the European one, and he happened to hit the regiment with such force that ... it went out at the moment of impact, without even having time to set fire to the powder, which caused a misfire!


For sniper shooting, the Japanese made such long-barreled shotguns with barrels 1,80 mm long and even 2 meters. The Nagoya Castle Museum.

The Japanese arquebuses had sights, a saki-me-ate front sight and ato-me-ate rear sight, and ... the original, again varnished, boxes covering the lock from rain and snow.


Niiro Tadamoto with cocoa jutsu. Uki-yo Utagawa Yoshiyku.


Hitting a cocoa-zutsu explosive projectile in a tate shield. Uki-ё Utagawa Kuniyoshi.

As a result, the Japanese arquebuses became more massive than the European ones, although they still remained lighter than muskets. In addition, the Japanese invented the so-called "hand guns" or kakae-jutsu, somewhat similar to European hand-guns for firing hand grenades, used since the 16th century. But although their similarity undoubtedly, the Japanese design is very different from the European, and is an independent invention. The European mortar always had a butt and behind it a short barrel, designed for throwing wick garnets. The Japanese jutsu did not have a butt, but they shot from it clay baked balls and lead cores. The barrel was long enough, but the powder charge is small. Thanks to this, it was possible to shoot from the “hand-held cannon” really, holding it in my hands. The payoff, of course, was great. The “gun” could have been pulled out of the hands, and if the shooter held it tight, then it could not be knocked over by the ground. And, nevertheless, it was possible to shoot in such a manner from it. Although another method was used: the shooter laid out on the ground a pyramid of three bundles of rice straw and laid a “cannon” on it, pressing the handle into the ground or another sheaf, padded behind with two stakes. Having set the desired angle of inclination of the barrel, the shooter pulled the trigger and made a shot. The bullet flew along a steep trajectory, which allowed us to fire at enemies in such a way as they took refuge behind the walls of the castle. It happened that gunpowder rockets were inserted into the barrel of kakae-zutsu and thus much increased the firing range.


Guns from the arsenal of Himeji Castle.

Known were the Japanese and pistols, called them a pistol. Yes, they were wicked, but were used by samurai riders in the same way as European reiters. They were heading in the direction of the enemy, and, approaching him, they almost fired a shot, and then returned back, reloading their weapons on the move.


Asigaru, hiding behind tate shields, fire on the enemy. Illustration from Dzhohyo Monogatari. National Museum, Tokyo.

Another very important invention that increased the rate of fire of Japanese weapons was the invention of wooden cartridges of a special design. It is known that at first the powder was poured from the powder flask into the same arquebus, after which a bullet was pushed towards it with a ramrod. In Russia, the archers kept pre-measured powder charges in wooden "cartridges" - "charge". It’s difficult to say where they came before - here or in Europe, but they appeared and immediately loaded food and the muskets became more convenient. But the bullet still had to get out of the bag. The solution to the problem was a paper cartridge, in which both the bullet and gunpowder were in the same paper wrapper. Now the soldier bit his teeth into the shell of such a cartridge (hence the command “bitten the cartridge!”), Poured some powder on the seed shelf, and the rest of the powder together with the bullet poured into the barrel and there tamped with a ramrod, using the paper itself as a wad. cartridge.

The Japanese invented a “charge” with two (!) Holes and a conical channel inside. At the same time, one of them was closed by a spring-loaded lid, while the other hole was a “plug” served by the bullet itself!


"Varnished boxes against the rain." Engraving Utagawa Kuniyoshi.

Well, now let's imagine that we are “Japanese Musketeers” and we have to fire at the enemy.

