Military Review

Shtostsruppen Second Reich. Part of 3

Considering the recruitment, it should be noted that right up to the end of 1917, the assault battalions were recruited exclusively by volunteers - a phenomenon uncharacteristic of the German military system. But the officers were appointed by order, and then it began to be practiced in relation to the lower ranks. In addition to volunteers, frames for various units were also drawn to replenish the assault battalion. So, to replenish the units of the 9 th assault battalion, the following were served: for assault companies - people from the depot of the 50 th infantry regiment, for mortar units - from the depot of the 29 pioneer battalion, for light machine gun divisions - from the 3 battalion of the Debriditsky battalion demarital squadron battalion; [Taneyev. Decree. cit. C. 4.]. The personnel requirements were so high that more than 4 people were eliminated during the re-formation of the Jäger battalion’s Jänfer’s 500’s [Drury I. R. 21.].

Shtostsruppen Second Reich. Part of 3

Non-commissioned officers and soldiers, as a rule, younger than 25-year-olds, who are physically fit, are unmarried (if married, they are childless). The main selection criterion is initiative and personal courage. So, one of the orders noted that the service in the assault unit is a big difference. After all, the assault case not only freed from the usual trench service, but also provides the best food and content, and awards are distributed more generously. Not showing enough effort and personal merit should be excluded from the assault [Taneyev. Ibid.].

The assault battalions were manned by fired and experienced personnel. Not for nothing, they began to implement and training functions - namely, assault troops as permanent assault units. The establishment of the assault battalions was supposed to facilitate the training of as many officers and non-commissioned officers as instructors of positional warfare and melee attacks and allow them to achieve new improvements for attacking enemy fortified positions. [Ibid. C. 1.].

The personnel of the assault units that were outside the combat zone were engaged in the preparation of new attack aircraft. The non-commissioned officers and soldiers of the army units underwent short-term training as part of the assault battalions, and then, returning to their units, used new tactical ideas and skills acquired during training.

First of all, this was done by the exemplary assault battalion of Rohr. In accordance with the instructions of 1916, half of the battalion was to be at the front, and the second half was to engage in special training for infantrymen on new tactics. These courses were located in Beauville. Moreover, the battalion was engaged not only in retraining issues, he also trained assault instructors.

In December, 1915, for example, hundreds of servicemen of the 12 Landward Division passed through the Rohr battalion - receiving assault training, Landwehr acquired the skills of the latest tactical constructions, read maps, stormed training defensive lines.

Non-commissioned officers inculcated the skills of independence (non-commissioned officer - junior commander, not just a simple officer of officer orders, had to keep confidently and show a reasonable initiative). Privates must know all the ways to fight.

Training for military personnel included theoretical and practical courses.

The purpose of the first is to familiarize seconded officers and non-commissioned officers (based on fresh combat experience) with tactical techniques, the specifics of positional warfare, the use of combat weapons, and the interaction of forces and means (primarily assault ones) in battle. Lectures were given on the actions of the German and enemy weapons, the interaction between the infantry, machine gunners and gunners in the offensive and in defense, establishing and maintaining communication.

here and above - assault troops

The most important tasks of practical training are the introduction of iron discipline (which is why stormtroopers later became one of the strongholds of order in the chaos of revolutionary Germany), instilling confidence in their strength, love for work, tempering character and body, and developing skills in modern combat.

For practical training of attack aircraft built special towns, equipped in accordance with the latest front-line experience. A particularly important role was played by the camp near Sedan. Practical training of attack aircraft included practicing trench combat skills, handling machine guns (domestic and enemy), throwing grenades of all types, overcoming obstacles, destroying wire obstacles, handling carbines and pistols, participating in combined maneuvers using flamethrowers.

scheme of the training camp for the preparation of attack aircraft

Initially, individual and then group training was carried out, and, finally, within the entire unit (when the entire complex of the assault battalion was used). In the course of training, training positions were worked out against the attacks of enemy trenches, the seizure of several lines of enemy positions, counterattacks, the stripping of resistance centers, actions against fortifications and machine guns, and the reflection of enemy counterattacks. The attackers threw grenades, dragged machine guns, crawled on their bellies, stormed the lines of trenches.

