A typical representative of Basmachism was Junaid Khan (Mohammed-Kurban Serdar). It was a professional gangster who, at the beginning of 1912, led a detachment of robbers who robbed caravans in the Karakum Desert. His detachment from the Turkmen raided the neighboring tribes, robbing Uzbeks and Karakalpaks. He valued power above money and all his life sought to become the master of the Karakum. In 1915 - 1916, having united several Turkmen tribes, he tried to seize power in the Khiva khanate, but was defeated and fled into the desert, then to Persia. In 1917, he returned to Khiva with a large detachment and became one of the most influential people in the Khanate. In January, 1918, the ruler of Khiva, Asfandiyar-Khan, appoints Mohammed-Kurban, the commander of the armed forces of the Khanate. He trashes his rivals - other Turkmen leaders. Eliminates Asfandiyar-Khan, elevates the young brother of the murdered Said Abdulla Tyure to the throne. So, Mohammed-Kurban actually becomes the sole ruler of the Khiva khanate - it then occupied part of the territory of modern Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan.
At the end of 1918, Junaid Khan attacked the Turkestan Soviet Republic. The Turkestan region, attached to Russia in 1867, included five regions - the Trans-Caspian, Samarkand, Semirechinsky, Syrdarya, Fergana, and Amudarya department (located on the right bank of the Amudarya River. Basmachi seized and ransacked Novurgench, unsuccessfully besieged Petroiltend. 1919, Mohammed-Kurban, after that failure undermined his position within the khanate, signed a peace treaty with the Republic of Turkestan, but Juna Khan did not intend to stop the war with Soviet Turkestan. In June, 1919 he provided military assistance to the Urals Cossacks and Karakalpaks, who launched an anti-Soviet uprising in the Amudarya department. The ataman of the Zaire Cossacks Filchev, whose hundreds supported the Basmachis, took the entire northern part of the Amudarya department, created a government that was immediately recognized by Khiva. In September 1919, the Junaid Khan establishes a direct connection with the government of Kolchak. Khan begins to prepare a joint campaign with the Emir of Bukhara and Filchevym in order to completely seize the Amudarya department. In October 1919, the military mission of Kolchak under the command of Colonel Khudyakov arrived in Khiva. 130 Cossacks and 8 officers, who brought with them 1500 trilinear rifles, one rapid-fire cannon, 500 shells, 9 machine guns, over 1 million cartridges, come to the aid of Junaid Khan.
By November 1919, Junaid Khan manages to assemble at least 15 thousand horsemen, to which detachments of ataman Filchev and Kurbashi Khan-Maxum were to join. In November 1919, the units of Filchev and Khan-Maxum, with the support of the Khivans, launched an offensive. However, the Red forces launched a counter-offensive in December. The southern detachment of the Amu Darya group of forces, forcing under the fire of the Amu Darya, occupied Novourigench. After two days of fighting, Junaid Khan’s troops, having failed to recapture the city and suffered heavy losses, retreated. At the same time, the Northern squad launched a successful offensive in the area of Nukus. The uprising of a part of Turkmen clans against Junaid Khan contributed to the success of the Reds. In January 1920, Junaid Khan is defeated. 1 February 1920, Said-Abdullah Khan abdicated the throne and surrendered Khiva in red. The final defeat of Junaid Khan suffered 29 in February in the battle of Batyr-Kent, when his detachment was partially destroyed, partially scattered, the Khan himself fled to the Karakum. Khiva Khanate was transformed into the Khorezm people's Soviet Republic. She became one of the strongholds of Soviet power in Central Asia.
In September, 1920, Junaid Khan, having assembled a detachment of more than 1 thousand people, invades the territory of the Khorezm people's Soviet Republic. quickly capturing Kungrad and besieging Nukus. In November 1921, Junaid Khan concluded a “unity agreement agreement” with the government of the Khorezm NDS. Already in April 1922, he again begins the war, capturing the city of Porsu. But soon, among the Basmachis of Junaid Khan, fermentation begins. A portion of basmachi folds weapon. With the remnants of the detachment Junaid Khan flees to Iran. In December, 1923, Junaid Khan again invades the territory of the Khorezm NDS. In January, 1924, his detachment, one by one, captures the cities of Tashauz, Mangit, Shavat, Gazavat, Khanka and Khazarasp, after which it begins the siege of Khiva and Novurgench. In Khiva, there were 290 Red Army soldiers who staunchly repelled the attacks of the enemy. The garrison was strengthened by party, Komsomol, professional organizations (about 500 people) and the Russian population, who in case of the fall of the city was threatened with a total death. Khiva resisted. Having suffered defeat, in April Junaid Khan returns to Persia.