So, standing on one knee, at the command of the co-Gasir (“junior lieutenant”), we retrieve our wooden cartridge from the cartridge bag, open it, and pour all the powder into the barrel. And on the bullet protruding from it, you just need to press a finger, and it instantly slips into the barrel. We remove the cartridge and tamp down the powder and the bullet with a ramrod. Remove the cleaning rod and recline the powder shelf. A smaller powder is poured onto a shelf of a separate powder flask. We close the cover of the shelf, and blow off the extra powder from the shelf so that it does not flare up before the appointed time. Now fan the flame on the tip of the wick wrapped around the left hand. The wick itself is made of cedar bark fibers, therefore it smolders well and does not go out. Now the wick is inserted into the serpentine. Co-gashiru commands the first aiming. Then the shelf lid tilts back. Now you can make a final aim, and pull the trigger. The burning fuse will gently press against the powder on the shelf and a shot will occur!


The armor of the warrior ashigaru works of the American reenactor Matt Poitras, already familiar to VO readers in his armor of the soldiers of the Trojan War, as well as the Greeks and Romans.

Interestingly, the Japanese knew the bayonet-type blade bayonet - juken and lance-shaped jyuso bayonet, as well as shotguns and pistols with wheel and flint locks. They knew, but since they entered the era of the Edo world, they did not feel any need for them. But now, in peacetime, it was the sword that became the main weapon of the samurai, and the guns with which the peasants could successfully fight were also relegated to the background. However, it happened, we emphasize, this is already in the Edo era!
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  1. Korsar4
    Korsar4 30 November 2018 06: 18
    +5
    Interesting. That only a storm from the sea-ocean will not drift.

    And do not hide behind any curtain.
    1. Rurikovich
      Rurikovich 30 November 2018 06: 48
      0
      It is interesting that if at the time of the storm you were in the water and hoped only that you had enough strength not to drown and that God would send the earth under your feet as soon as a reward for your desire for life, you would continue to keep in your hands one and a half meter, weighing several kg. , arquebus? lol laughing wink
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 30 November 2018 06: 58
        +2
        And a lot of what is thrown ashore.

        For example, a barrel with Prince Guidon.

        It’s not necessary to drown, like the Ball from Prostokvashino.

        And everyone will be able to draw a picture.
        1. Rurikovich
          Rurikovich 30 November 2018 07: 04
          +1
          Quote: Korsar4
          For example, a barrel with Prince Guidon.

          Those. Do you equate official history with fairy tales? belay lol wink
          Quote: Korsar4
          And everyone will be able to draw a picture.

          "We don't know what really happened, but we think it was that way." hi lol
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 30 November 2018 07: 06
            +4
            To some extent.

            Do not like Gwidon and the Ball, take Robinson.

            And the question is whether the Portuguese docked or were thrown away - the details.
            1. Rurikovich
              Rurikovich 30 November 2018 07: 12
              +2
              Quote: Korsar4
              And the question is whether the Portuguese docked or were thrown away - the details.

              It does not seem to you that "threw out" and "moored" - these are completely different concepts that have a key influence on the development of the situation. The perception of the situation depends on this. So we can say that Columbus was also washed ashore. These will be details. But they say that he landed, from boats, with weapons of dry powder wink And then you were "thrown ashore" and you will be completely unfamiliar to abrigines with completely incomprehensible languages ​​after drying the weapon to show with the last saved charge how you can kill a bird? belay laughing
              Topic is closed hi
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 30 November 2018 07: 24
                +5
                I always liked to open doors, closed topics.

                The Portuguese landed. I do not presume to discuss the details of the landing.
                A pair of guns sold.

                This is the outline. And let everyone color in his own colors.
                1. Rurikovich
                  Rurikovich 30 November 2018 07: 33
                  +1
                  Quote: Korsar4
                  The Portuguese landed.

                  what
                  Then three Portuguese merchants threw a storm on the shore of the island of Tangegashima, and this seemingly insignificant event was for all of Japan a truly gift of fate

                  request
                  Quote: Korsar4
                  A pair of guns sold.

                  belay Just like Columbus beads for gold changed lol request Parallels do not bother? wassat

                  Quote: Korsar4
                  This is the outline. And let everyone color in his own colors.

