Military Review

Jacob Blumkin: provocateur, editor, spy (part three)

64
However, even before graduation, Blumkin had many different interesting adventures - both in the territory of the Russian Federation and abroad! For example, for some reason, Blumkin tried to get into the Union of anarchist maximalists. But before taking him there, they demanded that he be justified before a party court, which included representatives of a number of parties. The court was headed by A. Karelin - the leader of Russian communist anarchists, and, by the way, was a former member of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the RSFSR. And what is interesting, Blumkin was tried for two weeks, but they did not take any concrete decision. Many continued to consider him a traitor and practically admitted that he was a provocateur. That is, for as many as two weeks, none of the circumstances that had defamed him could be clarified. Astonishing unprofessionalism, isn't it? Or, on the contrary, there was nothing to clarify, but all the circumstances were such that it was better to leave everything as it was. Obviously, something prevented the court to do what he should have done. And here is the question - what exactly?


Blumkin did not live in misery even with money, so he could afford to spend time in the Moscow Poet's Café, where he often paid for non-cash poets. In which a lot of interesting things happened. Drunken Yesenin arranged fights there, Mayakovsky admired aloud Makhno's father, in a word, if they wanted, they could all at least have something to “sew”. But ... not sewn.

Jacob Blumkin: provocateur, editor, spy (part three)

Dead Yesenin. The mark on the forehead from the impact is clearly visible. Perhaps, without all the same Blumkin and there was a cost? ..

The poet Vladislav Khodasevich then once recalled that there was a case when Yesenin, trying to capture the imagination of bohemian ladies and nodding at Blumkin, boasted that he could easily arrange for her to “tour” in the Cheka, to show “how they shoot him in the basement”. Well, poets ate and drank with his money quite often too, and how could you not take it from this neophyte, after all, they were masters ?! Blumkin several times rescued Yesenin and some other poets, and their relatives from the Cheka, and even somehow composedhistorical a document ”in which he wrote that he“ bails Citizen Yesenin and personally guarantees that he will not hide before the trial and investigation ... ”That is, he provided him with obvious protection ... until a certain time.

And then, a year before his suicide, while in Tbilisi, Blumkin jealous of Yesenin to his wife, and was so jealous that he began to threaten him weapons. Yesenin had to urgently get out of there. But when he was in Leningrad at the end of December 1925, then ... he immediately committed suicide at the Angletert hotel. However, St. Petersburg writer V. Kuznetsov proved that Yesenin never lived in this hotel, since his data are not in the guests' book, and this in Soviet hotels was simply impossible. In the death of the poet there is also a mass of absurdities that have not received a proper explanation, starting with abrasions on the forehead and items of clothing not found in “his number”, and, in particular, his jacket. According to Kuznetsov, as soon as Yesenin appeared in Leningrad, he was immediately arrested and taken to the investigatory home of the GPU on Mayorov Street, 8 \ 25, where the KGB was interrogated with addiction ... yes, yes, Yakov Blyumkin, and then they killed him there. And only then dead Yesenin, they dragged into the hotel, where there was an empty room. Even Yesenin's death poems may not have been written by himself, but Blumkin himself, who, as we know, was also a bit of a poet ... And all this “suicide” could also be another provocation, especially if you remember what Yesenin wrote poems about Soviet power and how he “painted” it with colors. In addition, he also allowed himself extremely harsh attacks on the members of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the RCP (B), and described the "legendary" Civil War as "vile and savage wildness" that killed thousands of wonderful talents in Russia:

In them, Pushkin,
Lermontov,
Rings,
And our Nekrasov in them.
In them I am.
They even Trotsky,
Lenin and Bukharin.
Not because of my sadness
Blowing verse
Looking at them
Unwashed hari.

This is about Lenin, isn't it? Leader of the world revolution! Ah-ah! No respect! And it's a shame as it is written, isn't it? “Unwashed Hari” This is after all a hint of a swarthy complexion, not otherwise ... So knowing the character of Trotsky, the fate of Yesenin is not particularly surprising. And, by the way, Yesenin could not help but realize that he could expect him for such verses about “unwashed haris” by the leaders of the “first world revolution of the workers and peasants”. And not without reason, he seemed to have a premonition of his demise, since he wrote this:

And the first
I need to hang
Arms crossed behind me
For being a song
Hoarse and single
I made it difficult for me to sleep in my native country ...

