Military Review

"Great Purge": the fight against basmachestvo

128
The enemies of the Russian people created a myth about the Soviet (Stalinist) terror, repression against "innocent people". Among these “innocent victims” were the Basmachis, the bandits who were disguised by the idea of ​​a “holy war” against the “infidels.”


"Great Purge": the fight against basmachestvo


Now in the republics of Central Asia, they agreed to the point that Basmachis is the “national liberation movement” of the peoples of Central Asia. All within the framework of another black myth about Russia and the Russians - about the “occupation of Russia and the Russians” of Central Asia, the Caucasus, etc. The problem is that several nationalities lived in the territory of Turkestan. And only the Soviet government gave the majority of peoples their national republics (Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, etc.). It happened in the 1920-e years, when the Soviet government already fully controlled the situation in the region. The majority of the population of the region at that time was completely indifferent to politics and illiterate, which excluded the “national liberation” movement. Nor did the Basmachi warlords, the feudal and religious elite, see the need for a “national struggle”. Local spiritual and secular feudal lords, who owned up to 85% of all the best lands on which the dekhkans bent their backs, simply wanted to preserve power and wealth, the former parasitic existence.

Basmachi (from the Turkic - “to attack, raid,” that is, gangsters-raiders) from ancient times acted on the territory of Central Asia (Turkestan). They were ordinary bandits, robbers, robbing settlements and trade caravans. During the First World War, the collapse of Russia and the Civil War, Basmachi got religious and political overtones. Turkey, and then England, sought to use the Basmachis against the Russians to sever Turkestan from Russia, and to occupy the region themselves. The struggle with the Soviet authorities under the slogans of the holy war provided the Basmachis with the support of a certain part of the faithful, Islamic leaders, clergy. Also, the feudal lords supported the Basmachi, in order to preserve the power, and therefore the possibility of further parasitizing the local population. Therefore, after part of Central Asia became part of Soviet Russia, the Soviet government, among other pressing problems, had to solve this.

Thus, the Basmachis never enjoyed the mass support of the people (who loves bandits ?!), and they were not particularly fond of politics and ideology, in fact they were bandits. Before the revolution, they were engaged in their historical craft - robbed fellow countrymen. And after the victory of the Soviet regime they continued their bloody craft. So, one of the kurbash (kurbash is a field commander of a sufficiently large detachment capable of operating relatively autonomously, of forming the Basmachi) Ibrahim-bek, Alat Nalvan Ilmirzayev, testified during the investigation in 1931: “I kept the gang at the expense of the population, of course, the population didn’t voluntarily it provided food, it was necessary to take and rob, at the expense of the loot, to maintain a gang. "

After the October Revolution 1917, the Basmachis fell under the control of the feudal lords and the reactionary Muslim clergy. The main enemy of the emirs and feudal lords was the Soviet government, which created a new world in which there was no place for social parasites. However, all attempts by the local anti-Soviet-minded reactionary political elite to give the Basmachis an ideological, political and national connotation to cause the “holy war” of the local population against the Reds, ended in complete failure.

The bulk of the population of Turkestan was indifferent to politics. Most of the population - peasants (dekhkans), were illiterate, did not read newspapers, they were interested only in their own economy, and the life of their village. All the time was spent on agricultural work, simple survival. Intellectuals were few. Revolution 1905 - 1907's. and the February Revolution 1917 years passed almost unnoticed by the residents of Turkestan. The only thing that excited the “gentiles” (as the Russian Empire called the indigenous population) was the 1916 decree on the mobilization of men for rear work in the frontline areas. This led to a serious uprising that engulfed a large region.

In the Basmachi, members of society who did not find themselves in ordinary life most often went. Banditry seemed an easy way to improve personal wealth. In addition, it was possible to make a “career” - to become a centurion, a field commander (Kurbash), and to receive as a reward not only a share from the loot, but also a territory for “feeding” the detachment, to become a complete master there. As a result, many have become basmachis for personal gain. Also, those who lost power during the establishment of the Soviet government went to the Basmachi - power, sources of income, that is, representatives of the feudal class and clergy. In the Basmachi fell and peasants, intoxicated by the speeches of local religious leaders. The Basmachi also forcibly took the male peasants into their units. They were called stick insects because they were armed with improvised tools - axes, sickles, knives, pitchforks, etc., or even simple sticks.

Politics in Basmachi mainly was introduced from the outside - through the representatives of the Turkish and British intelligence services. In the 1913 year, the Young Turkic dictatorship was established in the Ottoman Empire. All the threads of management were in the hands of the three most prominent figures of the Party "Unity and Progress" - Enver, Talaat and Jemal. For political purposes, they used the doctrines of Pan-Islamism and Pan-Turkism. From the beginning of the war, Turkish leaders hatched a clearly delusional and adventurous idea (taking into account the military, technological and economic weakness of the Ottoman Empire, in which the lengthy process of degradation approached the logical end - complete collapse and collapse) of all Turkic speaking peoples under the rule of Ottoman Turks. Turkish leaders claimed to belong to the region of the Caucasus and Turkestan. Turkish agents were active in the Caucasus and Central Asia. After the defeat of Turkey in the world war, the British agents replaced the British. Britain planned to tear off Turkestan from Russia in order to weaken the influence of Russians in Asia. Thus, the Turks and the British financed the Basmachis, gave them the modern weapon and provided experienced personnel officers and advisers for organizing uprisings and waging war with the Bolsheviks.

A peculiarity of the Basmachi, in contrast to the peasant rebels from Central Russia, was the active use of the "small war" methods. In particular, the Basmachi had well-placed intelligence and used specific combat tactics. The Basmachi had a wide network of agents that were among mullahs, tea-makers, merchants, stray craftsmen, beggars, etc. Thanks to such agents, the Basmachi well tracked the movement of the enemy and knew his strength. In battle, the Basmachi used elements of luring, false attacks, summing up the best shooters who were enthusiastic about the attack of the Reds and were in ambush. Basmachi were based in remote mountainous and desert areas and at favorable moments made equestrian raids in densely populated areas, killing Bolsheviks, commissars, Soviet workers and supporters of Soviet power. Locals intimidated by terror. Seen in cooperation with the Soviet government, farmers were usually cruelly tortured and killed. The Basmachi tried to avoid a collision with large parts of the regular Soviet troops, preferred to attack small detachments, fortifications, or Bolshevik-occupied settlements, suddenly, and then quickly leave. At the most dangerous moments of the gangs, they broke up into small groups and disappeared, and then joined in a safe place and organized a new raid. Since the Red Army and Soviet militia units could offer strong resistance, the Basmachi preferred to attack villages where there were no Soviet garrisons and poorly armed local self-defense detachments were holding the defenses (the “Red Flags” —the peasants defending Soviet power and their settlements). Therefore, the local population suffered the most from the raids of the Basmachi.

Commander-in-chief Sergey Kamenev in 1922 noted: “The characteristic features of Basmachs are cunning, great resourcefulness, boldness, extreme mobility and tirelessness, knowledge of local conditions and communication with the population, which is also a means of communication between the bands. These properties highlight the need for particularly careful selection of commanders at the head of volatile and destructive units and the appropriate leadership of them. Basmachi are cunning - it is necessary to outwit them; Basmachs are resourceful and bold, mobile and tireless - we need to be even more resourceful, bold and mobile, arrange ambushes, suddenly appear where we are not expected; Basmachs are familiar with local conditions - we need to study them just as well; Basmachs are based on the sympathy of the population - we need to win sympathy; This last is especially important and, as experience has shown, not only facilitates the struggle, but also significantly contributes to its success. ”

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Great cleaning

The myth of the "bloody genocide of Stalin" in Ukraine
Propaganda lie of Solzhenitsyn
GULAG: archives against lies
"Great Purge": fighting fists
"Great Purge": the fight against banditry
128 comments
Ad

Subscribe to our Telegram channel, regularly additional information about the special operation in Ukraine, a large amount of information, videos, something that does not fall on the site: https://t.me/topwar_official

Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Same lech
    Same lech 14 November 2018 05: 36
    +1
    An interesting article ... it was a dashing time.
    Some sort of romanticism was in the struggle against Basmachism.
    Basmachis are based on the sympathy of the population - we need to win sympathy; this last is especially important and, as experience has shown, not only facilitates the struggle,

    It’s not just facilitating, but is one of the key moments in the victory over basmachism ... all these principles of the struggle against such radical groups of society should be in the arsenal of our state now.
    Our enemy today, both internal and external, reminds me of these basmachs and in this regard, the lessons of the struggle against basmachi are very useful for understanding the realities of today on our southern borders.
    1. Amurets
      Amurets 14 November 2018 14: 52
      +1
      Quote: The same LYOKHA
      An interesting article ... it was a dashing time.
      Some sort of romanticism was in the struggle against Basmachism.
      Georgy Bryantsev. Fiction, but close to the documentary: "The Blade of the Emir." In the 60s, we read this book: "It was in August of the twentieth year.

      Emir Bukhara lived out its last hours. At the walls of the citadel of the emirate, the "sacred" Bukhara, there were armed detachments of workers and dekhkans of Soviet Turkestan. The battle was on the second day.

      From the city they fired from antediluvian guns, flintlocks and English rifles. The bearded mullahs, crowned with snow-white turbaning, raising their hands to the sky, sent curses on the heads of the apostates who dared to raise the sword to the governor of Allah on earth - the great of the great, wisest of the wisest emir of Bukhara.

      Angry emir sarbases darted along a web of deaf streets, alleys, and narrow, like gaps, dead ends on lean Afghan horses [1].

      Menacingly swinging naked sabers, they drove the townspeople frightened to death to build new fortifications at the eleven city gates.

      Crowds of drunken Anasha [2] and distraught fanatics raged in the Registan Palace Square, around the death tower and in front of the Emir’s palace - Ark. Some of them tore their hair and clothes, others shouted in voices hoarse from tension:
      https://www.litmir.me/br/?b=47368&p=1
      1. Warrior2015
        Warrior2015 15 November 2018 00: 52
        +1
        Quote: Amurets
        who dared to raise the sword against the vicar of Allah on earth - the great of the great, wisest of the wisest emir of Bukhara.

        Isn't that the one who (or his father) gave the Emir Bukharsky destroyer to the Russian Empire?
        1. Tutejszy
          Tutejszy 15 November 2018 11: 45
          +3
          Quote: Warrior2015
          Isn't that the one who (or his father) gave the Emir Bukharsky destroyer to the Russian Empire?