                  That is why alternative specialists appear, because historians are so coloring up the assumptions in their own way that water turns into wine, and tithing is an exorbitant tax wink drinks Topic is closed hi For me personally smile
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 30 November 2018 07: 42
                    +4
                    That is, the previous closure was not real?

                    I did not come across the Portuguese ship's magazine, and the guestbook of a guest hotel.

                    I didn’t even read Iskanderov.

                    The island and the Portuguese are available. The year is also approximately clear. Why an alternative?

                    "We don't need a blacksmith" (c).
                    1. Roni
                      Roni 30 November 2018 11: 11
                      +5
                      “On purpose or by accident,” said the boa constrictor, “but it was a great discovery.
                      “Listen,” said the monkey, “but can’t this law be closed somehow back?”
                      - The law of nature, - the boa constrictor was indignant, - you cannot close it! "

                      Whatever topic is promised, thanks, as a good filmstrip, pictures and story. Filmstrips are good seeds.
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 30 November 2018 07: 04
          +2
          And the "coastal law", again, has not been canceled
          Let's see what the tide brought today laughing
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 30 November 2018 07: 10
            +2
            For some reason, the first bottle of bison came to mind, and so on.

            But the post has just begun.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 30 November 2018 08: 36
              +2
              Me, by the way, too.
      2. bistrov.
        bistrov. 30 November 2018 07: 47
        +1
        Quote: Rurikovich
        and that God would send the earth as soon as possible

        And what does "god" have to do with it? Or, in your opinion, "God" moves islands and continents at "your request"?
        Maybe it's enough to stick "God" everywhere without a place?
      3. vladcub
        vladcub 30 November 2018 16: 12
        0
        And the powder was very afraid of moisture, something in this legend does not dock.
        1. Orang
          Orang 30 November 2018 17: 51
          +1
          Black powder is dried. Servants and all kinds of adventurers did this regularly, judging by the recollections.
  2. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 30 November 2018 06: 48
    +2
    The Japanese, of course, have their own way, but I got the impression that at a certain stage in the development of civilization, the appearance, improvement, and massive use of firearms leads the country's state system to absolutism.
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 30 November 2018 10: 23
      +2
      Quote: 3x3zsave
      I got the impression that at a certain stage of the development of civilization, the appearance, improvement and massive use of firearms leads the state system of the country to absolutism.

      In the first place, economic reasons lead to such changes. Absolutism is a consequence of the transition from large-scale land to small-scale farming, and this transition, in turn, was due to economic reasons — the development of means of production and an increase in surplus product, the emergence of regions and regions with a narrow specialization of labor, the need to develop duty-free trade, and the unification of legislation and tax rules. , population growth, the birth of the bourgeoisie, etc. smile
      If a firearm would massively appear, for example, in the XIII century that way, it would hardly lead to absolutism. Equestrian detachments of feudal lords, armed with muskets and pistols instead of bows and sulits, would also go, and the peasants in the field would also not care where and why they were going.
      I would say the emergence and wide distribution of firearms promoted the establishment of absolutism due to its availability and democracy (in the sense, the pool does not care who gets into the graph or the commoner, the effect is the same), nothing more.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 30 November 2018 21: 59
        +1
        This is the whole thing, the phenomena are interconnected and interconnected.
        You can imagine the option when there is no firearm in principle. Will we try?
  3. Adjutant
    Adjutant 30 November 2018 06: 49
    +9
    Impressive guns
    and beautiful
    Article - plus
  4. Amurets
    Amurets 30 November 2018 08: 07
    +2
    The Japanese blacksmith was able to forge the barrel without much difficulty, but he was unable to cut the internal thread at the rear of the barrel and insert the “plug” there. However, a few months later, another Portuguese came to the island, and here it is, as the legend tells, and showed the Japanese masters how to do it.
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, you know very well that cutting an internal thread is a rather difficult task, and especially tightening so that there is no gas breakthrough. Yes, and the level of technology of that time in Japan, you correctly noted, mainly included casting and forging, rather than machining.
    1. brn521
      brn521 30 November 2018 10: 17
      0
      Quote: Amurets
      that cutting an internal thread is quite a challenge