attack aircraft in a training camp near Sedan, May 1917

obstacle course in a training camp near Sedan. August 1917

The success of the Germans in March 1918 was largely due to the excellent preparation of attack aircraft. The assault on the training lines of defense, identical to real targets, repeatedly worked out their attacks. The command staff had large-scale maps created on the basis of the latest aerial photography data. In preparation, combat cartridges and grenades were widely used, and this sometimes led to dire consequences. Thus, an eyewitness recalled how during a training attack on the defensive positions of a complex trench configuration, combat grenades were used, and one of the machine-gunners with a queue cut off an officer from the horse who was watching the exercises [Drury I.P. 25].

in training camp under Sedan, 1917

The situation was as close as possible to the combat: they used gases and smoke, the targets were full-scale, they worked out the interaction of all the armed forces, and repeated exercises of assault trenches using mortars, flamethrowers and infantry guns of the fighters, brought the actions of the latter to automatism. At the heart of the preparation lay the perfected technique of throwing into the attack, the technique of overcoming artificial obstacles and the technique of grenade fighting in the trenches. The fighter was required to outline in advance the path of movement to the attack - taking into account shelters (hollows, craters, etc.) and points of respite, to work out the technique of movement. Such preparation of the attack led to the fact that the latter was carried out rapidly, almost without needing control. In the throwing of grenades, such perfection was achieved - so that from the breaks of one trench or the course of a message, accurately throw the grenade into a defensive or trench defended by the enemy.

attack aircraft

On the eve of the last major offensive of the German imperial army, E. Ludendorff even tried to create assault formations - the so-called. shock or assault divisions. But the progressive shortage of high-quality manpower forced him to abandon plans to turn all his infantry divisions into assault: in the winter of 1917 / 18, planning a large offensive in the west, he saw that too many soldiers had crossed the 30-year line or lacked the necessary physical training. The general reorganized, gathering young fighters in the shock divisions — for each shock division, on average, 3 had positional divisions of lower combat value. The latter were staffed by youngsters and older people, had a minimum of equipment, differing in lower fighting spirit. Impact compounds received the lion's share of artillery, supplies, ammunition and preparation time. The strongest fighters were sent to their ranks. But mass connections did not have the quality of training and the elite assault battalions.

Uniforms and equipment.

The German infantry of the First World War had one of the most practical uniforms. The 1910 g. Uniform, recalling the days of the victory of the Franco-Prussian war, was well suited for maneuvering campaigns, but with the transition of hostilities to the positional stage, the form began to change. The crowded helmet Shishak had no practical function, perfectly indicating the location of the German soldier. Therefore, the front-line soldiers tried to get rid of this detail of their headdress. In 1915, a new model helmet is introduced - with a removable sisak and a cloth case. The new helmet was not made of leather (it was getting smaller), but of felt, metal, and even pressed cardboard.

The first attack aircraft in 1915 wore a standard uniform - at that time the uniform of the fighters on the front line differed from the established pattern only in minor details. In accordance with the pre-war program, instead of field gray trousers (feldgrau), stone-gray-colored pants (stengrau) were injected - after all, the matter of the fieldgradua faded rapidly. Instead, the sample tuner 1907 / 10. A new, more practical, no flap (in the place of missing pockets), but having cuffs instead of characteristic cuffs. The soldiers were ordered to blacken leather items: belts, boots, and cartridge bags - although it was not always possible in front-line conditions. The shooters and huntsmen retained the shape of a characteristic gray-green hue, while the uniform in the machine-gun parts became gray-protective. This, of course, applied to the "native units" of the storm troopers wearing the uniform. The designations of belonging to the military unit were limited to the number on the epaulets, at the same time the regimental galloons remained, although now they were sewn only on the collar. The non-commissioned officer’s galloe became simpler — and they began to be sewn only on the corners of the collar, while the cuff-erated galloon became a small segment, sewn on top of the cuff. The pre-war overcoat was replaced by a gray-protective uniform overcoat intended for servicemen regardless of belonging to the combat arm.

reconstruction of weapons and equipment of the fighter of German assault units 1917-18. Dressed in a field blouse and field trousers made of gray fabric, boots with windings, a 1916 steel helmet on his head. From weapons - Mauser 98А carbine, grenades, a trench knife - a characteristic weapon of assault units. Out of equipment - a shovel, a gas mask, on the neck cartridge belt for 70 cartridges, two bags for grenades.