          That one. And one of his sons, Shakhmurad (adopted the name Olimov), served in the Red Army, participated in the Great Patriotic War (on which he lost his leg), was awarded the Order of the Red Banner, and after the war he taught at the V.V. Kuybyshev Military Engineering Academy
  2. Olgovich
    Olgovich 14 November 2018 06: 48
    -12
    The Basmach movement, in the form that we know it, arose precisely after the Thief, as a reaction to the new government. Before her, this was not in sight.

    and lasted right up to 1932, (last battles-1942), which without the support of the population is impossible in principle.
    1. apro
      apro 14 November 2018 07: 11
      +6
      1916 year does not like anything?
      1. The comment was deleted.
        1. The comment was deleted.
          1. The comment was deleted.
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 14 November 2018 09: 23
        -8
        Quote: apro
        1916 year does not like anything?

        no.
        Tell us about the Basmachs of 1916 with the mention of the concept of "Basmach" in the documents of 1916.
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 15 November 2018 01: 01
          +3
          Are you interested in the term, or the essence of the phenomenon? For example, Muslim fundamentalists have always been, but they took shape recently in ISIS. And the methods of their struggle for dominance in the regions are traditional. So with the basmachi.
      3. The centurion
        The centurion 14 November 2018 19: 02
        +1
        Quote: apro
        1916 year does not like anything?

        "The situation has worsened in the national outskirts. On June 25, 1916, Nicholas II signed a decree on the mobilization of the male" foreign "population of Turkestan and the Steppe Territory aged 19 to 43 for frontline work. There were no longer enough mobilized peasants from the central provinces to dig trenches The Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Uzbeks, Tajiks and Turkmens responded with a general uprising: the decree deliberately fell at the height of agricultural work and on the eve of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan, which, of course, was taken especially offensively. The indigenous population had to bear new duties: for the Kazakhs and Kyrgyzs, mandatory supplies of meat were introduced, a massive requisition of cattle and fodder was introduced. A new military tax on wagons, as well as road and other taxes were introduced. cotton, taxes on them increased several times. This led to a drop in yields and Reducing livestock numbers. The fire of the uprising was fanned by Russian revolutionaries, Turkish and German agents. They spread rumors about the "gazavat" announced by the Sultan against the infidels, about the alleged successes of the Ottoman army at the front and the imminent appearance of Turkish troops in Turkestan, about the preparation of China's action against Russia. China became the base of the enemy agents. Subversive literature and weapons were delivered from Xinjiang to Central Asia. During the uprising and during its suppression, tens of thousands of people died - both local residents and Russian settlers. Tens of thousands of nomads fled to neighboring China. Awakened by the tsarist decree, Turkestan could not completely calm down (it exploded again after the 1917 revolution) for more than a quarter of a century. The last "Basmachs" were eliminated by the Red Army only during the next world war. As a result, the uprising of 1916 became one of the harbingers of the impending collapse of the empire, and the agitated national question became one of the gravediggers of the Romanov empire. "
        https://topwar.ru/66512-kazaki-i-fevralskaya-revolyuciya.html
        1. Warrior2015
          Warrior2015 15 November 2018 00: 53
          +3
          Quote: Centurion
          Kazakhs, Kirghiz, Uzbeks, Tajiks and Turkmen responded with a general uprising: the decree was deliberately in the midst of agricultural work on the eve of the holy month for Muslims of Ramadan, which, of course, was perceived particularly offensively. In addition, the ground for the uprising was already prepared by the burden of war.

          Well, it was also prepared by Turkish agents in Central Asia.
    2. Mcar
      Mcar 14 November 2018 07: 35
      +5
      Quote: Olgovich
      The Basmach movement, in the form that we know it, arose precisely after the Thief, as a reaction to the new government.

      With the same success can be called gangster groups in the 90s "entrepreneurial movement". Basmach in translation is a raider. No "good intentions" can justify the atrocities that the Basmachi did.

      As for "it arose precisely after the VOR, as a reaction to the new government," this is not surprising. There are people who cannot imagine a world without the exploitation of man by man. Life without "color differentiation of pants" is almost torture for such people.

      Fortunately, such a minority. Most people still understand that living at the expense of another is not good.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 14 November 2018 09: 30
        -12
        Quote: McAr
        With the same success can be called gangster groups in the 90s "entrepreneurial movement".

        You can lol
        Quote: McAr
        Basmach in translation is a raider. No "good intentions" can justify the atrocities that the Basmachi did.

        You can’t, yes. What are you arguing with? belay
        Quote: McAr
        As for "it arose precisely after the VOR, as a reaction to the new government," this is not surprising. There are people who cannot imagine a world without the exploitation of man by man. Life without "color differentiation of pants" is almost torture for such people.

        It is not surprising that the civil war, which began on October 25, 17 g, actually continued for dozens of years.
        1. Mcar
          Mcar 14 November 2018 09: 58
          +2
          Quote: Olgovich
          It is not surprising that the civil war, which began on October 25, 17 g, actually continued for dozens of years.

          Not dozens, but all the years of Soviet power were nits who dreamed of destroying it.
          Hard work was burned by laziness,
          quietly sharpened the ranks ...
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 14 November 2018 11: 12
            -7
            Quote: McAr
            Not dozens, but all the years of Soviet power were nits who dreamed of destroying it.

            she destroyed herself, with the complete indifference of all. Or all -... nits? belay
            1. Mcar
              Mcar 14 November 2018 11: 15
              +1
              Quote: Olgovich
              she destroyed herself

              That too humane reacted to the parasites, which also rooted their roots.
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 15 November 2018 07: 29
                -2
                Quote: McAr
                That too humane reacted to the parasites, which also rooted their roots.

                How many millions of "parasites" still needed to be destroyed?
                By the way, they destroyed, destroyed "parasites", and society turned out to be .... weaker .... request
                1. Mcar
                  Mcar 15 November 2018 07: 37
                  -9
                  Quote: Olgovich

                  By the way, they destroyed, destroyed "parasites", and society turned out to be .... weaker ....

                  It happens. A person is being treated, treated, but he is still "weaker" than the disease.

                  Quote: Olgovich
                  How many millions of "parasites" still needed to be destroyed?

                  How do I know "how much". As much as is necessary for the organism of the country / people to be healthy.
                  1. Olgovich
                    Olgovich 15 November 2018 13: 40
                    -1
                    Quote: McAr
                    It happens. A person is being treated, treated, but he is still "weaker" than the disease.

                    No, the doctor turned out to be a charlatan. And no one was sick except him.
                    Quote: McAr
                    How do I know "how much". As much as is necessary for the organism of the country / people to be healthy.

                    hundreds of thousands were shot, millions were exiled, millions were "deprived" of their rights, etc.
                    Nowhere in the world has this happened. ANYWHERE! Did you get the worst people in the world? what did you do with it?
                    1. Mcar
                      Mcar 15 November 2018 17: 16
                      0
                      Quote: Olgovich
                      hundreds of thousands were shot, millions were exiled, millions were "deprived" of their rights, etc.
                      Did you get the worst people in the world?

                      Lie, do not lie.

                      Not the people, but the enemies of the people. Not a healthy cell, but a cancerous one.
                      That's from the fact that the cancer cells did not remove the Union in time and collapsed. Mold triumphs. And you are happy about this.
                      1. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 16 November 2018 10: 25
                        -3
                        Quote: McAr
                        Lie, do not lie.

                        LIES NI GRAM1
                        Quote: McAr
                        Not the people, but the enemies of the people. Not a healthy cell, but a cancerous one.
                        That's from the fact that the cancer cells did not remove the Union in time and collapsed.

                        Once again I ask: WHERE else in the world did it happen? ANYWHERE!

                        Answer clearly: What are you, the worst people in the world caught, what was done to them - hundreds of thousands were shot, millions were exiled, millions were "deprived" of their rights?
                      2. nov_tech.vrn
                        nov_tech.vrn 17 November 2018 13: 58
                        0
                        Olgovich, but it’s interesting, in any dispute a shadow of some Solzhetsin peeps out of you, you speak loudly, but not clearly, if you check of course
                      3. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 18 November 2018 12: 16
                        0
                        Quote: nov_tech.vrn
                        Olgovich, but it’s interesting, in any dispute a shadow of some Solzhetsin peeps out of you, you speak loudly, but not clearif you check of course

                        you refute at least something, "clear" ours.
                        You can. By the way, instead of stalled McAra, answer the simplest question about the people
                      4. nov_tech.vrn
                        nov_tech.vrn 18 November 2018 14: 45
                        -1
                        Olgovich, to argue how to play chess with a dove, we already went through this.
                      5. Olgovich
                        Olgovich 19 November 2018 07: 51
                        0
                        Quote: nov_tech.vrn
                        Olgovich, to argue how to play chess with a dove, we already went through this.

                        nov_tech.vrn, you don’t .... lol can lol
                      6. your1970
                        your1970 21 November 2018 21: 51
                        0
                        Quote: Olgovich
                        Quote: McAr
                        Lie, do not lie.

                        LIES NI GRAM1
                        Quote: McAr
                        Not the people, but the enemies of the people. Not a healthy cell, but a cancerous one.
                        That's from the fact that the cancer cells did not remove the Union in time and collapsed.

                        Once again I ask: WHERE else in the world did it happen? ANYWHERE!

                        Answer clearly: What are you, the worst people in the world caught, what was done to them - hundreds of thousands were shot, millions were exiled, millions were "deprived" of their rights?

                        I already answered you on this question - 19 century., Great Britain - in the territories: India, Africa and China.
                        How many were starved to death - it is not even approximately known how many were shot from machine guns / guns in Africa (against spears - a nice thing !! "To all your questions, we will give the answer: We have a lot of" maxims "- you have no" maxims ". ) - it is not known how many died from the consequences of the opium wars - it is not known
                        and all, by the way, England frolic on its subjects

                        about Ireland generally modestly keep quiet .......
                        "In the middle of the 19th century, Ireland experienced the Great Famine. The demographic picture changed dramatically: at the beginning of the 19th century, 5 people lived in the country, before the Great Famine in 319 - 8 222 664to 1911 - 4 390 219 people. "Not a million, as in the country 404 - but in half !!!!
          2. Detective
            Detective 14 November 2018 12: 42
            +5
            Quote: McAr
            Hard work was burned by laziness,
            quietly sharpened the ranks ...

