Military Review

The control system of the interaction of the tank as part of

When developing tanks the main attention was always paid to its creation as an independent combat unit, and practically nothing was laid for the interaction of the tank in the unit, except for the radio station.

The control system of the interaction of the tank as part of

This issue began to be given more serious attention with the advent of the global navigation system GPS. So, in the article "The United States found the weak spot of Russian tanks", it is reported that the American "Abrams" are already equipped with a system that displays the location of their tanks on the commander's map, and on Russian tanks there is something like that only on the T-90AK command tanks.

It is difficult to say how much this is true, except for articles, reliable information that Abrams is equipped with such a system is not available yet. On the equipment of Russian tanks information is also controversial. According to some sources, certain elements of such a system are implemented in the “Constellation” tactical link control system. At what stage, development or mass production, is it? No full information.

An attempt to implement a tank interaction system as part of a unit was made back in 80-ies when developing the Soviet tanker Boxer, which was supposed to be equipped with modern combat control tools as part of a tank unit. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, this work has not been completed. According to the developers of the Armata tank, such a system has been implemented in this tank.

The system of interaction of the tank was considered as one of the tasks solved by the crew. When performing their functions, the crew solves four tasks with the help of technical means: controlling the movement, fire, protection and interaction of the tank. The implementation of these tasks was carried out with the help of a tank information and control system, including four autonomous systems that exchange information with each other through an onboard computing system.

The interaction system includes a navigation system (global and inertial), a channel for the exchange of information between tanks and higher-level commanders, and a commander's monitor for displaying a map and location of a tank. Each tank is set to receive signals from global satellite navigation systems - the Russian GLONASS and the American GPS. The receiver provides reception of signals from the “constellation” of three satellites “hanging” in geostationary orbits in the area. The computer from these signals calculates the coordinates of the tank, transmits them to the information display system to the tank commander, which on the monitor of the commander displays a map of the area and the location of the tank on it.

The tank may also have an autonomously operating inertial navigation system, including gyroscopic instruments (mechanical or laser), which determine the position of the tank in space. The coordinates of the tank can be obtained automatically from the global navigation system or given by the tank commander on the map when the system is turned on.

In the process of movement, the system receives information from the tank's motion sensor and gyroscopic instruments and calculates its position coordinates, the direction of movement and the position of the tank in space, which is fundamentally important for target designation and target distribution. Global and inertial navigation systems can work together and adjust their data on the calculation of the coordinates of the location of the tank.

On the communication channel, automatically or on request, the coordinates of the tank are transmitted to higher-level commanders, and their monitors display the location on the map of subordinate tanks.

Information transfer between tanks and higher-level commanders can be carried out through the channel of information exchange using both tank radio communication equipment and data transmission equipment, and the creation of a special communication channel. Communication channels should have high cryptographic strength of transmitted information and good noise immunity of the channel.

Crypto-resistance is necessary to prevent the enemy from intercepting the transmitted coordinates of the tank, since in this case he will have information about the exact position of the tank and can easily hit it. To ensure the specified cryptographic strength, the information exchange channel must be equipped with security equipment. The channel must also have a high noise immunity, since in the area of ​​use of the tanks the enemy can use an electronic countermeasure system and prevent stable operation of the communication channel.

On the battlefield, there may be tanks of their own, not equipped with an interaction system. They will not be displayed on the monitor of commanders of different levels and will be perceived as enemy tanks. To exclude such situations and prevent the destruction of their tanks by airplanes and fire support helicopters within the framework of the "Boxer" tank project by the developers aviation systems of state recognition "friend or foe" developed a similar system for tanks, which was to be installed on all tanks. With the collapse of the Union, these developments were also discontinued.

The system of interaction can be both autonomous and an integral part of a tank information management system. Autonomous system can be equipped with any tanks at the stage of production or modernization. The installation of a full-size TIUS requires serious reworking of the movement and fire control systems of the tank, equipping the tank with new fire control devices and is only possible with the production of new tanks.

In the variant of equipping the TIUS tank, it is possible to transmit information about the presence of ammunition and fuel and lubricants on board the tank, as well as the implementation of target designation and target distribution to subordinate tanks.

The introduction of a tank engagement control system provides a fundamentally new quality for managing a tank unit and the possibility of creating a network-centric tank, which will be one of the interrelated elements of battle management coordinated with other military equipment when performing the task. Equipping tanks with an interaction system requires a targeted program with the connection of specialized enterprises - developers of the system's components and the organization of their mass production.
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  1. Professor
    Professor 21 November 2018 07: 40
    It is difficult to say how true this is, besides the articles, there is no reliable information that Abrams is equipped with such a system.