With 1915, a gas mask consisting of a mask of rubberized fabric and a filter box (removable; a spare one was worn) began to flow into the troops.

21. 09. 1915. The German army received a new uniform. The tunic replaced the blouse (although the old tunics were worn until the end of the war), which had a more loose fit. It had large oblique pockets on the front of the 2, buttoning gray metal-buttoned buttons (for additional masking, the buttonholes closed the slat). They sewed a dark-blue feldgrau blouse, trimming a turn-down collar with a green fabric. An 1895 model satchel with calfskin cover was too uncomfortable for trenches. On the Eastern Front, the satchel was worn until the end of the war, and in the Western, it gave way to an “assault pack” consisting of a raincoat and greatcoat, rolled up into a roll and wrapped around a bowler hat. This design was lighter and more compact. Sometimes the old knapsacks were used outside the front line (during the marches), but they mostly gave up in the wagon train.

attack ground equipment

Only at the beginning of 1916, the attackers receive a new piece of equipment that distinguishes them from the army, the steel helmet, which in time became a kind of emblem of the German army. Over the course of 1915, this helmet was attacked along with various types of body armor. The German helmet, nicknamed by the British "bucket for coal", was made of silicon-nickel steel and weighed 1,2 kg. Thanks to the backplate and eyelets, he protected the warrior’s head much better than Adrian’s French helmet or the English (reminiscent of medieval times) “shaving basin”. Inside the helmet was a shock absorber, and the chin strap was adjusted in length. Two ears, sticking out on the sides of the helmet, made it possible to fasten an additional armor sheet. The helmet was worn, as a rule, by guards and snipers, whereas among the usual infantrymen, he initially met infrequently. Stormtroopers wore helmet polls. As the English document noted, the Germans had a high opinion of their helmets, who in the very short time earned a great deal of confidence in the army. [Tactical techniques of the German army from the experience of 1916 fighting in the Somme. C. 23].

Initially, the Rohr battalion tested various types of body armor — the latter were supposed to reduce personnel losses. In addition to body armor, they were tested by attack aircraft and shields. But the imperfection of the technology of the time led to the fact that it was necessary to make shields from fairly thick steel sheets - and the shields were too heavy and inconvenient to attack. This shield is more disturbed than defended. Bullet-proof vests were also inconvenient, and they were mainly used by observers and sentries - fighters who do not need to move a lot. More actively used "cuirass" and "armor" branches of light machine guns of assault groups. And by the beginning of the offensive near Verdun, February 1916, the attack aircraft apparently differed in appearance from the infantry. For example, if many attackers wore a steel helmet, most of the infantrymen continued to wear a pickelub with a shishak removed.

Attack soldiers wore and equipment adapted to their specific tasks. They quickly abandoned the use of pouches, starting to stuff the cartridges into the pockets of the tunic. Later, a triple pouch began to be worn on one side, while on the other side - on a belt - a trench dagger. The rifle was worn behind his back, and the waist belt with cartridge bags was missing. Spare rifle clips were in a cartridge case thrown over the neck (up to 70 cartridges). Each attack plane had at least a dozen hand grenades (as much as it could carry) - they were worn in bags suspended over their shoulders. Some attack aircraft had wire cutters in order to make passages in wire fences. Another distinguishing feature of the attack aircraft was that he wore boots with windings instead of boots. Large leather patches were sewn on the elbows and knees - reinforcing problem areas (with constant crawling). From personal belongings, the attack aircraft carried a bowler hat and overcoat in the roll with them.

The 1917 manual called the steel helmet, gas mask, 2 bags for grenades, 2 water flasks and duffel bag as mandatory attributes of the attack aircraft equipment. Since by the end of 1916, assault battalions appeared in all armies of the Western Front (and the soldiers in their composition served for a certain time, then returning to their units), by the middle of 1917, non-commissioned officers and officers served in most infantry battalions, trained in the assault. Returning to their unit, they brought with them not only the latest tactics, but also a characteristic form. In the autobiographical novel “War” L. Rennes recalled how a new officer of the unit asked the sergeant-major about what he wears windings and patches for if it is not allowed by the charter. When the latter explained that he served in the assault, the captain was satisfied, because he was going to create an assault platoon in his unit, but many officers did not like that such noncoms not only had a special form, but also had their own tactical views.