In the following years, Dzunaid Khan regularly attacked Soviet territory. In 1925, the Soviet government forgave Mohammed-Kurban and allowed to live in his native village. However, how many wolves do not feed, he still looks into the forest. Soon the leader of the Basmachi fled abroad and resumed the struggle against Soviet power. In September, 1927, Junaid Khan again invaded the USSR, having managed to capture a number of areas near Tashauz, in November the Mohammed-Kurban detachment was defeated and retreated to Persia. In 1931, he makes one last attempt to overthrow the Soviet power in Turkmenistan. First, the Basmachi, led by the son of Junaid Khan, invade the territory of the Turkmen SSR from Afghanistan. Then Dzhunaid Khan himself, at the head of several Basmachi detachments, invades the territory of the Krasnovodsk region. It was the last large-scale invasion of Basmachs in the Turkmen SSR. At the same time, in the area of the Kizil-Kata well, the Basmachi uprising begins. By the end of June, 14 detachments with a total number of more than 2 thousand Basmachs operate on the territory of Turkmenistan. Assessing the threat, 28 August The Revolutionary Military Council of the Central Asian Military District decides to conduct a large-scale military operation to eliminate Basmachi in the Turkmen SSR and the Khorezm region of the Uzbek SSR. In operation it was decided to use 4 cavalry regiment (82-th, 83-th, 84-th and Uzbek), Turkmen cavalry brigade, division OGPU troops 2, 2 squadron, Squadron 2, 3 trucking companies, school students of troops OGPU them. Lenin, 2 armored trains, 1 armored vehicles, 10 armored vehicles and 5 tankettes. Basmachi were crushed and their remnants fled abroad.
After the failure of a large-scale invasion, Junaid Khan, until his death in 1938, continued to lead Basmachites from Persia and Afghanistan. Mohammed-Kurban was able to avoid fair punishment for his crimes. He organized the transfer of gangs and caravans with weapons across the border, sent his agents to Turkmenistan. In 1933 - 1934 The Red Army again fought hard with the Basmachis. They ended only with the liquidation of all field commanders (Kurbash) who opposed the Soviet regime.
Mutiny of Enver Pasha
Another famous leader of the Basquism was Enver-Pasha. The famous Turkish politician, he dragged Turkey into the war on the side of Germany and was one of the three leaders of the Ottoman Empire during the years of the world war. Also famous as one of the greatest war criminals, organizers of the genocide of national and religious minorities of Turkey (Armenians, Greeks, Kurds, etc.). After the defeat of Turkey and the signing of the Mudros truce in 1918, Enver, along with Talaat Pasha and Jemal Pasha, fled to Germany. The post-war tribunal in Istanbul tried Enver and sentenced him in absentia to death. There was no turning back. Then Enver decided on an adventure - to offer his services to Moscow in the cause of liberating the peoples of the East from the yoke of the Western colonialists. Among Muslims, he enjoyed great prestige, had extensive contacts, so the Bolsheviks decided to accept his services. Enver declared himself a supporter of the ideas of the Comintern, and in 1920 published a number of articles in which he called for a struggle against the colonialists. The main strategic goal was to oppose the British in the Caucasus and Turkestan.
Enver was based in Moscow for about one and a half years, working in the Society for the Unity of the Revolution with Islam. Soon the Turkish adventurer realized that it would not be possible to make a new political career in Soviet Russia. There was an idea to return to Turkey: at that time there was a struggle between supporters of the Sultan and the future Turkish dictator Mustafa Kemal. However, entry into Turkey was forbidden to him: he deprived the real power of the sultan, and Mustafa Kemal himself planned to take the place of the country's leader. In addition, Mustafa Kemal advocated a secular state, and Enver was a supporter of the rule of Islam in society. On the other hand, Moscow chose Mustafa Kemal in the struggle for power in Turkey.
After the plans to return to Turkey failed, Enver apparently conceived a new adventure - to create a new Pan-Turkic empire (Turan) in the territory of Turkestan, Afghanistan, the Muslim lands of China and Siberia. In October 1921, Enver came to Bukhara, where he pursued a complex policy, representing Moscow’s interests in negotiations with members of the government of the Bukhara People’s Soviet Republic (BNSR, formerly the Bukhara Khanate), while making contacts with the emir and basmachs. Enver offered himself as an adviser to the Red Army on the formation of national units in its composition and interaction with the Basmachis against the Emir. After consulting with the local authorities of Bukhara and the BNSR government, he wrote a letter to Moscow demanding respect for the independence of the BNSR and the withdrawal of the Red Army from Bukhara.
At the end of October 1921, having in his hands information about the composition, strength and deployment of the Red Army units on the territory of the Bukhara NDS, he decided to resist the Bolsheviks and raise the pan-Islamic movement for the liberation of Turkestan from the Bolsheviks, for which he assumed the mission of uniting basmachi troops in the fight with the Soviet government, and headed Basmach in this region. This was facilitated by the underground anti-Soviet Committee of the National Association, created even earlier on his initiative, headed by the Supreme Mufti of Tashkent Sadretdin-Khoja Sharifhodzhaev.