            That is never the Bolsheviks are at least to blame for something! The Soviet Union collapsed primarily because of the ugly policy in the national question in relation to the Russian! The USSR was still a kind of Empire. Empires simply do not exist in a situation where the people who created the empire are not masters of it! That is why in 1991 no one came out to defend the USSR. This is the root of the death of the USSR, and not in lazy nits! The Bolsheviks placed social processes far above national ones. The desire for a world revolution has certainly evolved over 68 years, but as such has not disappeared. According to Stalin, the USSR is a prototype of the World Soviet Socialist Republic! At the same time, he, like Lenin, considered Great-Russian chauvinism to be his worst enemy (indigenization is nothing more than a division of the Russian people), but, unlike Lenin, he also pressed nationalists on the ground. Let me remind you that initially the Bolsheviks relied on the national suburbs. In our country, both Chechens and Crimean Tatars ran under the red flags and galloped to the point of insanity until they finally realized that the Bolsheviks and the Chechen identity and the Tatar did not care less just than the Russian! All subsequent life in the USSR consisted on the national question of all sorts of concessions and flirting with the local national elites and the distribution of national wealth, when, for every 3 rubles earned, the Russians gave everyone the first one! Now Ukraine is proudly talking about rampant gasification compared to Russia, forgetting that gasification of the regions, including Ukraine was a priority in the USSR. The RSFSR should be understood not to belong to the regions ... You know, Alexander, what is your weakness, including all the adherents of the red paradise? You from the USSR in your fantasies really made a paradise! So your arguments are just as fabulous. It’s not very convenient to live in a crystal castle, but under the ruins you can easily die! But it’s beautiful - equality and all that ... 1 years have not passed ...
            1. Mcar
              Mcar 14 November 2018 13: 00
              -3
              Quote: Detective
              70 years have passed

              Small termites destroy even a very large house faster.

              Again. The USSR was killed by parasites, i.e. organisms that organically cannot stand the world without exploiting their own kind (which is not even in the animal world). We climbed into all the key points of the country and destroyed the immunity of the whole organism-people.

              Stalin's only mistake is a too humane attitude towards the enemies of the people. Well, a person cannot always be right in everything. It is only infantile girls who are looking for an ideal - a horse on a white prince. Everyone has flaws. Stalin also had one, one of which was an increased belief that a hunchback could be fixed earlier.
            2. gsev
              gsev 14 November 2018 23: 54
              +3
              Only under the USSR did it become possible to introduce universal military service. From the Uzbeks I heard that several hundred thousand soldiers died from their republic on the fronts. Under the tsar, an attempt to attract non-Russians even for construction work caused an uprising. All the same, tsarism must be distinguished with undeveloped capitalist relations, the Soviet Union until 1970 .... 1980, with the principle of equalization or fair distribution and pre-perestroika times when money-grubbing and nationalism increased. Under capitalism, it is difficult to withstand national oppression. Therefore, there is a national demarcation. In addition, it should be noted that there is a demarcation according to cultural traditions. There are enterprises with a rigid structure, and there are fairly democratic governance. Often a team is formed of representatives of different nationalities, but close in mentality of employees, and at the same time, people who are unable to work in this team are rejected. Perhaps one of the reasons for the collapse of socialist society is the inability to stand out and organize on the basis of excellent traditions and attitude towards work. The USSR by egalitarianism provoked the development of parasitism; on the other hand, it forced all its representatives to study and work, which compensated for many shortcomings. For example, now an engineer spends half his time writing business proposals. A lot of effort at the enterprise goes to the delivery of fiscal reporting. If in Soviet times the collective farm’s bookkeeping was handed over by a high school graduate in a few days, then a modern company that has machines, people and machine tools will not get such an order of magnitude smaller. If Russia wants to remain as a large multinational state, then various groups, classes, estates or nations should be able to live up to their abilities. On the other hand, the principle of equal work-equal pay must be adhered to under capitalism.
              1. your1970
                your1970 21 November 2018 21: 55
                +1
                Quote: gsev
                If in Soviet times the collective farm's accounting was handed over for several days by a high school graduate, then at a modern company that has machines, people, and machine tools, such a number will not be an order of magnitude smaller.
                - during the times of the USSR, the collective farm did not have profit as such. Therefore, reporting was much easier.
                Nevertheless, my grandmother, being the chief accountant of "Selhoztekhnika" with a team of 4 people, made an annual report for 3 weeks ...
    3. Alex_59
      Alex_59 14 November 2018 07: 58
      +14
      Quote: Olgovich
      The Basmach movement, in the form that we know it, arose precisely after the Thief, as a reaction to the new government. Before her, this was not in sight.

      Olgovich in the form that we know him arose precisely after the Thief, as a reaction to the new government. Before her, Olgovich was not in sight. )))))))))))))))))
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 14 November 2018 09: 47
        0
        Quote: Alex_59
        Olgovich in the form that we know him arose precisely after the Thief as a reaction to the new government)))))))))))))))))


        Monter Mechnikov: "The answer is the equivalent of a thought" lol
        1. Mcar
          Mcar 14 November 2018 10: 18
          -1
          Quote: Olgovich
          "The answer is the equivalent of a thought"

          Ah, if it were so!

          If all the enemies of the people and pests said what they think, then they would have been corrected before the start of the 30s.

          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 14 November 2018 11: 10
            -7
            Quote: McAr
            Ah, if it were so!

            If all the enemies of the people and pests said what they think, then they would have been corrected before the start of the 30s.

            You also have an "equivalent of thought" lol
        2. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 15 November 2018 01: 04
          0
          If you had also read Ilf and Petrov, you would not have to invent quotes.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 15 November 2018 07: 32
            -3
            Quote: Aviator_
            If you had also read Ilf and Petrov, you would not have to invent quotes.

            And you too: Monter Mechnikov: "The answer is the equivalent of a thought" lol
    4. Uncle lee
      Uncle lee 14 November 2018 08: 36
      +12
      Here is the whole point of basmachism:
      Before his death, my father said: "Abdullah, I lived my life as a poor man and I want God to send you an expensive robe and beautiful harness for a horse."
      I waited for a long time, and then God said: "Get on your horse and take what you want, if you are brave and strong

      "White Sun of the Desert"
      1. Glory1974
        Glory1974 14 November 2018 10: 56
        +11
        My ancestors lived in Kyrgyzstan. Great-grandmother said: "The Basmachi rode up, robbed, the Russians, whom they could catch, were driven into the barn and burned. A detachment of Red Army men rode up, caught up with the gang and destroyed, those who remained alive were driven into the barn and burned."
        As the saying goes "an eye for an eye". These were the Basmachi. Maybe someone will call it a national liberation movement.
        1. Tutejszy
          Tutejszy 15 November 2018 11: 56
          +1
          Quote: glory1974
          Great-grandmother said: "The Basmachi rode up, robbed, the Russians, whom they could catch, were driven into the barn and burned. A detachment of Red Army men rode up, caught up with the gang and destroyed, those who remained alive were driven into the barn and burned."

          There is a so-called near Alma-Ata. May Day ponds, which are traditionally called Shelter Ponds, because their girls dug from a female orphanage in that region.
          In 1916, near present-day Alma-Ata, Kazakh "rebels" raided this shelter. They put all the Russian girls whom they managed to catch on the stakes of the fence. After some time, a detachment of Cossacks rode up. The girls were removed, after which they all died almost immediately from bleeding. And the Cossacks caught up with the "rebels" and, essno, did not take prisoners. And in 1918, the Reds drowned in a pond all the orphans of "alien origin", and those Cossacks from the aforementioned detachment who were captured by the Reds, among other things, were tried for "the brutal murder of peaceful Kazakh rebels committed in 1916". I know my own ...
          1. Mikhail Matyugin
            Mikhail Matyugin 16 November 2018 01: 50
            +1
            Quote: Tutejszy
            There is a so-called near Alma-Ata. May Day ponds, which are traditionally called Shelter Ponds, because their girls dug from a female orphanage in that region.
            In 1916, near present-day Alma-Ata, Kazakh "rebels" raided this shelter. They put all the Russian girls whom they managed to catch on the stakes of the fence. After some time, a detachment of Cossacks rode up. The girls were removed, after which they all died almost immediately from bleeding. And the Cossacks caught up with the "rebels" and, essno, did not take prisoners. And in 1918, the Reds drowned in a pond all the orphans of "alien origin", and those Cossacks from the aforementioned detachment who were captured by the Reds, among other things, were tried for "the brutal murder of peaceful Kazakh rebels committed in 1916". I know my own ...

            Oh my God, what a horror ... A complete sensation that it was as if a country had been replaced ... Another bloody page of our past, common to all ...
    5. bionik
      bionik 14 November 2018 09: 49
      +3
      So, one of the Kurbash Ibrahim-bek
      Quote: Olgovich
      Basmach movement

      lasted right up to 1932, (last battles-1942),.

      Captive Ibrahimbek before departure from Stalinabad to Tashkent. June 1931 In June 1931, as the commander of one of the local red-stick volunteer detachments, Mukum Sultanov was recruited by the OGPU to capture the Basmachi gang Ibrahim-bek and, together with his associates, including Karakhan Sardarov, Abdurakhman Alimardanov and Khalyar Isaev, “personally captured the enemy of Soviet power ”- the leader of the basmachi in southern Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, Ibrahim-bek and members of his headquarters during their crossing the Kafirnigan river near Khoja-Bulbulon (23.06.1931)
      1. Mcar
        Mcar 14 November 2018 11: 47
        0
        Quote: bionik
        Captive Ibrahimback

        Here below they ask: "How can bandits have class interests?"

        What does "bek" (run, bai) mean in the name Ibrahim-bek?
        This is a title of nobility among some peoples of the Middle East and Central Asia, a category of the privileged population. A synonym for the Arabic "emir", corresponds to the titles of prince, ruler, lord.

        Ibrahim-bek belonged to the feudal class - the class of exploiters.
        This is how bandits can have class interests.
        1. Tutejszy
          Tutejszy 15 November 2018 12: 05
          +2
          Quote: McAr
          What does "bek" (run, bai) mean in the name Ibrahim-bek?
          This is a noble title among some peoples of the Middle East and Central Asia, a category of privileged population

          "back" - lit. "master" and "buy" means "rich man". it never noble titles, and the reflection is pure property status, and referred only to representatives of the "black bone" - roughly as a "kulak" among Russian peasants ("white bone" was called differently - tyure, sultan, khan). But names with the ending -by and -bek are found even among the most recent rogue - a name with such an ending was given "for luck" so that "wealth would attract"! Another thing is that Ibrahim-bek is just not a name, but a name + title (a bek named Ibrahim), otherwise it would be written together - Ibrahimbek!
          1. Mcar
            Mcar 15 November 2018 17: 08
            0
            Thank you for clarification.

            Quote: Tutejszy
            Another thing is that Ibrahim-bek is not just a name, but a name + a title (a bek named Ibrahim), otherwise it would be written together - Ibrahimbek!

            Exactly. Ibrahim-bek is a name + title.
    6. Detective
      Detective 14 November 2018 10: 08
      -2
      Quote: Olgovich
      and lasted right up to 1932, (last battles-1942), which without the support of the population is impossible in principle.