Describing the insignia of attack aircraft, it is worth noting that the latter wore the uniform of "native" parts or assigned during the formation. The latter is characteristic of attackers — that is, permanent units. But the latter were also assigned the form of the units that went to form them (for example, the 1, 2 and 3 assault battalions were in the form of light infantry, and the 10 and 5 (Rohr) engineering parts). On shoulder straps affixed the number of the assault. Thus, the 1 th assault battalion fighters on the field gray with a white vypushkoy infantry shoulder straps had a red number "1", 3-egersky - on a gray-green with a green vypushka jager's epaulettes, red number "3", and the battalion Rohr - on black red vypushkoy engineering uniform red figure "5". Common to all is the red color of the battalion number on the epaulets.

Here and above - samples of helmets, body armor and breastplates

Officially approved insignia of attack aircraft were absent. In the German army it was forbidden to wear bullying patrons - though attack aircraft often ignored this ban. Thus, the stormtroopers depicted on one of the photographs on the left sleeve wear a dark stripe in the shape of a grenade. The fighters of the assault company of the 23-th Reserve (Saxon) Division, which was attached to the 12 Army Corps, wore a green bandage with white edging and the letter S on their left arm. Officially, only some of the emblems of the specialized units were confirmed: the initials “MW” ( Minenwerfer) on the mortar strap and the "dead head" flamethrowers. Thus, the Reddeman Guards flamethrowers in full-field uniforms with engineer chases (black, red edging, without number) and guards buttonhole “coils” on the cuff of the left sleeve were carried by a special insignia, presented by Kaiser Wilhelm - a round black badge with a picture of a "silver" bow, a round "black" ой ". In winter operations white camouflage was used. The characteristic details of the uniform of all attack aircraft are leather overlays on the knees and elbows, the letter S of green cloth (“stormtrooper” —that is, attack aircraft) or the image of a grenade (typical for the assault detachments of infantry units) on the left sleeve of the blouse, and instead of boots there are boots windings. Often, camouflage camouflage was applied by helmets on helmets and gas boxes.

The supply of soldiers in the trenches is fraught with great difficulties - the delivery of food and ammunition to the front lines did not work reliably. And the fighters, going to the front line, took with them an 5-day food supply. To heat the food in the trenches, they used small burners that worked on dry alcohol, while in order to deliver hot soup and coffee, they used special flasks-thermos flasks. But when the intensity of the shelling was reduced, food was immediately sent to the front line. Since in Belgium and Northern France many water sources were not suitable for drinking, the water supply system had to be organized - wells appeared, pipes were laid and pumps were installed. Sugar factories, breweries and other enterprises have become water treatment plants. Drinking water pipelines were laid as close to the front line as possible - sometimes reaching the front trenches. In addition to water, soldiers received mineral water - sometimes directly from existing factories. Stocks of the latter were organized near the front line. Going to the front line, the fighters received 2 bottles of fresh water and as much mineral water as they could carry.

In 1914, the daily ration of a private soldier who was in the field included 750 g of bread (or 400 g of biscuits), 375 of meat or 200 of corned beef, and other products. The meat ration, gradually shrinking, fell to 1915 by the end of 350, and by October 1916 to 250. One day a week became lean. Younger commanders received 125 ml brandy (or rum) or 250 ml wine or half a liter of beer per day. Also on the day relied 30 g pipe tobacco or 2 cigars (cigarettes). Often contented with suhpaykom (200 g corned beef or bacon, 250 g biscuits, 150 g canned vegetables, 25 g salt, 25 g coffee). Stormtroopers issued reinforced rations.

German and Austrian soldiers are fed from the same boiler. Italian Front, October 1917. The picture was taken shortly after the assault units of the Italian front at Caporetto broke through

Продолжение следует ...
Articles from this series:
Shtostsruppen Second Reich. Part of 2
Shtostsruppen Second Reich. Part of 1

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  1. heavy division
    heavy division 18 November 2018 07: 36
    Yes, in all respects elite formations. Cool!
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 18 November 2018 08: 47
      Wonderful article! And big one! And photo! And not the last!
      About water and unsuitable sources and pipe laying is a very interesting topic.
    2. igordok
      igordok 18 November 2018 09: 25
      Quote: Heavy Division
      Yes, in all respects elite formations. Cool!

