Within the walls of the Military Academy
The former Academy of the General Staff of the Red Army after the appointment of its chief M.N. Tukhachevsky was renamed in accordance with the order of the RVS of the Republic of 5 on August 1921 of the year to the Military Academy of the Red Army (hereinafter - the Red Army Military Academy). The Eastern Branch was created in it by the decision of LD. Trotsky still in the composition of the former Academy of the General Staff of the Red Army in accordance with the order of the RVS of the Republic of 29 in January 1920 of the year №137. In this case, the task was set to start classes with the first set of students already from February 1, in other words, 3 a day after the order. For training was ordered to recruit 40 students. In fact, classes began only with 11 February.
It was a new and difficult business, so for 3, the 6 chiefs of the Eastern Division (later, the division) changed. The situation stabilized only with the appointment of 1 on August 1921 of the year to this position by the former officer of the imperial Maritime General Staff B.I. Dolivo-Dobrovolsky. He almost 2 year led the training of military specialists and workers Commissariat of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter - NCID) to work in the East and in other regions. The selection of military service candidates for training, the educational process and the distribution of graduates was supervised by the Red Army Headquarters Intelligence Agency.
In the year when Mirra Fleurova entered the academy, students were recruited “from among those who wanted 20 people who passed the entrance exam” and another 20 people, also after special testing, were sent to study from NCID. By the way, in the 1921 year, when Mirra passed the exams, the order of admission to the Eastern Branch of the Academy of the RKKA commanders who proved themselves in practice was simplified. However, out of one and a half thousand red commanders, initially selected by the troops to study at the academy, only 248 people passed the entrance exams. And it came to release from the Red Army and even less - only 115 people.
There were people from different walks of life, with different levels of education and combat experience, among the students who were studying academic studies with Mirra. Thus, by social composition, future military intelligence officers and diplomats included 28% of workers and peasants, and 72% were ranked as intellectuals. Every tenth student was non-partisan, and 90% of them were in the party, but had different party experience (from the candidate to the pre-revolutionary). The majority (60%) had a secondary education, while each 10 had only a lower or home education. The remaining 30% students before they entered the academy managed to get diplomas of higher and special education. Each 5 had no combat experience at all, while the remaining 80% at different times and in various army positions participated in battles on the fronts of the Civil War.
At first, classes at the Eastern branch took place in the evening - from 18.00 to 21.15 (4 classes per day). This mode of study allowed students to attend classes at the main faculty of the Academy. This was encouraged by management. Moreover, for future diplomats, the study of military subjects was not mandatory. The Eastern Division (later the Division) was a separate division of the Academy, although it was located in the same building. This structure had its office and its staff of 25 people.
Since 1922, classes have been held in the daytime and under new curricula. The main emphasis was placed on the study of Oriental languages: Chinese, Turkish, Persian and others, although the curriculum included European languages. In addition, military geography and the economic situation of the states of the Middle East, the policies of the great powers in the East, trade law, military disciplines and special subjects were studied. The term of study was originally 3 of the year. Between the 2 and 3 courses, students had to have a six-month internship in the studied country. Such missions, as a rule, were carried out in the interests of the NKID and the Intelligence Agency of the Red Army Headquarters. Then it was decided to reduce the period of theoretical training to 2-s years, followed by a one-year trip of students to the East to one of the studied countries. Apparently, Mirra Flerova specialized in Chinese topics. And the Chinese language was taught to the listeners by its speakers - Lien Kun and Quy Qiu Bo. Soon, knowledge of the language was useful to her in practice.
During the time of training, Flerova at the Eastern Branch of the Supreme Soviet of the Red Army, very little time was devoted to the study of military disciplines. So, in the 1 course, military affairs were not included at all in the curriculum. On the 2 course, 65 training hours were assigned to military subjects, and on the 3 course, 34 training hours were given. In other words, only about 100 training hours for the entire period of study.
P. Gusterin notes that in 1924, women from the Red Army were released from the Red Army. As you know, one of them was Mirra. By the way, at the same time with Flerova, the well-known security officer Yakov Blumkin studied at the Academy. And Larisa Reisner’s brother, a future diplomat, intelligence officer and historian Igor Reisner, studied at the Eastern Branch. Within the walls of the academy, Mirra met with a student of the main faculty Rafail Natanovich Sakhnovsky, who turned out to be a fellow soldier in the 4 rifle division. In July, 44, they got married. So Mirra became Sakhnovskaya-Florova. It is unlikely that the future scout could have imagined the sad consequences of her marriage in the future. But in those days of loving youth, their life together was seen to be happy and cloudless.
A year later, another entry appeared in her service record: “She graduated from the course of the Red Army Military Academy with the rights of persons with a higher military education, with a rating of“ good. ” And on the eve of the release by order of the USSR RVS from 12 June 1924, she was assigned to the reserve of the Red Army to perform special tasks of the USSR RVS. That assignment was her business trip with her husband as military advisers to revolutionary China.
Military Advisor in China
In February, 1923, the head of the Republic of China, Sun Yat-sen, appealed to the USSR leadership to send Soviet military specialists and political workers to Canton (Guangzhou) in southern China to assist the Chinese revolutionary government. In March of the same year, a small group of military experts was seconded from the Soviet Union to China to study the issue of military assistance to the Sun Yat-sen government.