Enver with a group of Turkish officers moved to Eastern Bukhara (eastern part of the Bukhara Emirate), to negotiate with the commanders of the Basmachi detachments. One of the Basmachis leaders, Ibrahim Bey, reacted to him with great suspicion, disarmed his entourage and kept him under arrest for three months. In addition to distrust, there was also personal dislike for a possible rival. Ibrahim was in the service of the Emir of Bukhara and achieved notable success in uniting the scattered Basmarian detachments. In Enver, he rightly saw a strong contender seeking to take his place. And this was not the only enemy of Enver Pasha, many in Bukhara did not want to maintain his alliance with the Emir, few wanted to return to the old order. Also, the feudal lords were annoyed by Enver’s attempts to combine Pan-Turkism, Islamism and socialism.
In the meantime, the emir supported Enver, ordered him to be freed from imprisonment, and recognized Bukhara and the commander-in-chief of all the Basmachi detachments of Bukhara and Khiva and parts of Turkestan as the “Grand Vizier”. In February, 1922, the Basmachi under his command, Enver-Pasha, took Dushanbe by assault, inflicting a savage massacre on its population. Then they organized a trip to Bukhara. In a short time, the former Minister of War of the Ottoman Empire was able to occupy almost the entire territory of Eastern Bukhara and a significant part of the west of the emirate. Soviet representatives repeatedly offered him peace and recognition of his authority in Eastern Bukhara, but Enver Pasha took an uncompromising position and demanded the complete withdrawal of Russian troops from all of Turkestan. It is difficult to say whether he himself believed in the possibility of victory and the realization of ambitious plans to create a new great empire. But Enver's modesty was clearly no different. He used the title of "Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Islam and the Governor of the Amir of Bukhara." On Enver Pasha’s personal seal there was an engraved inscription: “The Supreme Commander of the Islamic forces, Khalif’s son-in-law and the governor of Mahomet.”
In May 1922, the Red Army launched a counter-offensive, using the Amu Darya, Panj and Vakhsh rivers to deploy troops. Ibrahim Bey betrayed the “commander-in-chief of the troops of Islam” and did not come to his aid. Enver Pasha suffered several heavy defeats, left Dushanbe. After that, Envar attacked Ibrahim, trying to finish off his opponent. Enver Pasha fled to the neighborhood of Baldzhuana, where he was tracked down by the Red Army and took the last battle. According to the memoirs of one of the participants of the battle, V.I. Uranov: “In July, 1922, our 5 rifle and 2 cavalry regiments overtook Enver, who defended the village of Kofrun (Tajikistan). Our reconnaissance cavalry patrol was the first to see a green banner with a golden crescent on the outskirts of the kishlak in a large garden. At the banner were sentries in red turbans. This was Enver Pasha's bid. Nearby was a squad of select thugs - Enver's “personal guard”. In front of the Kofrun kishlak trenches were dug in several rows, which were occupied by foot basmachis. The divisions of our rifle and cavalry units with a sudden night attack knocked out the Basmachis from the trenches, promptly rushed into the village, then into the garden and to the house where Enver was located. Enver's “personal guard” was almost completely slaughtered. However, he himself managed to slip out of our hands, but how and in what form? The captured Basmachis told us that Enver was sure that he was under reliable protection and protection of his troops. Hearing the first shots, he did not even get out of bed, but when he felt his critical situation, he did not wait for him to put on his dressing gown and shoes, jumped on his horse and rode in his underwear, barefoot, leaving to the mercy of fate the remnants of his troops. Having seized the house, our fighters headed by the commander found Enver's robe embroidered in gold and the boots of this “commander” on the floor.
Enver Pasha was killed on August 4 1922 of the year in battle with the red cavalry in the village of Chagan in the area of Baldzhuana. Security officer Georgy Agabekov in his memoirs quotes the report of the commander of the equestrian division, who attacked Enver-Pasha's headquarters: “The headquarters of the Basmachis, headed by Enver-pasha, rushed into the mountains, but stumbled upon a squadron sent around, took the fight. As a result, the enemy headquarters was destroyed. Only three managed to escape. 28 corpses remained at the scene of the battle. Enver Pasha is identified among them. Blow checkers he demolished the head and part of the torso. The Koran was found next to him. ” The dead man was found letters that confirmed his relationship with Istanbul and London.
Enver's rival - Ibrahim, also did not pass a fair punishment. He fled to Afghanistan and organized several raids into Soviet territory from his territory. In April, 1931, Ibrahim-bek's troops last invaded Soviet Tajikistan, but were soon forced to retreat. Experiencing more and more problems inside Afghanistan, where his opponent Mohammed Nadir Shah had fought with the Pashtuns and the emir, he was forced to leave Afghan territory. 23 June 1931, Ibrahim Bey was captured by a special OGPU detachment under the command of Mukum Sultanov in the Kafirnigan River valley. Under escort, he was taken to Tashkent, where he appeared before the court and was immediately executed after the trial.
Thus, the life of the great Turkish adventurer, who tried to create a world Turkic empire - Turan, ended disgracefully. After this, the uprising was quickly suppressed, although Basmachism existed in Tajikistan before the 1930s. The rebellion of Enver Pasha became the largest in stories Basmachis He represented a serious threat to all Soviet power in Central Asia. The suppression of this rebellion gradually led to the complete elimination of Basmachist and in fact ended the civil war in Turkestan.