      Hello Andrey. Of course, without the support of the local population, the Basmachis would not have lasted long. Bolshevik propaganda has nothing to do with historical events in the Samson articles of purest water. Comments with which comrades attack you from all sides from the same opera. In Turkestan, yes, as throughout the Russian Empire, no revolutions took place. Samsonov explains this with the darkness of people - they apparently did not understand that they were oppressed! Bright and understanding were apparently exclusively in the capital! Well, in Germany with the United States by itself. Therefore, the Soviet government in Turkestan was imposed by voluntary-compulsory methods ... The light was carried dark ... Who asked them about it? Hence the problems! In particular, it should be mentioned that the red warriors of the world arrived in Tashkent in January 1918 at 11 echelons with troops and artillery. From February 6 to 9, there were street battles in which about 10 only citizens died ... Here you have the basmachism! The first main centers of this movement arose after the defeat of the Kokand autonomy by the Bolsheviks ... More - more! The movement swept all western and eastern Turkestan. By the way, someone wondered how actually Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan appeared on the territory of the former Turkestan? But this is just the Bolshevik disengagement policy. In simple words - divide and conquer! According to the official version, Basmachism was liquidated in 000. Already 1932 years after the October coup. However, individual battles and clashes continued until 15.
      1. Glory1974
        Glory1974 14 November 2018 11: 02
        +6
        From 6 to February 9, street battles took place in which about 10 000 only citizens died

        and with whom did they fight? really with the basmachi?
        Samsonov explains this with the darkness of people - they apparently did not understand that they were oppressed! Bright and understanding were apparently exclusively in the capital!

        Do you seriously think that illiterate farmers understood the revolution? And you did not ask yourself the question, why did all the poor support the Soviet regime?
        1. Warrior2015
          Warrior2015 15 November 2018 00: 57
          -4
          Quote: glory1974
          And you did not ask yourself the question, why did all the poor support the Soviet power?

          And why do not populist slogans so quickly seize the crowd, you do not know?

          And once again - without the support of the people, the Bas-macheism has not existed even 20 for years.
          1. Glory1974
            Glory1974 15 November 2018 09: 28
            +3
            And again - without the support of the people, Basmachism did not exist for 20 years

            In the Caucasus, the militia is not translated too 20 let.VY do you think they are also supported by the people?
            And why do not populist slogans so quickly seize the crowd, you do not know?

            Speaking specifically about the Soviet power, she promised the land and fulfilled her promise.
            1. Warrior2015
              Warrior2015 16 November 2018 03: 35
              +1
              Quote: glory1974
              In the Caucasus, the militia is not translated too 20 let.VY do you think they are also supported by the people?

              Not only some of the people - especially from the Nokhchi - support the "forest" ones, but they actively help them, otherwise why hasn't the Caucasus been fading away for these 20 years?

              Quote: glory1974
              Speaking specifically about the Soviet power, she promised the land and fulfilled her promise.

              The Bolsheviks promised a lot. And they did little. Well, there "already the present generation will live under communism" and so on. Populism is very effective at grabbing power, you know.
              1. Glory1974
                Glory1974 16 November 2018 10: 36
                +1
                Not only some of the people - especially from the Nokhchi - support the "forest" ones, but they actively help them, otherwise why hasn't the Caucasus been fading away for these 20 years?

                Here we have come to understand that the militants and Basmachis are ordinary gangsters, supported by relatives, like our criminals in the rest of Russia. But apart from this, naturally incited by relevant persons, including from abroad. In such a situation, it is incorrect to speak about the national liberation movement.
                The Bolsheviks promised a lot. And they did little. Well, there "already the present generation will live under communism" and so on. Populism is very effective at grabbing power, you know.

                I agree with you here. But speaking specifically about the land, here it is without any populism. They promised and did. Due to this, the majority of the population was pulled over and won the civil war.
                1. Warrior2015
                  Warrior2015 16 November 2018 12: 45
                  -1
                  Quote: glory1974
                  Promised and done. Due to this, they dragged the majority of the population to their side and won the civil war.

                  The slogan "rob the loot" was also put forward and implemented, is it good for you? The populist bandits who seized power, and the main one of whom is still in the Babylonian ziggurat on Red Square, are these the best people of the nation worthy to stand at the head of the people?

                  Quote: glory1974
                  Due to this, they dragged the majority of the population to their side and won the civil war.
                  Skillful propaganda + violent mobilizations (Red Army up to 5,5 million by the end of the war against about 0,3 million for the "whites") + much broader and much more effective terror = victory for the "red" in the civil war. For me, the Bolsheviks (especially the early ones, and especially the Trotskyists-internationalists) are the organizers of the national-state catastrophe of historical Russia, a typical example of a violent seizure of power, promoted from abroad, by the method of a color revolution.

                  Quote: glory1974
                  Here we have come to understand that the militants and Basmachis are ordinary gangsters, supported by relatives, like our criminals in the rest of Russia. But apart from this, naturally incited by relevant persons, including from abroad. In such a situation, it is incorrect to speak about the national liberation movement.
                  At the early stage of both Basmachism - and in our Caucasus in our time - we should probably speak about the national liberation movement of local peoples, but with an "Asian face", with their local bloody flavor, so to speak. In both cases, there was massive support from the population, this is undoubtedly.

                  After about 10-15 years of attempts to confront the Russian statehood, both the Basmachis and our homegrown Islamists "firmly standing in the path of jihad" degenerated into an armed struggle of lone individuals, fighting pairs or small groups of bandit underground, including those supported from abroad, so that to influence the southern geopolitical underbelly of Russian statehood.
          2. nov_tech.vrn
            nov_tech.vrn 19 November 2018 19: 16
            +1
            without the support of Great Britain, Basmachism would not have existed twenty years after the civil war, and it was eliminated: a - after the inhabitants of Central Asia did not feel a real improvement in life, b - after the defeat of most of the Basmachi gangs, the little Brittles realized that they were wasting money. In the last years of Basmachism, gangs gathered mainly on the territory of Afghanistan and were recruited from among the former residents living in the territory of the now Soviet republics, taken away by the tribal nobility in the early 20s for a cordon.
      2. Humpty
        Humpty 14 November 2018 11: 03
        +7
        Quote: Detective
        Of course, without the support of the local population, the Basmachis would not have lasted long.

        In the thirties, the Basmachi raids were carried out from abroad, more precisely from Persia and Afghanistan.
        In our area the longest (until the mid-30s) existed gang Jantai. In one of the raids to him the old men went out and said - You have no place on this earth. If you want to live, go away. And they called the place, this inaccessible gorge on the border, which even in the years of developed socialism was not controlled at all by the border guards. A gang of about 300 basmachs was eliminated thanks to successful operational work. For many years they could not get out of the stone bag with large forces. They existed mainly through the sale of opium and the support of the British.
    7. Glory1974
      Glory1974 14 November 2018 10: 58
      +6
      The Basmach movement, in the form that we know it, arose precisely after the Thief, as a reaction to the new government. Before her, this was not in sight.

      In Chechnya, in 93, Dudayev said "People are divided into wolves and sheep. If you are a sheep, be patient. If you are a wolf, take a machine gun and take what you need."
      This, too, was probably a reaction to something. But probably not at the thief. Therefore, blaming everything on her is not productive. You need to understand the real motives.
    8. Proxima
      Proxima 14 November 2018 19: 46
      +8
      Quote: Olgovich
      The Basmach movement, in the form that we know it, arose precisely after the Thief, as a reaction to the new government. Before her, this was not in sight.

      and lasted right up to 1932, (last battles-1942), which without the support of the population is impossible in principle.
      Basmacism, as a phenomenon, went down to almost zero in 1939. The question is, why? The answer is very simple, but the fact that in the 1939 year, the British stopped their financing because of the beginning of the Second World War. They did not care about any basmachi. Here you have talk about jihad and about the national liberation movement. hi
      1. Warrior2015
        Warrior2015 15 November 2018 00: 58
        +4
        Quote: Proxima
        Basmacism, as a phenomenon, went down to almost zero in 1939. The question is, why? The answer is very simple, but the fact that in the 1939 year, the British stopped their financing because of the beginning of the Second World War. They did not care about any basmachi. Here you have talk about jihad and about the national liberation movement.

        Very true comment! But of course a few one-sided.
    9. nov_tech.vrn
      nov_tech.vrn 17 November 2018 13: 53
      +1
      Olgovich, back in the 19th century the Basmachi terrorized the North of Persia, and the Persians methodically destroyed the Turkmen settlements, and this is only about your historical torments minus.
  3. Tarhan
    Tarhan 14 November 2018 08: 06
    -10
    The power of the Communists has long ended, but its ideological attitudes continue to clog up some brains. So in the comments slips satisfaction with colonial policy.

    "On November 15, 1917, the III" Congress of Soviets of the Turkestan Territory "was held in Tashkent under the chairmanship of the Bolsheviks. The first composition of the" Council of People's Commissars of Turkestan "(SNK) did not get representatives of indigenous nationalities.

    November 26, 1917 in Kokand, under the leadership of "Shuro-i-Islamia" was convened IV "All-Turkestan Kurultay of Muslims." The congress was attended by about 200 delegates. Kurultai's next day Turkestan was declared "territorially autonomous in unity with the federal democratic Russian Republic." In Kurultai, it was also decided to name the new state entity “Turkiston Mukhtoriati” (Turkestan Autonomy). At the same kurultai, autonomy authorities were elected. The representative and legislative body was to be the “Provisional People’s Council” in the amount of 54 people, the executive - the Provisional Government, consisting of 12 people.

    The government of Turkestan autonomy in January announced its intention on March 20, 1918 to convene its parliament on the basis of universal direct, equal and secret ballot. Two-thirds of the seats in parliament were intended for "Muslim" (indigenous) deputies, and one third was guaranteed to representatives of the non-Muslim (Slavic) population. This was a good decision - such a parliament would undoubtedly rally all Turkestans and become an insurmountable obstacle for the Bolsheviks. The existence of such a parliament was to be the first step towards the democratization of Turkestan.

    In the government of the Turkestan Soviet Republic (TASSR) formed at the same time in Tashkent, out of 14 of its members there were no indigenous people. The chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Turkestan Republic, Fedor Kolesov, a recent clerk on the Tashkent railway, said: “It is impossible to admit Muslims to the supreme bodies of power, since the position of the local population towards us is not defined and, moreover, they do not have any proletarian organization”

    In an opening speech, Mustafa Shokai (Chairman of the Government of Turkestan Autonomy) said: “Building a full-blooded state on the go is not easy. For this, there is no personnel, no experience. And most importantly, there is no army to protect future autonomy. No matter how weak Russia is, it is much stronger than us. With Russia, we must live in peace and friendship. This is dictated by the geography itself. I do not accept the policy of the Soviets, but I believe in the destructive power of the Bolsheviks ""

    In its inception, Turkestan statehood did not pretend to INDEPENDENCE. She was called AUTONOMY within Russia.
    1. Tarhan
      Tarhan 14 November 2018 08: 36
      -6
      Of course, such autonomy without the Bolsheviks in power did not satisfy the communist slogan - "All power to the Soviets." And measures were taken.