In 1924, in China, at the I-th congress of the Kuomintang, it was decided to create a revolutionary army. The government of Sun Yat-sen again turned to the USSR for help in building revolutionary armed forces. The Soviet leadership decided to send military experts to China. At various times in the period from 1924 to 1927, China worked up to 135 Soviet military advisers. The command of the Red Army together with the Intelligence Agency was engaged in the selection of advisers, taking into account their military specialization. Among them were also political workers, teachers, famous military leaders.
As a point of reference for the creation of a modern Chinese army, it was decided to use the basic training center for the training of command and political personnel. Already in the summer of 1924, a school for the training of officers for the new army opened on the island of Whampoa (Huangpu in the local dialect) in the south of China. The USSR actually financed the whole educational process and provided students with all the necessary things up to the end of relations with the Kuomintang in 1927. The Wampoo School (sometimes called the Academy) became the main center for training officer personnel and, over the years of its work, has released about 4,5 thousand officers. Graduates of the Wapmu School constituted the backbone of the National Revolutionary Army of China.
The military advisers of the South China Group began to arrive in Canton (Guangzhou) by the summer of 1924. Each adviser still in Moscow, instead of the real name, received a pseudonym. So, R. Sakhnovsky became P. Nilov, M. Sakhnovskaya received the pseudonym M. Chubareva. In June, the chief military adviser, commander, commander P.A. Pavlov (Govorov). After his accidental death (he drowned in the Dongjiang River on July 18), reports to the Center, sent through the plenipotentiary, were signed by the group chief of staff R. Sakhnovsky (P. Nilov). In August, V.K. was appointed Chief Military Adviser. Blucher (Galin, Ural).
Formally, all military advisers were listed in the staff of the special department. Mf Sakhnovskaya (Chubareva) was indicated in the reports as “the head of the intelligence department” and the head of the intelligence work. She also developed a plan for arming the Chinese workers. According to the expenditure schedule annex for the special department from 12 December 1924, the staff of advisers already provided for 48 official rates, of which 9 rates were for technical staff (translators, typist, etc.). As later recalled the wife of the military adviser V. Akimov - V.V. Vishnyakova-Akimov, the majority of Soviet military specialists went to civilian clothes. However, those who were constantly in the divisions of the Chinese army, "wore a dappled uniform of the National Revolutionary Army from a thin gabardine of protective color, with braided brown buttons, a cap or cork helmet."
The Soviet colony of the Southern Group in Dunshan lived together and unitedly. Almost all advisers have written out their families. All were in charge. Wives, even with small children in their arms, must have worked somewhere: in the group’s apparatus, in the dining room, in the club, in the library, or in the kindergarten. Some gave lessons in the Russian language of Chinese youth, which was selected to study in the USSR.
There were many children and more and more small ones. Some of them were born in China, for example, Mirra Sakhnovskaya. Mirra Sakhnovskaya at that time was the head of the group's headquarters and teacher at the Whampoa Academy. “The male profession,” noted V. Vishnyakova-Akimova in her book, “the habit of wearing men's clothes left an indelible imprint on her. She spoke in a low voice, smoked a lot, walked with long steps, a woman's dress sat on her somehow, and it was obvious that she was annoyed at the fact that she had to wear it. She cut her hair under the brace, she had magnificent curly hair of a golden hue. With her rare smile, it was obvious that she lacked many teeth. When I asked her, she once said that she often had teeth in her civil war, and there was no time to heal, so she simply pulled them out. ”
Counselors sometimes good-naturedly mocked Sakhnovskaya when she was “in all the characteristic features of her position,” she lectured in Wampa. Chinese officers of the officers' school treated the unusual situation with understanding.
Sakhnovskaya, according to the recollections of people who knew her, was the tender mother of two children. But she did not always have the opportunity to show them all her love. For example, the same Vishnyakova-Akimova recalled such a picture. Under the windows of the headquarters, a nanny with a chest Pavlik in her arms wanders indecisively. From time to time she comes to the window and imploringly says that the child wants to eat. Mirra leans out of the window and tells her to leave because she is busy. By the way, Vishnyakova-Akimov and some others in their publications indicated the name of Sakhnovskaya as Mira, although it is spelled correctly with two letters “p” - Mirra.
Vishnevskaya-Akimova mentions another episode when, by order of Chiang Kai-shek, the Chinese military surrounded the territory where Soviet military advisers were stationed. The first to react to hostile actions was Mirra Sakhnovskaya, chief of staff of the group. “A translator,” she demands, “tell me right now that they return this moment to the moment’s selected Mauser.”
Sadik in front of the headquarters and intelligence department was occupied by a detachment of Chinese soldiers led by a Kuomintang officer. A reinforced guard was set up near the headquarters and reconnaissance department - two dozen soldiers with rifles.
A delegation was immediately formed at the headquarters of the group for talks with Chiang Kai-shek. It includes Mirra Sakhnovskaya and someone else. Delegates returned only after lunch. It became known that Chiang Kai-shek demanded the immediate return of Chief Military Adviser Blucher, who enjoyed great prestige among Chinese leaders and military.
In general, the Soviet-Chinese relations began to deteriorate after the death of March 1925 of Sun Yat-sen. In the summer of 1926, part of the military advisers was recalled to their homeland. The path to Moscow at that time took more than a month of a long journey home. Ahead of them were waiting for new trials, changes in service and life in connection with the struggle launched in the USSR against the Trotskyist opposition.
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