      Yes, in all respects, an excellent series of articles. Cool! good
  2. Albatroz
    Albatroz 18 November 2018 08: 47
    Characteristic details. All in one bottle, which is not surprised.
    Very interesting details
    1. igordok
      igordok 18 November 2018 09: 30
      Interested in assault pack

  3. Hunghuz
    Hunghuz 18 November 2018 10: 04
    Salaries and windings became chic)
    That's what fashion means, albeit front-line))
    Where does the fashion for patches from jacket sleeves and ripped jeans come from)))
    1. Albatroz
      Albatroz 18 November 2018 10: 25
      Eka enough, like that parallels
      1. Hunghuz
        Hunghuz 18 November 2018 10: 46
        Something thought. When a mod turns what’s not ice into the last peep
        1. igordok
          igordok 18 November 2018 11: 21
          Modern fashion, it is adapted for mass consumption, the poverty of the color population of the United States. When the younger generation gets ripped, pretty worn and oversized jeans (clothes) of older brothers.
          1. Hunghuz
            Hunghuz 18 November 2018 11: 33
            Yes, it’s almost now in high fashion.
            I’m talking about how ugly (in principle), torn or simply utilitarian thanks to PR they can recognize as glue)
            1. Albatroz
              Albatroz 18 November 2018 12: 28
              Yes, and the principle became the uglier the more fashionable. This is me about now. What is there, the fact is
    2. Brutan
      Brutan 18 November 2018 11: 25
      And what kind of obstacles have you seen? almost all kinds of artificial obstacles
    3. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 18 November 2018 12: 08
      Quote: Hunghouse
      Salaries and windings became chic)
      That's what fashion means, albeit front-line))
      Where does the fashion for patches from jacket sleeves and ripped jeans come from)))

      In long-standing films, foreign, I saw on the sleeves of jackets large oval patches from civilians, with a palm. Probably, in the factory new products were sewn ..... To strengthen the fabric on the elbows, of course it is better in advance.
      1. Hunghuz
        Hunghuz 18 November 2018 12: 13
        Films probably came out after the First World War?
        Maybe that patch mode was introduced by attack aircraft, having migrated to civilian jackets?))
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 18 November 2018 13: 47
          Quote: Hunghouse
          Films probably came out after the First World War?
          Maybe that patch mode was introduced by attack aircraft, having migrated to civilian jackets?))

          No, what are you. Not so old. These are some kind of black-and-white detectives, American, have long walked through CULTURE, I looked at them with one eye at night with one eye. TV series.
          1. Lekov L
            Lekov L 18 November 2018 16: 51
            No, well, what are you. Not such old ones. These are some black-and-white detectives, American ones, that have been walking around CULTURE a long time ago.

            Some classic English tweed jackets were positioned as "sports and hunting",
            patches suede on the elbows and right shoulder - where the butt rests.
            This is the style of a "gentleman on safari", I think it appeared even before the imperialist war.
            Respectfully.. hi
            1. Reptiloid
              Reptiloid 18 November 2018 18: 05
              Quote: Lekov L
              .... Some classic English tweed jackets were positioned as "sports and hunting",
              patches suede on the elbows and right shoulder - where the butt rests.
              This style is such a "gentleman on safari", it seems to me even before the imperialist war appeared ... hi
              Yes, apparently, everything is one to one, somehow I don’t remember about the shoulder at all ... Who wore in the film? A detective, a lawyer, some kind of employees ..... On the contrary, I thought, like a clerk, so that you would not rub your elbows into holes, and they ..... gentlemen
  4. Brutan
    Brutan 18 November 2018 11: 29
    And the green collar (and in the field uniform, blouses - which is basically nonsense) is a characteristic feature of the German form in both world wars
    1. Brutan
      Brutan 18 November 2018 11: 35
      German field tunic of World War II
      the collar is almost the same color as the blouse of the First World War, except that it has faded
      1. Hunghuz
        Hunghuz 18 November 2018 11: 44
        Judging by the cut no earlier than 1943
        By the way
  5. Curious
    Curious 18 November 2018 12: 29
    "The German helmet, nicknamed the" coal bucket "by the British, was made of silicon-nickel steel and weighed 1,2 kg."
    I will allow myself a clarification. "Silicon-nickel" steels are spring-spring and are not suitable for these purposes.
    The Germans used nickel-chromium steel.
    "Standard-Helm der Mittelmächte. Er aus einer 1,1 Millimeter dicken Chromnickelstahl-platte in fünf Arbeitsschritten gefertigte deutsche Stahlhelm des Modells 1916 (M1916) "(
    1. Albatroz
      Albatroz 18 November 2018 12: 39
      "Silicon-nickel" steels are spring-spring and are not suitable for these purposes.