      "The issue of attitude towards Turkiston Mukhtoriyati (Turkestan autonomy) was in the center of attention of the participants I Extraordinary Congress of Workers, Soldiers and Dekhkan Deputies, which took place in Kokand from December 26 to 30, 1917.
      Of its participants, only the representative of the Bolshevik party, the Commissar of the Territory P. Poltoratsky, called Autonomy "Baysky." At the congress, a resolution was adopted in support of the government of the Turkestan Autonomy, expressing no confidence in the Council of People's Commissars of the Turkestan Territory.


      In January 1918, in response to the ultimatum presented by the (Bolsheviks), Shokai refused to recognize the power of the Soviets. To eradicate Turkestan autonomy, 11 trains with troops and artillery under the command of Konstantin Osipov arrived from Turkestan from Moscow. The armed forces also included Dashnak units (Armenian revolutionaries).
      The fighting in Kokand (the capital of autonomy) began on January 31, 1918. In addition to the autonomists, the inhabitants of Kokand - about 10 thousand people, mainly armed with axes, hammers, and sticks, came to the defense of the city. For three days they courageously defended Kokand from the Red Guard detachments. The city was blocked on three sides. Perfiliev gave the order to open fire. The guns drove around the city for three days. After the autonomist troops retreated, the Red Guards, Red Army soldiers and Dashnaks “moved along the streets of the old city - shooting civilians who didn’t run away and burning everything in their path”.
      Over three thousand people were killed in the city within three days. In those days, robberies did not stop. “The robbers piled the looted property onto the carts and transported it to the train station and fortress. There was a division of other people's property, ”wrote a witness to these events.
      The city of Kokand was turned into ruins. On February 22, a peace treaty was signed in Kokand, according to which the entire civilian population had to "surrender weapons, recognize the power of the Regional SNK and its local bodies."

      Thus, Turkestan autonomy was liquidated by the Bolsheviks and Dashnaks just 3 months after its creation. She was replaced by Soviet Turkestan. Here, on the basis of the foregoing, it was born national liberation movement of the peoples of Central Asia. In Soviet historiography, called Basmachism.

      It was not necessary for the FIRST to shed blood of the civilian population. It was necessary to agree with the will of the peoples of Turkestan about AUTONOMY within Russia. And now, some authors elevate people's desire for self-determination to the category of crime.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 14 November 2018 08: 43
        +2
        Is this about the Osipov rebellion written?
      2. Same lech
        Same lech 14 November 2018 09: 25
        +5
        It was not necessary for the FIRST to shed blood of the civilian population. It was necessary to agree with the will of the peoples of Turkestan about AUTONOMY within Russia. And now, some authors elevate people's desire for self-determination to the category of crime.


        Yes, well ... and what maydanuty people will tell you in Kiev ... who by force seized power in Ukraine and are now shedding someone else's blood in the LPR ... and what will Abkhazians or Ossetians tell you about it that have passed through the genocide of Georgians and there are many such examples in the world .
        1. Tarhan
          Tarhan 14 November 2018 09: 29
          -6
          Yes nuuu ... and what maydanutye will tell you in Kiev ..

          And who cares what the Ukrainians threw off the president who did not fulfill his obligations, and chose another president. This is purely their business. And there was no need to send troops into the Donbass and there would be no confrontation.
          1. Same lech
            Same lech 14 November 2018 09: 33
            +1
            And who cares what the Ukrainians threw off the president who did not fulfill his obligations, and chose another president. This is purely their business. And there was no need to send troops into the Donbass and there would be no confrontation.

            Yes, indeed, to whom what state power in Ukraine was usurped by a handful of maydans and then unleashed a war in LDNR against their own people ...
            if you follow this logic, then who cares that Hitler came to power in Germany in 1933 ... after all, this is an internal affair of the German people ... to remind you of how it all ended? hi
            1. Tarhan
              Tarhan 14 November 2018 09: 57
              -8
              Yes, indeed, to whom what state power in Ukraine was usurped by a handful of maydans and then unleashed a war in LDNR against their own people ...

              The people chose a president who promised something. But then he did not fulfill his promises. The people deposed him and elected a new president. In Egypt, they also ousted Mubarak and elected another president. And besides the Egyptians, what’s the matter to others to worry about.
              The situation in the Donbass unleashed the Kremlin. In Ukraine, the situation with the Russian language was the same as in Belarus, Kazakhstan and other CIS countries. And it was the Kremlin that brought its troops into the Donbass.

              When Hitler was elected, there was nothing to anyone except the Germans themselves. Then no one knew what Hitler’s power would lead to. Now children are taught in German schools that the German people are to blame for Hitlerism, who, for the sake of chauvinism, voted for Hitler.
              1. Same lech
                Same lech 14 November 2018 10: 00
                +5
                The situation in the Donbass unleashed the Kremlin. In Ukraine, the situation with the Russian language was the same as in Belarus, Kazakhstan and other CIS countries. And it was the Kremlin that brought its troops into the Donbass.


                Well, from a bad mind to a healthy one.
                Remind you who trained the Maidan fighters ...

                Further, if the Kremlin sent troops to the Donbass in the Kiev Rada, other people would be sitting now ... so don’t need la ... la.
                1. Tarhan
                  Tarhan 14 November 2018 10: 05
                  -2
                  Further, if the Kremlin sent troops to the Donbass

                  Could give the numbers and names of military units of the Russian Federation in the Donbass. But that is not the point.

                  I was led by something on your, not in the subject, torrent. Our topic is about Basmachism, there was no "order" to discuss Ukraine. You still connect the landing on the moon with Ukraine.
              2. gsev
                gsev 15 November 2018 00: 06
                +1
                The United States would never have gained independence from Britain, if not for the help of France. India would not have gained independence had Trotsky not armed the Sikhs and Afghans. The support of the USSR for the national liberation struggle deprived Great Britain of Portugal and France of its colonies. Unfortunately, only in 2014 did they understand in the Russian Federation that it was necessary to actively defend their interests and protect their supporters from destruction in neighboring countries.
          2. The comment was deleted.
          3. Alone
            Alone 14 November 2018 09: 52
            +4
            Quote: Tarkhan
            And who cares what the Ukrainians threw off the president who did not fulfill his obligations, and chose another president. This is purely their business. And there was no need to send troops into the Donbass and there would be no confrontation.

            Sent Cossack, or just a troll? what
          4. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 15 November 2018 17: 59
            +1
            And there was no need to hold a referendum in Crimea, there would be no sanctions. By the way, what didn’t Yanukovych fulfill? Didn’t he make Russian the state language, or what?
            1. Tarhan
              Tarhan 19 November 2018 19: 46
              -2
              By the way, what didn’t Yanukovych fulfill? Didn’t he make Russian the state language, or what?

              The Russian language has nothing to do with it. It was then that the Kremlin invented the oppression of the Russian language in order to send troops to the Donbass.

              The first elections of 2004, Yanukovych lost to Yushchenko. For the most part, the defeat was ensured by Putin's arrival in Kiev and official support from Yanukovych.
              Putin did not come to the 2010 elections anymore; Yanukovych was supported by the Russian media. Yanukovych, to gain votes, promised to enter the Association with Europe. This is not EU accession.

              "The Association Agreement with the European Union is an agreement between the European Union (EU) and a non-EU country that creates a framework for cooperation between the parties." That's all.

              Yanukovych won, became president. A working group was created in conjunction with the EU to prepare documents for the agreement. Documents were ready.

              "On March 30, 2012, the Agreement was initialed by the heads of the delegations of Ukraine and the European Union. In November 2013, a few days before the Vilnius summit of the Eastern Partnership, where it was planned to sign the Association Agreement, the process of preparation for signing was suspended at the initiative of the Ukrainian government."

              Yanukovych did not go to Vilnius. The people took to the streets demanding that Yanukovych fulfill his campaign promises. Yanukovych confronted and lost. He fled to Russia. By law, if an official does not go to work within 20 calendar days, he is considered dismissed. Therefore, new elections were held in Ukraine and a new president was elected.
              1. gsev
                gsev 21 November 2018 22: 24
                0
                "It was then that the Kremlin invented the oppression of the Russian language in order to send troops into the Donbass." Temir, Russian television and newspapers do not report all the atrocities committed by Ukrainian patriots against Russians. My friends with relatives in the occupied territory of Donbass, Ukrainians, said that those who remembered the German occupation believed that the SS were humanists compared to modern Bandera.
          5. nov_tech.vrn
            nov_tech.vrn 19 November 2018 19: 19
            0
            and a saucepan, then you have on one side Tarkhan
      3. Tarhan
        Tarhan 14 November 2018 09: 46
        -5
        It was not necessary for the FIRST to shed blood of the civilian population. It was necessary to agree with the will of the peoples of Turkestan about AUTONOMY within Russia. And now, some authors elevate people's desire for self-determination to the category of crime.

        Interesting these terrible nationalists. They put minuses, and God bless them, with minuses. But my arguments do not refute. In fact, it’s right, historical facts cannot be refuted, and they poke a button in the finger in irritation of their violated, deceitful point of view.
        1. Same lech
          Same lech 14 November 2018 10: 02
          +2
          But my arguments do not refute. Actually, it’s right, historical facts cannot be refuted,

          Your arguments are cheap ... like cheap attempts to get personal on the members of the forum ... you have nothing to say seriously in return. smile hi
          1. Tarhan
            Tarhan 14 November 2018 10: 08
            -4
            Your arguments are cheap ... like cheap attempts to get personal on the members of the forum ... you have nothing to say seriously in return.

            I said mine in the topic. It’s you who are carrying all kinds of crap, moreover, out of place, because you cannot refute historical facts
            1. Same lech
              Same lech 14 November 2018 10: 12
              +4
              I said mine in the topic. It’s you who are carrying all kinds of crap, moreover, out of place, because you cannot refute historical facts

              You said what you think about the Basmachis, in essence justifying them, and historical facts pulled onto the globe as you wanted ... smile what is there to refute? Your propaganda about the Buryat troops of the Kremlin in the Donbass or something ...?
              Of course, after that it is impossible to seriously talk about your delirium and your historical facts. smile
              1. Tarhan
                Tarhan 14 November 2018 14: 53
                -6
                You said what you think about the Basmachis, in essence justifying them, and historical facts pulled onto the globe as you wanted ...

                The national liberation movements of peoples are ALWAYS justified. And by me the facts cited are historical and confirmed.

                Here, at the early Patriots, there is certainly no default sense of JUSTICE. They consider the same socio-political phenomenon in two variations, not at all embarrassed by their mutual exclusion.