      Isn't it easier to brew or even just rivet and pour lead from the inside?
      1. Amurets
        Amurets 30 November 2018 12: 08
        +1
        Quote: brn521
        The Japanese blacksmith was able to forge the barrel without much difficulty, but he was unable to cut the internal thread at the rear of the barrel and insert the “plug” there. However, a few months later, another Portuguese came to the island, and here it is, as the legend tells, and showed the Japanese masters how to do it.
        So according to the text of the author.
        Quote: brn521
        Quote: Amurets
        that cutting an internal thread is quite a challenge

        Isn't it easier to brew or even just rivet and pour lead from the inside?
      2. Tutejszy
        Tutejszy 30 November 2018 14: 14
        0
        Quote: brn521
        Isn't it easier to brew or even just rivet and pour lead from the inside?

        a rivet and even more so lead will squeeze out. And brew ... it's blacksmith welding, for reliable welding, you need to compress at least 25 percent - and how do you save the dimensions? And just flatten and weld - so then the welded trunks and so often tore along the welding line!
  5. Decimam
    Decimam 30 November 2018 12: 31
    +2
    I will allow myself to somewhat supplement the article.
    Let's start with the claim that firearms came to Japan in 1543. Perhaps here we are faced with one of the first examples of what is now called PR technologies. After all, the story of the three Portuguese and their arquebuses became known about fifty years after the events described from the "Records of Guns" ("Teppoki") of the Buddhist monk Nampo Bunno. And the monk made these very records at the request of ... the Tanegashima family! Obviously, the head of the family considered that the glory of the ancestor of Japanese small arms would not be superfluous.
    Meanwhile, in the very title of the monk's work, the word "teppo" is used to designate the arquebus, which was known to the Japanese long before the Portuguese brought their arquebus to the islet of Tanegashima. This word is found already in the texts of the late XIII - first half of the XIV centuries. Considering Japan's ties with China, where hand-held firearms appeared clearly earlier than 1543, it should be admitted that a more objective version is that firearms were known in Japan at least during the Muromachi period. The Korean "Genuine Chronicle of the Li Dynasty" says that when the Japanese ambassadors in 1409 and 1419. traveled to Korea, both times they personally observed hand-held shooting on the island of Tsushima.
    For those who speak Japanese, I can recommend Takuhisa Udagawa's book "A Study of the History of the Use of Weapons in East Asia in the Light of the History of the Distribution of Weapons in the XNUMXth-XNUMXth Centuries"受 容 と 伝 播)
    And a few technical details. Japanese blacksmiths really did not know how to cut the internal thread. But this did not become an obstacle for them - they drowned the barrel with a wedge, as they did at first in Europe.
    And when the Europeans shared the secret, they began to make a cap on the thread. There is even a legend that Tanegashima Tokitaka gave his beautiful daughter to the Portuguese for this secret.
    Well, about the fact, "what are the differences between Japanese arquebusses and European ones? Let's start with the fact that they have a reverse arrangement of serpentine (trigger) hibases for the hinawa wick. The Europeans had it in front and leaned back" to itself. "In the Japanese, it was attached In addition, it seemed to them, and not without reason, that the burning fuse, located at a close distance from the shelf with seed powder, called a hizara, was not the best neighborhood, and they came up with a sliding hibut lid that securely closed this shelf. "
    Let's start with the locks. European wick locks had three varieties.

    As can be seen from the figure, only the castle of the XNUMXth century had the opposite location of the trigger, it was also called German. So the Japanese simply "underdeveloped" to the European design. The same is about the shelf cover. I will not insert the second illustration, those who wish can see for themselves - European arquebusses with a wick lock also have a lid.
  6. Tarhan
    Tarhan 30 November 2018 13: 18
    0
    The article is interesting, informative, but ...