      fit and done.
      And in WWII, for example, a German helmet is made of silicon-manganese-nickel steel.
      in 1940, our SSH-40 appeared (a steel helmet made of carbon-silicon-manganese-nickel steel).
      And again, not a word about chrome ...
      1. Curious
        Curious 18 November 2018 16: 03
        Do you understand the difference between "silicon-nickel" and "silicon-manganese-nickel" steel?
        And before the M40, the Germans still had the M35, which was made of steel alloyed with molybdenum.
        Therefore, give links to your "revelations", but you don't need the Wukeepedia.
        1. Albatroz
          Albatroz 18 November 2018 16: 25
          Do you understand the difference between "silicon-manganese-nickel" and "chromium-nickel"?
          Where is chrome here?
          You, too, give links to your revelations, and not to the world wide web, and if possible - with pages of text of paper execution.
          1. Curious
            Curious 18 November 2018 16: 38
            According to your answer, it is clear that you have nothing to do with metallurgy. Of course, I can be wrong and I do not want to offend or offend you in any way, but apparently, you are from the profession "couch internet metallurgist" widespread in our time.
            As for paper execution.

            1984 edition. Read on health.
            1. Albatroz
              Albatroz 18 November 2018 17: 13
              Yes no dear
              You imagined yourself a great metallurgist.
              Interestingly, and meteorite helmets were made like a knife from your article today? laughing
              Just kidding of course. But if I’m a couch metallurgist, then you are probably not only a (traditionally) experienced military expert, but also a metallurgical practitioner. Not a hot worker? Tell p-hundred on which metallurgical production they worked. And then the reaper, and the Shvets, and the igrets on the pipe ...
              About the book - why are you poking the cover at me? You don't need a lot of mind for this, download the cover But you attach a page to me from the book - where it will be written that the German helmet is not made of "silicon-manganese-nickel" but of "chromium-nickel" steel. So that the page number, the phrase was visible, and of course it was clear that this was this book. And who is its author - a well-known specialist, I hope, do not dispute, who reprints Wikipedia?))
              Send, please
              1. Curious
                Curious 18 November 2018 18: 07
                You are probably an Odessa Malan. Only these charming people are able to answer a question with a question without answering anything themselves. If someone wants to write the history of trolling, then it was the Odessa Malanians who stood at its origins.
                Provide a copy of the employment record, certified by Reymond & Associates? And the decision of the LCMA that page 39 is exactly a part of the said book and its author is competent, and the Bavarian War Museum really exists? Or believe so?
                1. Albatroz
                  Albatroz 18 November 2018 18: 48
                  And how do you know about these Odessa Malanians. I personally hear for the first time. You know so well because of them yourself?
                  By the way, they did not answer:
                  A) Are you a metallurgical practitioner and a hot worker?
                  B) What is this book and who is the author? Do not challenge the case?
                  Q) How do I know that this page is from it? And in general, what kind of page?
                  1. Albatroz
                    Albatroz 18 November 2018 18: 51
                    A question by a question, by the way, Jews like to answer, but no Malanians))
                    But it doesn’t matter, because you didn’t ask me anything higher - you just wisely taught.
                    I asked just the same)
                    1. Curious
                      Curious 18 November 2018 19: 17
                      So Odessa Malants are Jews. Odessa. I served there, in the Soviet army. An officer’s identity card? Although how is it known that it is mine? Suddenly Osprey printed, they are, they can all.
                      The question: “How do I know that this page is from it? And in general, what page is it?” When in front of you page number 39 is purely in the style of an Odessa Jew.
                      Okay. Next page.