                Evpatiy Kolovorat who has laid down his head for Mother Russia is a hero and a fighter for independence. Shamil in the mid-19th century, who also fought for the independence of the North Caucasus, was a bandit.

                The partisan detachments of Russian peasants, in the struggle against the Napoleonic occupation, are a holy cause. And the Warsaw rebels for the independence of Poland from the autocracy, rebels and rebels.

                The national liberation movement of the Russian people led by Minin and Pozharsky for the liberation of Russia is a just cause. The national liberation movement of the peoples of Central Asia is basmachism and banditry.

                And this split is because the Uroshniki look at history from the perspective of a colonial imperial autocracy. And they do not want to know that the era of colonialism ended after the end of World War II.
                1. Warrior2015
                  Warrior2015 16 November 2018 03: 41
                  +1
                  Quote: Tarkhan
                  Shamil in the middle of the 19 century, who also fought for the independence of the North Caucasus, is a gangster.

                  Comrade Temir, you are a little crazy. Gangsters - they hang up, but do not give state pensions and a luxury home to live in the center of Russia

                  Quote: Tarkhan
                  And the Warsaw citizens who rebelled for the independence of Poland from autocracy were rebels and rioters.
                  And what about these? Was Russia at that time at war with Poland? or what is it, "Nikolai, Tsar of Poland, declares war on himself, Nikolai, but the All-Russian Emperor"? and it turns out that the Polish rebels-simple rebels that is?

                  Quote: Tarkhan
                  And this split is because Urashniki look at history from the position of the colonial imperial autocracy.
                  A simple question - did you site accidentally make a mistake?
                  1. Tarhan
                    Tarhan 16 November 2018 10: 26
                    0
                    Comrade Temir, you are a little crazy. Gangsters - they hang up, but do not give state pensions and a luxury home to live in the center of Russia

                    He was a gangster for the colonial troops, and was a traitor to his people. He raised the people to fight and death, and when it was his turn to die, he bargained out an honorable captivity.

                    And these then what side?

                    The uprising of Tadeusz Kosciuszko for the independence of Poland in 1794. Suppressed by Russian troops and the Prussian troops of General Suvorov and the Prussian king.
      4. Glory1974
        Glory1974 14 November 2018 10: 49
        +5
        It was necessary to agree with the will of the peoples of Turkestan about AUTONOMY within Russia.

        But was it different?
        They cut lands to everyone, organized national republics, opened national schools and academies. After the 91 year, despite the will of all peoples expressed in a referendum on the preservation of the USSR, independent states organized.
        1. Tarhan
          Tarhan 14 November 2018 14: 57
          -7
          But was it different?

          You do not know how to read. I wrote that there would have been no Basmachism if Turkestan autonomy had not been defeated and the city of Kokand had been destroyed with abundant human bloodletting.
          1. Glory1974
            Glory1974 14 November 2018 20: 21
            +2
            You do not know how to read. I wrote that there would be no basmachi if

            I can read that, and I know the story. And I know that the British supported your Basmachi. Just like in Afghanistan in the 1980's. Like in Syria now. This is where the roots of Basmachism must be sought.
    2. Semurg
      Semurg 14 November 2018 08: 38
      -8
      Quote: Tarkhan
      The power of the Communists has long ended, but its ideological attitudes continue to clog up some brains. So in the comments slips satisfaction with colonial policy.

      "On November 15, 1917, the III" Congress of Soviets of the Turkestan Territory "was held in Tashkent under the chairmanship of the Bolsheviks. The first composition of the" Council of People's Commissars of Turkestan "(SNK) did not get representatives of indigenous nationalities.

      November 26, 1917 in Kokand, under the leadership of "Shuro-i-Islamia" was convened IV "All-Turkestan Kurultay of Muslims." The congress was attended by about 200 delegates. Kurultai's next day Turkestan was declared "territorially autonomous in unity with the federal democratic Russian Republic." In Kurultai, it was also decided to name the new state entity “Turkiston Mukhtoriati” (Turkestan Autonomy). At the same kurultai, autonomy authorities were elected. The representative and legislative body was to be the “Provisional People’s Council” in the amount of 54 people, the executive - the Provisional Government, consisting of 12 people.

      The government of Turkestan autonomy in January announced its intention on March 20, 1918 to convene its parliament on the basis of universal direct, equal and secret ballot. Two-thirds of the seats in parliament were intended for "Muslim" (indigenous) deputies, and one third was guaranteed to representatives of the non-Muslim (Slavic) population. This was a good decision - such a parliament would undoubtedly rally all Turkestans and become an insurmountable obstacle for the Bolsheviks. The existence of such a parliament was to be the first step towards the democratization of Turkestan.

      In the government of the Turkestan Soviet Republic (TASSR) formed at the same time in Tashkent, out of 14 of its members there were no indigenous people. The chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Turkestan Republic, Fedor Kolesov, a recent clerk on the Tashkent railway, said: “It is impossible to admit Muslims to the supreme bodies of power, since the position of the local population towards us is not defined and, moreover, they do not have any proletarian organization”

      In an opening speech, Mustafa Shokai (Chairman of the Government of Turkestan Autonomy) said: “Building a full-blooded state on the go is not easy. For this, there is no personnel, no experience. And most importantly, there is no army to protect future autonomy. No matter how weak Russia is, it is much stronger than us. With Russia, we must live in peace and friendship. This is dictated by the geography itself. I do not accept the policy of the Soviets, but I believe in the destructive power of the Bolsheviks ""

      In its inception, Turkestan statehood did not pretend to INDEPENDENCE. She was called AUTONOMY within Russia.

      All the armed speeches of the indigenous peoples of the English, French, and Spanish empires are interpreted as national liberation movements; all the speeches of the indigenous peoples in the Russian Empire and the USSR are interpreted as banditry; that’s all you need to know about the Russian point of view on the history of the peoples inhabiting the territory of the former Russian empire.
    3. Mcar
      Mcar 14 November 2018 09: 51
      +1
      Quote: Tarkhan
      The power of the communists has long ended

      Not yet evening.

      Feudalism also did not instantly grow out of slavery. And capitalism grew out of feudalism painfully - there were just as many bourgeois revolutions. What to expect from communism rate of fire? The process is going on - about half of humanity is on the socialist path. But socialism is communism, only its lower, undeveloped stage.

      I’m sure when the fascist stood near Moscow, similar exclamations were heard at Hitler’s headquarters:
      Quote: Tarkhan
      The power of the communists has long ended
      1. Tarhan
        Tarhan 14 November 2018 15: 19
        -5
        Not yet evening.
        The process is going on - about half of humanity is on the socialist path.

        Yeah. Not to see the current trends that are happening now it must be blind or with socialist eyesore.

        The countries of Eastern Europe abandoned the socialism imposed by the power of the USSR in the 1990s. In Russia itself, the Communists lost power. A blind rustles - It's not yet evening.

        The basic dogma of socialism, without which there is no socialism, is a planned economy and state control over the means of production, that is, over factories. In China, there is now a market economy and private ownership of the means of production — that is, in China there is no socialism. And the Chinese Communist Party is the ruling junta, that's all.

        Only North Korea lives in socialism; in communism lives and builds communism from the promises of a brighter future. So that Alexander would go to North Korea to live under socialism. What you live in the capitalist world.
        1. Mcar
          Mcar 14 November 2018 20: 09
          -5
          Quote: Tarkhan
          Yeah.

          If you are not able to see the agony of the capitalist system, then this is not a question for me. Develop abilities, learn. It helped a lot of people.




          If it is difficult to perceive, then here it is on the fingers:

          1. Tarhan
            Tarhan 14 November 2018 20: 14
            -1
            If you are not able to see the agony of the capitalist system, then this is not a question for me.

            It is you in feverish delirium who see mirages. What do you put up posters. You name the countries that build socialism. There are only two of them today, and not more than half. These are the DPRK and Cuba, and both with outstretched hands.
    4. BAI
      BAI 14 November 2018 15: 46
      +2
      So in the comments slips satisfaction with colonial policy.

      And "White Sun of the Desert" is also called a colonial film.

      and such an frankly colonial film as “The White Sun of the Desert” is one of our favorite films.
  4. Albatroz
    Albatroz 14 November 2018 08: 56
    +6
    I hope that there is a person who writes correctly on the topic of basmachism - in contrast to what is stated in this article. How can bandits have class interests? They can be used, but they naturally lacked any expressed class and national interests.
    1. Mcar
      Mcar 14 November 2018 09: 44
      0
      Quote: Albatroz
      How can bandits have class interests?

      How do you imagine a typical gang of basmachs? Who is at the head of it? Dehkanin with palms as a sole solid from corns? Or local feudal lord, no matter how he was called?
      1. Warrior2015
        Warrior2015 15 November 2018 01: 00
        0
        Quote: McAr
        How do you imagine a typical gang of basmachs? Who is at the head of it? Dehkanin with palms as a sole solid from corns? Or local feudal lord, no matter how he was called?

        It all depends on the time we are talking about.
  5. baudolino
    baudolino 14 November 2018 08: 59
    +3
    The weakening of central authority always provokes the occurrence of organized crime groups. In Turkestan and the Caucasus, these gangs were tinted by nationalism, but the main meaning of their existence is crime.
    The current Outskirts is an excellent confirmation of this.
  6. Hole puncher
    Hole puncher 14 November 2018 09: 03
    -6
    Everything is within the framework of another black myth about Russia and the Russians - about the "occupation by Russia and the Russians" of Central Asia, the Caucasus, etc.

    If this is a myth, then how will the author explain his phrase
    when the Soviet government already completely controlled the situation in the region.

    Why did she do this? The author gives an answer to this.
    Since the detachments of the Red Army and the Soviet police could put up strong resistance

    And where did the Red Army units come from if there was no occupation? Or does the author not understand the term OCCUPATION?
    It has always been believed that occupation is:
    Forced occupation of foreign territory by military force.

    What happened in Central Asia and what the so-called basmachi.
    The author needs to understand the terms and not draw such high-profile conclusions.
    1. Yura
      Yura 14 November 2018 09: 46
      +2
      Quote: Puncher
      And where did the Red Army units come from if there was no occupation? Or does the author not understand the term OCCUPATION?

      So it was not (occupation), there was a response to the separate movements, heated from the outside. This territory of the country, what is the occupation here? Civil war, where there is no place for third parties. How did these territories become part of Russia? It is known - this is the signing of documents on both sides. For example, Finland gained independence, received it officially, documents were signed with the consent of all parties. These are facts and in this article Samsonov is right, and his interpretation of events is correct.
      1. Hole puncher
        Hole puncher 14 November 2018 10: 48
        -6
        Quote: Jura
        How did these territories become part of Russia?