    The Japanese blacksmith was able to forge the barrel without much difficulty, but he was unable to cut the internal thread at the rear of the barrel and insert the “plug” there.

    For me, that’s how the barrel was always cast. And what technology is there to forge a hollow tube with a hammer and hammer in the 16th century with a hammer and hammer?

    The rifled barrel itself began to be manufactured in Europe in the 16th century. The oldest surviving are German fittings. And in them the cut was in the barrel, which increased the accuracy of fire.

    These Portuguese arquebusses were smooth-bore. But why make a thread in the rear of the barrel and then plug it with a "plug". Is it not simpler, not more technologically advanced, just not to make the barrel through, but immediately make one end of the barrel without a hole?
    1. Tutejszy
      Tutejszy 30 November 2018 14: 03
      +2
      Quote: Tarkhan
      For me, that’s how the barrel was always cast. And what technology is there to forge a hollow tube with a hammer and hammer in the 16th century with a hammer and hammer?

      Only cannon (bronze, from the 1866th century - cast iron) were cast, and rifle (iron) ones were forged. After the appearance of the Bessemer converter, the Germans switched to steel casting, but a bunch of Krupp guns in the Austro-Prussian War of XNUMX tore, and for a couple of years they had to return to the so-called. "steel bronze" of Baron von Uchazius - while the great D.K. Chernov hi in 1868 did not discover the "Chernov point". And the technology is EMNIP, in the XNUMXth century they forged a strip, first bent with the letter U, then bent the edges and welded butt-welded. Of course, the barrels were often torn apart along the welding line. Later, they began to make a narrower strip and wind on a mandrel (again, plus forge welding) - this became much more reliable. This was done a century and a half ago (and the ribbon was often forged from "bouquet Damascus")

      Quote: Tarkhan
      Is it not easier, not more technological, just not to make the barrel end-to-end, and immediately make one end of the barrel without an opening?

      As you can easily guess from my description - no simpler.
      1. Tarhan
        Tarhan 30 November 2018 14: 14
        0
        Clear. I did not think up my question.

        Yes, casting alone does not give the same strength as forging. The specific gravity of iron during casting is less than the specific gravity of iron during forging or rolling. Therefore, the welded towers of the German Panthers and Tigers of rolled armor were more durable than the cast towers 34.
        1. Tutejszy
          Tutejszy 30 November 2018 14: 20
          +2
          Quote: Tarkhan
          casting alone does not give the strength that forging

          It depends on how you pour, forge and, most importantly, heat treat. The same Chernov proved that with competent casting and heat treatment, molten trunks are practically not inferior to rolled ones. But before Chernov was another 300 years. And in our time, casting with complex technological refinements will cost more than rolling without such frills.
        2. Sleeping
          Sleeping 30 November 2018 15: 28
          +1
          Quote: Tarkhan
          Therefore, the welded towers of the German Panthers and Tigers of rolled armor were more durable than the cast towers 34.

          Perhaps, but the rivets on the armor did not always withstand the blows of the armor-piercing projectile and sometimes a whole sheet of armor tore off.
        3. Decimam
          Decimam 30 November 2018 15: 50
          +3
          "The specific gravity of iron in casting is less than the specific gravity of iron in forging or rolling."
          The specific gravity of iron is 7,874 g / cm. cube (unit MKGSS), regardless of how the product is obtained from steel in which iron is present.
          1. Tutejszy
            Tutejszy 30 November 2018 15: 54
            -1
            Quote: Decimam
            The specific gravity of iron is 7,874 g / cm. cube (ICGSS unit), regardless of the steel obtained, in which iron is present.

