Military Review

Day of the troops of radiation, chemical and biological protection of Russia

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Annually 13 November in our country celebrates the Day of the troops of radiation, chemical and biological protection of Russia. Before 1993, the chemical forces were called, afterwards the troops of the radiation, chemical and biological defense of the Russian Armed Forces were special troops in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, whose main purpose is to protect the country's armed forces from weapons mass destruction using a variety of special equipment. In 2018, the troops of the RCB protection celebrate their 100 anniversary.


Official история The modern Russian forces of radiation, chemical and biological protection keep their report from November 13 on 1918, when the Red Army Chemical Service was formed under the order of the Republic Military Council under number 220, and the process of creating the first bodies and anti-chemical defense units began. However, in reality, the formation of chemical units began in the Russian Imperial Army during the First World War.

It was the events of the First World War that became a prologue in the rise of modern RCB forces protecting the Russian Armed Forces. The first units of the chemical troops appeared in the Russian army in 1915, and by the end of the next year, 12 chemical gas teams, as well as 10 flamethrower teams and 4 flamethrowers, were created in the army. In the infantry units, the anti-chemical defense units were actively created. In 1917, antigas teams were formed in divisions and regiments of the Russian army, which were tasked with training soldiers in chemical protection, training and repairing gas masks, maintaining meteorological and chemical observation, and alerting troops of a chemical attack by the enemy.

Day of the troops of radiation, chemical and biological protection of Russia


After the revolutionary events and the end of the civil war in the country in 1924-1925, as part of the reform, the foundations were laid for the creation of the chemical service of the Red Army, as well as the chemical troops, a very important step was taken towards the creation of a centralized command of them. 15 August 1925, a special Military Chemical Department was formed with the head of the supply of the Red Army. The main purpose of its creation was to unite the leadership in supplying military chemical assets and conducting research in the country in the development of new means of protecting and equipping chemical troops. Already by the beginning of 1925, chemical units were available in all infantry and cavalry regiments of the Red Army, and in 1927, in divisions and brigades.

Directly before the Great Patriotic War in 1939-1940 in the USSR, separate battalions of PHO - anti-chemical defense and separate degassing battalions of district and central subordination were formed. Degassing companies were formed as part of armies, corps and rifle divisions, and in regiments - platoons of PHO and flamethrower teams. IN tank In brigades and divisions, separate flamethrower-chemical companies and battalions were formed, which were intended for flamethrowing and setting up camouflage smoke screens. As part of naval bases and fleets divisions of PHO and smoke camouflage were formed.

The development of chemical troops continued during the Great Patriotic War, as there was a threat of the use of chemical weapons by Germany. And after the end of the Second World War, the troops faced new challenges and threats. The emergence and spread of nuclear weapons, as well as bacterial (biological) means that could be used for military purposes, led to the emergence of new urgent tasks to protect troops from the damaging factors of new types of weapons of mass destruction. The solution of these tasks was assigned to the chemical troops.



In April, the USSR 1986 and the world were shocked by the news of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The Chernobyl disaster became an example of a modern severe technological accident and severe test for the country's armed forces, including for the chemical troops. The chemical troops performed an enormous amount of work in conditions of high levels of radiation during the liquidation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. For the heroism and personal courage displayed at the same time, hundreds of soldiers and officers of the chemical troops were presented to various government orders and medals. The experience of eliminating the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant demonstrated the need to create special mobile units of the chemical troops, which in the period from 1986 to 1989 were created in all military districts of the country.

Chemical troops underwent a severe test during the hostilities in Afghanistan and Chechnya, where aerosol and flame-incendiary agents were widely used. The experience gained in battles made significant changes in the tactics of the flamethrower units of the troops, determined the further improvement of their organizational structure. In August 1992, the chemical troops were renamed radiation, chemical and biological defense troops. The new name fully reflects the tasks for which they are intended.