        What does this have to do with it? The Bolsheviks rejected continuity, so this is occupation.
        1. Yura
          Yura 14 November 2018 11: 35
          +3
          Quote: Puncher
          The Bolsheviks rejected continuity,

          This is a false statement, continuity concerns interstate relations and obligations, but not the internal structure of the state.
    2. Olgovich
      Olgovich 14 November 2018 09: 51
      +1
      Quote: Puncher
      It has always been believed that occupation is:
      Violent occupation a stranger territory by military force

      Turkestan was its territory
      1. Hole puncher
        Hole puncher 14 November 2018 10: 39
        -3
        Quote: Olgovich
        Turkestan was its territory

        Whose mine? Russian empire? What does Soviet Russia have to do with it?
        1. Yura
          Yura 14 November 2018 11: 42
          +4
          Quote: Puncher
          Whose mine? Russian empire? What does Soviet Russia have to do with it?

          Direct, exactly the same as France after its Revolution, exactly the same as after the change of the state system of England. For some reason, the Bolsheviks’ violation of continuity towards Finland does not bother you?
          1. Semurg
            Semurg 14 November 2018 18: 52
            -1
            At the expense of Finland, Poland, the Baltic states, this is all Europe, and there the communists from Moscow showed that they were allegedly against the colonial policy of the former rulers of Russia and therefore they were given freedom to these peoples. And in Central Asia, they decided not to stand on ceremony; it’s not Europe, and here the machine guns and Arta very intelligibly explained to the natives that here it is not for you here.
            1. Yura
              Yura 14 November 2018 19: 44
              +2
              Quote: Semurg
              against the colonial policies of the former rulers of Russia

              And she was, this colonial policy? So explain how they became part of Russia, At least the same republics of Central Asia? Causes? Objective circumstances? Facts? After joining Russia, these were not colonies, but part of the state, with all the ensuing consequences, with a single law for all, the tsar and other attributes of power. Moreover, the fact of accession was documented, with the participation of both interested parties. What a habit of blaming Russia, and making it guilty of all sins, and its own. Nothing in life happens just like that.
              1. Tarhan
                Tarhan 14 November 2018 20: 56
                +3
                After joining Russia, these were not colonies, but part of the state, with all the ensuing consequences, with a single law for all, the tsar and other attributes of power.

                Huh? Well, it gives the country coal, even small, but to fig.

                So it can be said about England, France, Belgium, Holland, Portugal and others. They annexed (capture) vast territories - All of Africa, half of Asia. And often the colonialists entered into voluntary agreements with the princes. And all the occupied territories (according to Yuri) did not become colonies, but became part of England, France, Belgium, with their laws and kings.

                So if so. Where did the colonial era in human history go? Nobody nods to Russia. Russia was a full-fledged colonial metropolis, along with England, France, and others. Russia conducted colonial diplomacy with England "The Great Game" They shared spheres of influence without asking the opinion of the indigenous peoples. According to this "Great Game," the south of Iran withdrew to England, the central part remained independent, the northern part went to Russia. Hence the Transcaucasian wars of Russia. Russia retreated to Central Asia, England, Afghanistan. Russia Manchuria, England southeast China. And that is not COLONIALISM ???
                1. Yura
                  Yura 14 November 2018 22: 11
                  +1
                  Quote: Tarkhan
                  with England, France and others.

                  I thought that it would definitely be mentioned, and it was in this perspective, and I don’t need "according to Yuri" here, I don’t care about this west, which didn’t ask anyone about anything and didn’t come to an agreement, just put it in front of its conditions and that ... And there is no need to hide behind some other people's big games, you yourself chose who to be in them and on whose side - this is the first, second - why did Russia come there at all? You undertook to answer instead of the person whom you asked the question so answer, otherwise you did not answer a single question and there with accusations, you are white and fluffy some Englishmen, and Russians to these Englishmen and as a result Central Asia are a colony. Yes, the Russians would be deep on their side, what is going on there in Central Asia, if it was independent in its politics, but kept its robbers in check, and even what robbers, if anyone could, in order to improve their affairs, gather a gang for a raid , whose goal is to rob and take away as many slaves as possible.
                2. gsev
                  gsev 21 November 2018 22: 47
                  0
                  Temir, there are a lot of differences between the policies of Russia with the national suburbs and Western countries with their colonies. The first in the western colonies was forbidden to organize production, in the USSR industry on the outskirts developed at a faster pace and faster training was provided for non-Russians and non-Jews in the national republics. Then the arrival of the Russians in Central Asia did not entail the expulsion from the land of the local population, such as in Congo, Namibia, Algeria or America. Russia's advance to the south was caused by the desire to protect its border territories from raids by slave traders and the capture of slavery by merchants from Russia in neighboring countries. For example, it was an unpleasant surprise for Maskhadov to find out that in Iran, out of a sense of gratitude to the Russian liberated Iranian slaves, they were in no hurry to help the Chechen separatists during the occupation of Turkmenistan. The modern Earth is very cramped for modern weapons and the state with the orders of the Bukhara emirate in the 19th century were doomed to either transformation or absorption.
            2. Tarhan
              Tarhan 14 November 2018 20: 37
              -1

              At the expense of Finland, Poland, the Baltic states


              I’ll clarify a few.

              In the Brest Peace of 1918, the RSFSR committed itself -

              - do not claim Poland, the Baltic states (see Baltic Duchy and the Kingdom of Lithuania) and part of modern Belarus;
              - withdraw troops from Finland and from Ukraine ...

              The Bolsheviks did this. But in the same 1918, Germany surrendered. The Entente without Russia became the full winners. The Entente dictated its terms. Poland, the Baltic states were derived from the influence of Germany. They became independent states. Western Ukraine and western Belarus entered the Polish state, torn away from Russia by the Germans by the Brest Treaty. And Finland was protected by the authority of the Entente.
        2. Olgovich
          Olgovich 15 November 2018 13: 44
          -1
          Quote: Puncher
          Whose mine? Russian empire? What does Soviet Russia have to do with it?

          Rossiskoy, of course. And Soviet Russia lived somewhere in the air7
  7. Catfish
    Catfish 14 November 2018 12: 49
    +8
    Quote: McAr

    What does "bek" (run, bai) mean in the name Ibrahim-bek?


    As comrades from there, from our Central Asia, explained to me, BEKA elect BAI at their council. So the bek is an elective position. "Democracy" they have, is yours to the left.

    Once upon a time I read a book about the Basmach movement in the twenties, the name, unfortunately, I do not remember. There, among others, it was told about a certain kurbashi named Kurmangul. There was also a photograph without a turban: a stupid moron, no forehead at all. So, this frame was banditry even before the 1st World War and ended up in hard labor. The revolution freed the "handsome" and he, returning home, immediately took up the same thing and first put together a gang. What they were doing there, they have already described here, his gang was no different from others. Only he earned fierce hatred from the dekhan, for there was no girl over thirteen years old in the district, whom he would not rape. Three times he was clamped down by the ChON units and three times he, having buried machine guns, "voluntarily went over" to the side of the Soviet regime, having previously interrupted the white officers who planned all his operations. For the fourth time the number did not go through. Kurmangul and about a dozen of the bandits closest to him were brought to the city (I forgot the name) and put on their knees in the square. The people gathered. All demanded to finish the bandits on the spot. There is a custom there: a cake is given to a person sentenced to death, and he asks those around him to break it with him, sort of like the last "absolution." So, none of the local residents began to break a cake with them, and except for the word "dogs" others did not hover over the square. In short, right there, near the duval, the Chonovites slapped them, and people came up and spat on the corpses. Such is the attitude towards "fighters for the people's happiness."

    Thanks to the author for the raised topic, the desire to cover it in more detail. hi
  8. Curious
    Curious 14 November 2018 14: 56
    +1
    As Olgovich, not a minus, but in this case he is right. Just the author, as usual, did not write an article, but tossed on the fan, so the truth was mixed with a certain, let's say, substance.
    If we write about Basmachi, then, first of all, Basmachis never called themselves Basmachis, called themselves Mujahideen. And secondly, Basmachism arose after the defeat of the self-proclaimed Turkestan, or Kokand, autonomy in the winter of the 1918 year.
    One of the last mass demonstrations in Central Asia against the imperial colonial policy, which occurred in 1916 and was caused, in addition to general dissatisfaction with the confiscation of land from the indigenous population for the needs of immigrants, by the massive indignation of the attempt to call the natives to the front for building fortifications, is not necessary . As well as the Central Asian crime from the high road. The fact that former criminals have gone to basmachi does not mean that basmachism is a continuation of pre-revolutionary banditry.
    The fact that Basmachism appeared precisely as the active force of the Central Asian counter-revolution is also evidenced by Soviet historiography. Enough to read "Zevelev A. I., Polyakov Yu. A., Chugunov A. I. Basmachestvo: origin, essence, collapse. - M .: Main edition of oriental literature of the publishing house" Nauka ", 1981."
    By the way, the author, for some reason, does not at all mention the close connection between the ideology of Basmachism and the white movement. For example, in 1919, the chieftain Dutov sent a personal message to one of the leaders of the Dushmans, the former felon Irgash. The leader of a gang of cutthroats was called in it "the valiant leader of the glorious Ferghana dzhigits."
    Dutov made Irgash a centurion and called on “Allah and his great prophet Mohammed” to help “the faithful guardian of Russia's interests in Ferghana”.
    Therefore, in historical terms, the next "masterpiece" of Mr. Samsonov has, like the previous ones, not even zero, negative value.
    1. BAI
      BAI 14 November 2018 16: 32
      +3
      Basmachi never called themselves Basmachi, they called themselves Mujahideen.

      In a sober mind and clear memory, no one will ever call himself a robber and a robber. Basmachi of Central Asia, dushmans of Afghanistan, Chechen terrorists, ISIS in Syria - all call (called) themselves fighters for the faith - "mujahideen".
      Well, the fact that the author did not say anything about whites, so he says - "to be continued."
      1. Curious
        Curious 14 November 2018 16: 37
        0
        And why should the Afghan mojaheds call themselves dushmans, can you explain?
        1. BAI
          BAI 14 November 2018 17: 37
          +3
          And who says they should? The point is that, regardless of the specific activity, everyone selects a harmonious name that justifies the chosen activity. Therefore, no one will call himself a basmach or a dushman.
        2. Warrior2015
          Warrior2015 15 November 2018 01: 07
          +1
          Quote: Curious

          And why should the Afghan mojaheds call themselves dushmans, can you explain?

          The correct name, commonly used in Islamic countries, in Arabic is not mujahid, but "mujah ed din" - "fighter for the (Muslim) faith" or "ghaziy" (warrior of the holy war - ghazavata); Afghan self-styledists call themselves that for the last 40 years (or, more correctly, the last 150 years, and even more correctly, the first mentions from the Arab conquest of the Middle East).