            Pure iron - yes. But in real products there are also micropores, gas sinks, etc. By the way, Chernov proved that micropores arise during rolling in steel - therefore, if there are no gas sinks in the casting, then its density is even higher than that of rolled products!
            1. Decimam
              Decimam 30 November 2018 15: 55
              +1
              Are we talking about iron or steel? Or do you not share these concepts?
              If we are talking about steel and products from it, then there is not specific gravity, but density.
              1. Tutejszy
                Tutejszy 30 November 2018 16: 38
                +1
                Quote: Decimam
                there is not specific gravity, but density.

                In fact, the specific gravity is the ratio weight to volume. Thus, "in any system of units, the specific gravity is equal to the product of the density of the substance and the acceleration of gravity" (from pedivics).
                Temir formulated his thought not quite correct, but understandable enough. I agree that rude mistakes are necessary to be corrected - but there is no need to cling to trifles! We are talking about products of the same chemical composition (no matter iron, steel or bronze) - we are talking about density castings and rolled products not the material itself!
                1. Decimam
                  Decimam 30 November 2018 17: 30
                  +1
                  What is at stake, I understand. But I don’t cling to trifles, this technical education is to blame, it clings.
                  1. Tutejszy
                    Tutejszy 30 November 2018 17: 32
                    0
                    Quote: Decimam
                    But I don’t cling to trifles, this technical education is to blame, it clings.

                    So I also have a technical one, and the profile one is a metallurgy smile
                    1. Decimam
                      Decimam 30 November 2018 17: 35
                      +1
                      I am a mechanic, mechanical equipment of metal plants. Maybe the mechanics are so harmful, I don’t know.
    2. Decimam
      Decimam 30 November 2018 14: 25
      +4
      "For me, this is how the barrel was always cast. And what technology is there to forge a hollow tube on an anvil with a hammer and hammer in the 16th century?"
      Gun barrels, unlike cannon trunks, have never been cast. The technology of manufacturing the receiver is simple.

      A conventional (simple) barrel was obtained from a strip blank of 32 inches (812,8 mm) long, 4 inches (101,6 mm) wide, and 3/8 inch (9,525 mm) thick. After warming up, this strip was forged in a forge manner on the mandrel in such a way that its longitudinal edges were adjacent to each other end to end, parallel to the axis of the barrel channel. This joint was welded by the forge method and carefully forged. The long sides of a rectangular billet sometimes drove “on the mustache” and were welded not end-to-end, but overlap.
      As the technology improved, in the sixteenth century, after welding and cooling, the trunks went through a four-sided sweep, turned on the lathe an external surface, which was then polished manually on a large circle made of soft sandstone.
      This technology has remained for a very long time. If we take the book on editing the trunks of Lieutenant A. Korsakov (1861), then it describes the same operations for the manufacture of a gun barrel - 1) the manufacture of a barrel plate; 2) folding it into a tube; 3) welding of the tube - receiving the billet of the barrel; 4) drilling a bore; 5) turning of the outer surface of the barrel.
      The threaded plugs in the rear of the barrel were not made at first. But since the powder pulp, which was then used, gave a lot of soot, the trunk had to be cleaned. The plug on the thread greatly facilitated this procedure.
      "The rifled barrel itself began to be manufactured in Europe in the 16th century."
      The exact date of occurrence of cuts in the trunk is unknown, most likely this happened in the second half
      XV century The earliest mention of rifles is in the register of the Turin Arsenal in 1476, and the second in the inventory of the arsenal of the Nuremberg Castle in 1479.
      In the first case, the weapon is described as "iron twisted", in the second case - with the "edge forming a spiral." It is believed that in the second case, four trunks were made with the edges forming spirals. Perhaps it is rifling that is mentioned in the descriptions of the target shooting competitions made in Leipzig in 1498. A German rifle dating to about 1500 has traces of notches along the barrel.
  7. Tutejszy
    Tutejszy 30 November 2018 14: 07
    +3
    In six months, 600 arquebuses were made on the island, which Totikata sold right there. And as a result, he not only enriched himself, but also contributed to its widespread distribution.