Today, the basis of the RCBZ troops of the Russian Armed Forces is made up of separate brigades, regiments and battalions, which have units capable of performing the full range of RCB protection activities. The main tasks of the troops of the RCB protection today include:
- identification and assessment of radiation, chemical and biological conditions, scales and consequences of destruction of radiation, chemically and biologically hazardous objects;
- ensuring the protection of compounds and units of the Russian Armed Forces from the damaging factors of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and radiation, chemical, and biological contamination;
- reducing the visibility of troops and important objects;
- elimination of the consequences of accidents (destruction) and man-made disasters at radiation, chemically and biologically hazardous industrial facilities;
- causing losses to the enemy's forces through the use of flame-incendiary means.


Flag of troops of radiation, chemical and biological protection of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation


RCB protection is carried out in full, not only in the conduct of hostilities with the use of weapons of mass destruction, but also without the use of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons by the enemy and includes:
- notch nuclear explosions;
- radiation, chemical, biological reconnaissance and control;
- collection and processing of information on the radiation, chemical, biological environment;
- Alert military units of RCB infection;
- carrying out special treatment (decontamination, decontamination and disinfection) of military and special equipment, weapons, facilities and other facilities, as well as sanitary treatment of the personnel of the armed forces;
- aerosol counteraction to the means of reconnaissance and guidance of the enemy.

Today, the troops of the RCB defense of the Russian Armed Forces have accumulated quite a lot of experience, which is realized not only in the system of training troops, but also in educational, scientific and methodological activities. Nowadays, much attention is paid to the study and subsequent introduction of the experience gained by the troops during local wars and armed conflicts into the elements of combat training. In this connection, only in the period from 2015 to 2018, the 29 exercises of various levels were held in Russia, including the 8 exercises together with the federal executive authorities at the chemical industry and atomic energy facilities of the country.

Every year in Russia, based on the results of evaluating the effectiveness of the use of RCB protection equipment, weapons and special equipment, scientific research is conducted that is aimed at improving these means and methods of their combat use. Taking into account that in recent years increased attention has been paid to the issues of the country's defense, the RCB protection system for the troops is constantly evolving. This is mainly due to the provision of the army and navy with modern samples of RCB protection means. For example, by the end of 2018, the share of modern designs in the troops will be more than 65 percent, and by 2020, at least 70 percent.


РХМ-6 27 of the separate brigade of the RCB protection in a training session on the elimination of the consequences of conditional chemical contamination in the Kursk region 21 March 2018


Special attention is paid to the development of various robotic complexes for the RCB protection troops. At the same time, the very first “robots” in the Armed Forces appeared in these troops and were intended for solving special tasks. These include mobile robotic complexes KPR and remotely controlled robots of radiation and chemical reconnaissance RD-RHR, which are the standard means of military units and formations of troops RCBZ. The listed robotic complexes allow servicemen to perform tasks of conducting chemical and radiation reconnaissance in conditions of elevated concentrations in the air and on the ground of hazardous chemicals and high levels of radiation, making it possible to maximize the presence of personnel in dangerous areas.

Today, officers are trained for the RCBZ troops at the Military Academy of Radiation, Chemical and Biological Protection named after Marshal Tymoshenko of the Soviet Union. This academy is famous for its traditions and highly qualified graduates. Nowadays, there are about 200 PhDs and 30 Doctors of Science among the faculty members of the Academy, and 13 scientific schools successfully conduct their work at the departments of the Academy. In its field, the Military Academy of RChB Protection is one of the foremost institutions of higher education in the world, with over a thousand students and cadets studying there. Today, education at this university is conducted with the widespread use of automated learning systems, and an extensive electronic library has been created. The growing attractiveness of military service in the Russian Federation attracts attention to the university and the beautiful half of humanity. Over the past two years, the BA RCBZ has been recruiting girls. In 2018, the competition at the academy was more than 6 people in place.

Specialists and junior commanders of the RCB protection for the military specialties for the needs of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation are trained in the 10 training Transylvanian Red Banner Order of Alexander Nevsky Center for Radiation, Chemical and Biological Defense. The classroom, prikazarmennaya and field training and material base created in the center allows to sufficiently carry out the process of training junior specialists of the RCBZ troops in an environment that is as close as possible to the real one.