          "dushman" - in Iranian / Persian languages ​​- "enemy" \ "enemy" \ "villain-murderer", the Afghans themselves, the supporters of independence, did not call themselves that, they were called so by the local pro-government forces (first of all, we are talking about the Afghan war 1979- 1989), from which this term was borrowed by Soviet soldiers-internationalists "shuravi".

          "Basmach" is a traditional term in relation to the Central Asian self-styled members of the period 20s-40s of the 20th century, and partly the period of the Afghan war of the USSR. From the Turkic languages ​​- "Basma" - raid \ raid \ departure into the field. In essence, the term means "raider".
          1. Curious
            Curious 15 November 2018 02: 27
            0
            The answer is, of course, a lengthy one, "self-styled" only for you and to the place, and out of place. But I was interested in the point of view of another commentator on the mujahideen.
            1. BAI
              BAI 15 November 2018 10: 11
              +1
              If we are talking about me, then I can only answer with the words of S. Maugham: "We all come up with noble, lofty motives to justify our own actions, both vile and base, for the actions of our enemies."
              Being a warrior of Allah against the infidels, a fighter for freedom and justice (Mujahideen), is much more pleasant than a bandit and a robber from the high road (Basmach).
              We see that the Basmachis enjoyed the support of the population, this is recognized by all objective historians (except the author). The task was to tear the population from the enemy. In the course went propaganda labeling. And propaganda won. No one remembers the Mujahideen, everyone knows the Basmachi.
    2. Warrior2015
      Warrior2015 16 November 2018 03: 44
      +3
      Quote: Curious
      As Olgovich, not a minus, but in this case he is right. Just the author, as usual, did not write an article, but tossed on the fan, so the truth was mixed with a certain, let's say, substance.
      If we write about Basmachi, then, first of all, Basmachis never called themselves Basmachis, called themselves Mujahideen. And secondly, Basmachism arose after the defeat of the self-proclaimed Turkestan, or Kokand, autonomy in the winter of the 1918 year.

      Yes, it turned out once again that the discussion and comments turn out to be much better and more interesting than the most published material!
  9. M. Michelson
    M. Michelson 14 November 2018 15: 23
    0
    Well done, author. Right you are comrade. Now a little remains: to convince Central Asians of this.
    1. Semurg
      Semurg 14 November 2018 18: 42
      +1
      A good word can achieve a lot, and a good word and a revolver can achieve everything. After the revolution, the Russians in the Middle East had both a revolver and a kind word laughing . So we managed to convince the Central Asians, today the situation is different, well, at least they themselves believe in their tales.
  10. BAI
    BAI 14 November 2018 15: 28
    +3
    The author contradicts himself:
    Thus, the Basmachis never enjoyed the mass support of the people.

    и
    “The characteristic features of the Basmachi are cunning, great resourcefulness, audacity, extreme mobility and tirelessness, knowledge of local conditions and communication with the population which is also a means of communication between the gangs.

    Of course, the author prudently used the word "mass character" (try to determine - where massively, where not massively). But how, without the support of the population, the Basmachi could have existed for almost 20 years - until the mid-30s?
    By the way, the author could remember the film "Officers".
  11. BAI
    BAI 14 November 2018 17: 01
    +3
    The author revealed the tactics of the actions of the Basmachi, but he will say something about the structure of their units. After all, these were not isolated units.
    Russian historian Alexander Andreev ("Eastern Orders: Assassins, Wahhabis, Basmachis, Dervishes"):
    In January 1918, near Kokand, near the village of Tashat, the Basmachi Irgash repelled the first attack of the Red Guards. In Kokand, a basmach detachment was held, in which military ranks were established. Unbashi commanded a dozen, Yuzbashi a hundred, commanders Kurbashi, a military district - Lyashkar-Bashi, a military district - Emir Lyashkar-Bashi. Unbashi had two red circles on the right side of his chest - one in one; near the yuzbashi on the right side of his chest there was a circle with a cross in the middle and two crescents on the right sleeve above the elbow.


    By the way, Andreev, in the same place:
    Basmach detachments (Turk. "Basmach" - "attack, raid") appeared on the territory of Central Asia much earlier than the Russian Empire. This was not an organized movement, as Basmachi became after 1917, but small robber gangs. Only after the October Revolution and the coming to power of the Bolsheviks V.I. Ulyanov-Lenin Basmachism became a mass movement whose goal was the overthrow of Soviet power in Central Asia. From 1918 to 1925, the Basmachis were the main ones in the social and political life of Central Asia. Until now, the Basmach movement is the least studied in its history.

    The number of robberies at the very beginning of the XNUMXth century was less than fifty cases a year - in the fertile Ferghana Valley. The tsarist official reported to the capital of the empire:

    “It should be noted that robberies and robberies are committed exclusively by natives, sometimes only, very rarely, their participants are Caucasian immigrants, and even less often Russians. At the same time, Caucasians and Russians act independently, without entering into an agreement with the native robbers. The latter produce open robberies, acting with numerous gangs. Attacks are carried out almost exclusively on the homes of wealthy natives. ”

    From 1900 to 1908, the number of robberies in the Ferghana Valley increased five-fold. The cause of this surge in basmachism was cotton.


    There is also about the support of the population:
    Documents recorded a direct correlation between the growth of robberies and robberies on the number of claims for debt collection. The ruin of the peasantry was the main reason for the emergence of Basmachism at the beginning of the XNUMXth century in Central Asia.

    Ruined city dwellers also went to basmachi. Basmachi often handed out the loot to poor farmers, which attracted the sympathy of the local population. The leaders of the Basmach detachments became popular personalities. The tsarist administration sent special military expeditions to the Basmachi areas, but they did not succeed in defeating them.
  12. peta locksmith
    peta locksmith 14 November 2018 18: 34
    +1
    Quote: Humpty
    They existed mainly through the sale of opium and the support of the British

    finally named 1) the true customer of basmachi - Britain and the true source of financial support - drug loot
  13. Catfish
    Catfish 14 November 2018 18: 49
    +1
    Quote: Petya Locksmith
    Quote: Humpty
    They existed mainly through the sale of opium and the support of the British

    finally named 1) the true customer of basmachi - Britain and the true source of financial support - drug loot


    And now the same is in the same Afghanistan. Only instead of the British - the Americans. And, however, there is no difference. Yes, and in the jihad of the thirties they already had the Thompsons. They were not stingy to supply the children.
  14. dgonni
    dgonni 14 November 2018 19: 05
    -4
    A rewritten manual zampolit 30's. Shame on the author of shame!
    1. Warrior2015
      Warrior2015 15 November 2018 01: 11
      +2
      Quote: dgonni
      A rewritten manual zampolit 30's. Shame on the author of shame!

      To be honest, it turned out a bit weak; from the material from which you can make candy - made an empty wrapper.
    2. nov_tech.vrn
      nov_tech.vrn 17 November 2018 14: 39
      0
      Jonick, I’m not even interested, you just don’t own the question or decided to troll. in general, an unreasonable shellup has proliferated on the site, which, instead of discussing the issue, tries to hang up labels and arrange pointless disputes, this is the administrator's question.
  15. The comment was deleted.
    1. The comment was deleted.
  16. DeGreen
    DeGreen 19 November 2018 23: 19
    +1
    One of the first who began to praise the Basmachi, and then the ROA, is, unfortunately still alive, Rezun
  17. zenion
    zenion 21 November 2018 22: 43
    0
    My father had to fight the basmachi. Such bastards, like Bandera, spared neither strangers nor their own. And the citizens helped them all with poisons and various poisons.
  18. Babur_Imperat
    Babur_Imperat 28 December 2018 13: 46
    0
    I am also on the side of the Basmachi, and here too many people writing on the side of the Basmachi will be any person fighting for their freedom for their wives of children; it is sacred that no one wants his fate and the fate of his children to depend on another person or someone else's unknown society he will fight for its language culture values, therefore it is sacred to all real men of the world, how is it that it will work to strengthen the defense of another society when in this society low moral and cultural values ​​that are opposite to its worldview and there is a resistance. The most important thing is the misfortunes of all people on earth, their low level of moral education, and all this is not evenly distributed throughout the world. For this, Allah gave a common denominator for all. This is his last religion, Islam, but people on all parts of the earth are different in that their views do not coincide even among the great learned Muslims, what to speak of other people who are generally not aware of this. The conclusions of such all the misfortunes of people are due to not coincidence of opinions. The children of Adam will soon destroy each other.
  19. sah4199
    sah4199 21 January 2019 17: 06
    0
    Quote: The same Lech
    The situation in the Donbass unleashed the Kremlin. In Ukraine, the situation with the Russian language was the same as in Belarus, Kazakhstan and other CIS countries. And it was the Kremlin that brought its troops into the Donbass.


    Well, from a bad mind to a healthy one.
    Remind you who trained the Maidan fighters ...

    Further, if the Kremlin sent troops to the Donbass in the Kiev Rada, other people would be sitting now ... so don’t need la ... la.


    Data, which are Ross. troops fought in the Donbass, it is very easy to find. For instance:

    On May 28, 2016, in the church of the Korsun Icon of the Mother of God (Metochion of the Holy Trinity St. Sergius Lavra) in the village of Glinkovo, the Sergiev Posad District, a memorial plaque was opened in honor of vacationers from the 45th separate special guard regiment (Kubinka), destroyed on May 26.05.2014, XNUMX during the assault DAP True, they all left the Russian Armed Forces before death.

    https://cdn.news-front.info/uploads/2016/05/Sergiev_03.jpg
  20. sah4199
    sah4199 21 January 2019 17: 42
    0
    Quote: gsev
    Temir, there are a lot of differences between the policies of Russia with the national suburbs and Western countries with their colonies. The first in the western colonies was forbidden to organize production, in the USSR industry on the outskirts developed at a faster pace and faster training was provided for non-Russians and non-Jews in the national republics. Then the arrival of the Russians in Central Asia did not entail the expulsion from the land of the local population, such as in the Congo, Namibia, Algeria or America. The advance of Russia to the south was caused by the desire to protect its border territories from raids by slave traders and the capture of slavery by merchants from Russia in neighboring countries. For instance ...


    1 "Western colonies were forbidden to organize production" - all industry, roads and railways. in India, Pakistan appeared after 1948? It's not even funny.

    2 "driving the local population from the land" I don’t know how in Sr. Asia - I didn’t study it - but in the Kuban it is clear that all the fertile lands were captured by newcomers Russians, and the local population was driven to inconvenient lands in the mountains. And in cities, for example, Anapa and Sudzhuk-Kale (now Novorossiysk), the local population has disappeared by 100%. Can you tell me where it went?

    3 "to secure your border territories" - so it is necessary to capture the entire globe.