                      As I understand it, the next question will be: "How do I know that this page is from it? And in general, what page is it?"
                      And if I list the metallurgical enterprises where I worked, logically, ask how I can confirm this.
                      So to ask you, in fact, there is nothing, and so it is clear. As they say - you can see a bird on the flight. Thank you for the pleasure, all the best. Yes, and do not forget to write the standard finishing phrase of your tribe.
                      1. Albatroz
                        Albatroz 18 November 2018 19: 31
                        So it sounded the same as Opprey Wikipedia is being reprinted. But what if?))
                        Generally - now put the right questions)
                        about books
                        Are you familiar with that?
                      2. Albatroz
                        Albatroz 18 November 2018 19: 32
                        And by the way, they threw my questions to my questions. Questions to the question. Well, what is not a malan?))
                      3. Curious
                        Curious 19 November 2018 10: 13
                        "Do you know this one?"
                        No, I’m familiar with taoy.

                        In it, the process of creation and testing is described in detail, including the selection of steel.
                        I hope English is not a problem for you. Material Summary on page 24.
                      4. Curious
                        Curious 19 November 2018 10: 18

                        The third paragraph is above. By the way, the book is available online.
                      5. Albatroz
                        Albatroz 19 November 2018 11: 00
                        So unfamiliar
                        And are you familiar with that?
                      6. Curious
                        Curious 19 November 2018 14: 12
                        Not a bad book, nothing more. You are obviously inspired by page 11, which describes the material as "a mixture of manganese, silicon, nickel and carbon steel, often called nickel steel." Here, as they say, free will. Not a single person, even in general terms familiar with TMP, will not take this description seriously. However, if you think that this confirms the author's statement about "silicon-nickel steel", then, as they say, est medicina robur multiplicat.
                        At this stage, I think the discussion is completed, you can continue to engage in creativity if you wish.
                      7. Albatroz
                        Albatroz 19 November 2018 15: 26
                        I am not saying anything. I just asked you.
                        And I’m sure that the author does not take anything from the ceiling.
                        By the way. There is a mass of literature on this subject. Share?
                      8. Curious
                        Curious 19 November 2018 16: 16
                        The author, no doubt, deserves only positive ratings for his articles. At this level, almost no one writes on the site. But in technical details that require highly specialized knowledge, she is sometimes mistaken. I do not see a catastrophe in this, here, as in the scripture - "who of you is without sin, first throw a stone at her."
                        I can not boast of a lot of literature on this topic, since I was not particularly fond of it, if you sift through the library, then there will be no more than a dozen. If you share it, I’ll look with pleasure, there is no superfluous information.
                      9. Albatroz
                        Albatroz 19 November 2018 17: 01
                        I named two books (cited covers), two brought you.
                        I still like this
                      10. Albatroz
                        Albatroz 19 November 2018 17: 01
                        And this one too
                      11. Albatroz
                        Albatroz 19 November 2018 17: 02
                        Well and such.
                        Let a bit and away from the actual German helmets.
                      12. Curious
                        Curious 19 November 2018 18: 33
                        I also have "Helmets of the First World", as well as two books "Helmets of the Second World" and a couple of books from this series.
                        But this series tells a little about development and production, they are more focused on photography.
                        The book in Italian is for me exclusively pictures to see, I do not speak this language.
                        In some of the electronic libraries, a whole selection of books on this topic was found, you need to look for links.
                      13. Albatroz
                        Albatroz 19 November 2018 19: 07
                        Still have to climb search
  6. Albatroz
    Albatroz 18 November 2018 15: 23
    German attack aircraft with machine gun MP-18.

    It fires when exposed to chemical weapons
    1. Hunghuz
      Hunghuz 18 November 2018 21: 22
      Probably the first German machine gunners in history
      1. Albatroz
        Albatroz 18 November 2018 22: 30
  7. Albatroz
    Albatroz 18 November 2018 15: 24
    Assault Luger

    It was used, as rightly noted in the article, not only by attack aircraft, but also by artillerymen and others.
  8. Albatroz
    Albatroz 18 November 2018 15: 26
    Samples of edged weapons of the German attack aircraft
    brass knuckles

    and mentioned in the previous article of the series "French nail"
  9. Ekzutor
    Ekzutor 18 November 2018 17: 41
    Looking forward to continue!
  10. Sovpadenie
    Sovpadenie 19 November 2018 08: 38
    I will add. It was necessary to refuse additional armor protection on helmets. If a bullet hit it, the sentry or observer died from .... a fracture of the cervical vertebrae.