The cadets of the 282-th training center of the troops of the RCB protection work out the skills in combat equipment "Warrior" and in the gas mask PMK-4

According to Major-General Igor Anatolyevich Kirillov, Chief of the Radiation, Chemical and Biological Defense Forces of the Russian Armed Forces, in 2019, a set of measures is planned in the country that will be aimed at improving the system of radiation, chemical and biological protection of the troops and the population of Russia. Among other things, an interdepartmental doctrine should be held, within the framework of which, together with the federal executive bodies, the issues of ensuring the integrated safety of a radiation-hazardous facility in modern conditions will be worked out. The doctrine is significant since it is being held for the first time. The crown of the preparation of troops RCBZ next year will be a special exercise "Protection-2019". In the framework of “Protection-2019”, the effectiveness of new approaches to the implementation of the tasks set will be assessed, taking into account the re-equipment of the troops with modern weapons, as well as new models of military and special equipment. The announced plans for the 2019 year only underline that the RCBZ troops are developing in our country as dual-purpose troops capable of solving various tasks both in wartime and in peacetime while eliminating the consequences of various man-made accidents and disasters at radiation, chemical and biologically hazardous enterprises. industry.

According to the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation, today the troops of radiation, chemical and biological protection successfully solve the responsible and complex tasks of organizing the protection of the Armed Forces and the population of Russia from the consequences of using various types of weapons of mass destruction, take part in eliminating the consequences of man-made disasters and natural disasters.

November 13 "Military Review" congratulates the current military personnel, as well as veterans of the radiation, chemical and biological defense troops on their professional holiday.

Based on materials from open sources
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  1. DrVintorez
    DrVintorez 13 November 2018 06: 03
    +5
    I categorically congratulate all those involved on the 100th anniversary of the troops of the Russian Chemical Forces! HOORAY!
    1. APIS
      APIS 13 November 2018 07: 46
      +3
      Quote: DrVintorez
      I categorically congratulate all those involved on the 100th anniversary of the troops of the Russian Chemical Forces! HOORAY!

      I join !!!
    2. bouncyhunter
      bouncyhunter 13 November 2018 09: 42
      +5
      Happy Holiday !!! drinks
  2. vladcub
    vladcub 13 November 2018 08: 11
    +3
    I wish the RKhBZ residents only educational tasks to solve and good health to them.
    1. K-612-O
      K-612-O 13 November 2018 19: 19
      0
      But we often solve the combat ones. Anthrax in reindeer is only recently remembered. Yes, and with the barmaley we fight quietly, with our "Tosochka"! hi
  3. MrFox
    MrFox 13 November 2018 10: 40
    +2
    The cryptographic profession is so secret that they decided not to remember about this professional holiday?
    Today, too, 100 years of service
    1. K-612-O
      K-612-O 13 November 2018 19: 22
      0
      I sincerely congratulate you on your professional holiday! smile good
  4. Bryanskiy_Volk
    Bryanskiy_Volk 13 November 2018 12: 31
    0
    Noginsk study is a disgusting place among swamps teeming with mosquitoes. Even the "jackals" considered him rotten (when I was) in terms of career prospects. Of all the training companies, the flamethrowers got the most: almost every day in full gear (armored man, AK, pack with a pair of shot "bumblebees", but filled with sand) 5 km to the training fields there and back.
    1. K-612-O
      K-612-O 13 November 2018 19: 15
      0
      Beauty, recalled funny cadet years! And as you like, a chemist is always tougher than infantry. But Galkino or Razdolnoe, in the Far East, it will be worse. Was everywhere. Bunkovo ​​is still a resort, even compared to 1 mobile brigade.
      1. Bryanskiy_Volk
        Bryanskiy_Volk 14 November 2018 21: 15
        0
        Yes, there were also Tambov trainees in ZKV positions in our academic community - this, of course, was a different calico, compared to the bastard sergeants of the local spill, left in the training: they really conducted theoretical classes as expected and at least tried to teach something. But they arrived - they left. Guests in military unit, in short. And about endurance, where did she come from? For half a year I lost more than 20kg of weight.
  5. tank64rus
    tank64rus 13 November 2018 18: 20
    +1
    Happy 100th anniversary of Himari!
  6. K-612-O
    K-612-O 13 November 2018 19: 12
    0
    Thank you very much for not forgetting the chemical! hi drinks good