    I won’t say anything about Abrams, but the Merkava combat tank has long been equipped with a similar system.
    1. Glory1974
      Glory1974 21 November 2018 08: 49
      Merkava combat tank has long been equipped with a similar system.

      Our combat tanks do not have such a system. But in principle, there is such a system. For example, it is realized in metal and is in service with the "Strelets" complex, which can be adapted for any combat vehicle. Thus, the appearance of this system in tanks is hindered either by a lack of understanding of its relevance, or by a financial issue.
    KVU-NSVD 21 November 2018 10: 51
    Dear Yuri, I'm sorry I do not know by patronymic. An excellent article - educational program on the organization of the automated control system of the unit - parts - connections ... But could you explain this
    through an information exchange channel using both standard means of radio communication of the tank with data transmission equipment, and the creation of a special communication channel
    It is not entirely clear about the creation of a special channel - you mean add. integration, if necessary, of other non-standard means of communication? But then a regular place with a set of connectors should be provided for them in advance ... Or are you talking about something else? hi
    1. Yuri Apukhtin
      21 November 2018 13: 10
      Channels of information exchange using standard radio communications have two drawbacks - low bandwidth and the ability to suppress. New principles and ways of exchanging information that must initially be laid into the system are needed. One option is given in the comments below.
      1. KVU-NSVD
        KVU-NSVD 21 November 2018 13: 41
        Well, in the commentary below, by and large, wishes and thoughts are given, albeit largely rational. And today we have what we have, and not only we. otherwise I thought that in a few years the citizen had missed something fundamentally new.
  3. Operator
    Operator 21 November 2018 12: 15
    Now the most important thing for a system of interaction between homogeneous and heterogeneous forces and means on the battlefield is not computer terminals for illuminating the situational situation, which have already descended to the level of an ordinary soldier and have entered a promising infantry equipment kit, but broadband noise-resistant communications (the so-called tactical Internet , TI).

    TI is decentralized and includes many mutually duplicating independent nodes and communication zones that provide network centrics - horizontal communication of each with everyone, and not only the transmission of information along the vertical "commander-subordinate".

    TI communication nodes in the field should be located on drones to provide noise-protected, covert (in the part of ground subscribers) and scalable communication. When conducting a battle in urban areas and indoors, compact communication modules are required that are installed on the walls of buildings and structures.

    Such an integrated communications solution does not yet exist in any army, including USArmy, since existing systems are jammed at the expense of once or twice by Russian electronic warfare systems.
  4. Lebedev
    Lebedev 21 November 2018 12: 17
    As I understand it, TIUS is more suitable for local wars. In the event of a great war, the satellites are also driving and crushing them. About five, will not increased radio emission be an additional unmasking factor?
  5. Carib
    Carib 21 November 2018 17: 37
    That's right TI is needed. And before that, it is necessary to develop broadband communication systems protected from the effects of electronic warfare, possibly with abrupt frequency changes in a wide range, with redundancy with optical transponders, with the ability to use fiber-optic and copper communication and power lines for small modules, ....
  6. Leomobil
    Leomobil 22 November 2018 12: 10
    Another article "for all the good, against all the bad" :) And the conclusions are quite laconic and obvious - more information is needed for everyone. So what is next? Well, suppose you put three monitors with a bunch of data in the tank, allies, enemies, a map, etc. Well, yes, cool, awareness will increase significantly in real time, but where is controllability? Moreover, for example, the tank commander saw a group of enemy infantrymen with ATGMs, what should he do? ticking or entering information on a tablet, does it mean that you need to put the operator (secretary) of the commander in the tank? :) And again - "and Controllability is Where"? And the saddest thing in this situation is that all the weapons (and tactics) are tailored to the experience of the "Second World War", the barrels are longer, the armor is thicker, the sight is clearer and truncated :). And this is in all land-based, only the missilemen are slightly better (by an order of magnitude) and space meets the tasks of XX1. I call it "Kalashnikov Syndrome" - picatinny strips in all places, folding stock and more plastic. For 70 years he has been praying for one automation system - sectarians :). The tanks have more adequate constructors, there is a desire to break the situevina, the "Terminator" is a very suspicious machine :). If I had my way, I would put a reconnaissance operator (and a tablet in the teeth) in the place of the tank commander, and the commander (three commanders) in one "Terminator" and let them ride behind and command. A picture from the copter for everyone, and a personal screen with data about the tank and a picture from the sight and from the mechanical drive cameras. The tank must shoot - and the commander must command.