    Fernan Mendes Pinto claims that it was he who sold the first trunk to the yupps in 1543, but here he was probably lying - he liked to attribute to himself participation in all the notable events that he had heard something about. But what he probably doesn’t lie in - that after visiting Japan 20 years later, he found out that as many as 20 thousand were riveted on Tanegashima on the model of this arquebus, and over a million all over Japan!
    1. Tarhan
      Tarhan 30 November 2018 18: 29
      +3
      Well, I got it. I’m just a curious medic and ran into metallurgists. But very much read and comprehended.
      1. Mikhail Matyugin
        Mikhail Matyugin 2 December 2018 17: 20
        +2
        Quote: Tarkhan
        Well, I got it. I’m just a curious medic and ran into metallurgists. But very much read and comprehended.

        Well, yes, the site "VO" is rich in various surprises, here comments are often almost less informative than some articles.
  8. vladcub
    vladcub 30 November 2018 16: 41
    0
    Even under the USSR, I watched in the "Travelers' Club" in Japan there is a "bullet holiday": they celebrate the day when they learned firearms. There I heard a slightly different interpretation of the legend: the prince was interested in the "weapon of the whites" and ordered his gunsmith to do the same, but the blacksmith did not hold this gun in his hands and made a dummy gun even the barrel had a hole half the length of the barrel. The former "voluntarily" presented the prince with 2 guns. The blacksmith offered his daughter for the secret of the "fire charge" and one Portuguese was seduced by the beauty and told. He allegedly stayed in Japan and made guns with his father-in-law. Soon, a Portuguese merchant sailed to the island and offered to buy guns, and the Japanese showed him their guns.
    Who knows how it really was, but the Portuguese swam far and actively traded with the Japanese
    1. Decimam
      Decimam 30 November 2018 20: 36
      +1
      In Japan, of course, there are many holidays, even Honen-matsuri, but about the "holiday of the bullet" - this is a casting, it seems.
  9. vindigo
    vindigo 30 November 2018 18: 27
    +2
    In the movie Battle for Menring, Japanese sailors shell a Korean battleship with these guns. And from that hefty hand-made cooler, the bodyguards of Admiral Li Songsin were scattered on the armadillo’s bridge. In my opinion, a sniper gun was also present in the film. They also tried to shoot the Korean admiral.
    1. tanit
      tanit 1 December 2018 01: 31
      0
      So in the film, the Japanese handgun against the artillerymen (and part-time archers) - Koreans turned out to be powerless. hi
      1. tanit
        tanit 1 December 2018 01: 47
        -1
        The sniper just flew into the eye.
  10. Red_Baron
    Red_Baron 1 December 2018 15: 41
    0
    An interesting article, but a few questions remain.
    Firstly, biases against rifles went on for a very long time. Full of even various stories, legends and other things, I do not know what degree of certainty, showing the prejudices of the Japanese against strangers and their weapons. A lot where, if not ridiculed, then at least the man with a gun is opposed to the Japanese. And not only in this form, but also at the level of the country and regions. How much did this take place in history, how serious was it, if reflected even in modern paraphrases?
    Secondly, about the springs, I did not quite understand. After all, a steel spring can also be made softer, even without melting - to change the number of turns, its length, diameter.

    Well and further - it is very not clear about equestrian shooters. How massive was it in the troops and what was their training, compared to the rest? Offensive on a wide front, line retention requires very well trained horses and riders. Horseback riders do not need this, and it is not possible to have it, because of their peculiarity.

    And as usual, the confrontation of shell and armor. In Europe, many types of small arms did not penetrate armor well, especially at least at a sufficient distance. How was it in Japan, after all, arquebuses are a fairly light weapon?
    In the 16th century, fittings were already used in Europe, as in Japan with rifled weapons, and what type was it at that time if it was?
    And how effective were the shooting tactics? It is clear that this is not the 18th century with its perfect tactics and massive fire with a change of ranks.