Well, that was him, poor fellow, and they hung him up, and then Trotsky himself wrote a worthy obituary about him in Pravda. But the obituary is nothing more than words, and the main thing is when there is no person. After all, there are no problems with him either, and sometimes even with the poets, the masters have to be considered.

However, let’s return to our “hero”, who was a little earlier, namely in 1920, was also sent to northern Iran, on a very important and political matter. There at that time the Gilan Soviet Republic was proclaimed. And the Kremlin leaders would be happy that the proletarian revolution also began in Iran, but the problem arose from the fact that at the head of the Council of People's Commissars there was a certain Kuchuk Khan, a man who held nationalist positions. And was supposed to be an internationalist. So it took here in Gilan only to “change the power”, which was done under the guidance of the very experienced Jacob Blumkin in such matters. The old government was overthrown and replaced with a new one headed by Ehsanullah, also a khan, but his own, a correct orientation, which was supported by the local left and, most importantly, by the communists and Moscow.

Now Blumkin is already the commissar of the headquarters of the Gilan Red Army, and a member of the young Iranian Communist Party, and defends the city of Enzeli from the troops of the Shah of Iran. As a delegate from Iran, it was he who arrived in Baku for the First Congress of the oppressed peoples of the East. That is, another delegate to him was "his man" and said the right words there. At that, his “exotic business trip” ended. After four months in the East, Blumkin was again recalled to Moscow.

It is not even clear how Blumkin studied at the academy at all, since he was constantly forced to interrupt his studies and go to various important “hot spots”. So, at the end of 1920, he goes to the Crimea, where another unpleasant situation was created for the Soviet authorities. There, the Red Army surrendered and then “registered” many thousands of White Guard officers, who personally commander-in-chief Mikhail Frunze promised to save his life. However, Trotsky took the Soviet government to fear, stating that "forty thousand evil enemies of the revolution" are simply dangerous for Soviet Russia, and, thus, achieved a decision to destroy them.

Such "experts" as Bela Kun, Zemlyachka and, of course, Blumkin, drove the "process" from Moscow. The latter was there only a few weeks, but he actively participated in mass executions, than he later boasted to his acquaintances more than once. Then, according to various sources, thousands of people were destroyed from 50 to 100. Then, fulfilling Trotsky's decree, more than 20 thousands were executed only in Sevastopol and Balaklava. After all, he said that “Crimea is a bottle from which not a single counterrevolutionary will jump out,” so they all remained there.

In 1921, Blumkin had the opportunity to participate in the suppression of the actions of the peasants, who were qualified by the workers' and peasants as “political banditry”. In the list of his achievements in this field is the suppression of the Yelansky uprising in the Lower Volga region, and then participation in the defeat of the Antonov gangs in the Tambov region. Well, and then as a brigade of the 61 th brigade, Blumkin goes to fight with the troops of the "yellow baron" Ungern. But then he was immediately made secretary to L. Trotsky, which was surprised to find out the new German ambassador to the USSR.

The German embassy decided to get from the Soviet authorities, if not punishment, then at least, condemn both the murder and the one who committed it. But Trotsky wrote a letter to Lenin, as well as to other members of the Central Committee of the Bolshevik Party, in which he suggested simply not paying attention to the "stupid demands of satisfaction for Count Mirbach". And the People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the RSFSR, Chicherin, received from him friendly advice to persuade the Germans not to do this, since, they say, this impedes the new Russian-German rapprochement.

Boris Bazhanov, Stalin’s secretary who managed to flee abroad, later wrote that Blumkin had clearly come to Trotsky “for a reason,” and that the Cheka had him assigned to him. But in the same year 1921 F. Dzerzhinsky did not work for Stalin yet, but rather, he just supported Trotsky. And here is the question - why did “Iron Felix” need to follow the “party comrades”? Just because “the Cheka should know everything” or did it have any personal motives of its own?

In 1922, Blumkin became the official adjutant and secretary of Trotsky, who immediately instructed him to carry out a highly responsible task: to edit the first volume of his program book “How the Armed Revolution” (1923 edition of the year), which collected the richest material during the civil war, and which is either accidental, or reflecting the real state of affairs ... it was Trotsky who was the organizer of all the victories of the revolution. And Jacob Blumkin was involved in editing, compiling and checking materials.

It is interesting that this situation even amused Trotsky himself. In any case, he wrote about his work in his office, which supposedly was such a strange fate for this man: in July 1918 fights against us, but today he is a member of our party, he is my employee, and he edits volume that reflects our deadly struggle with the party of the Left Social Revolutionaries. And indeed - amazing metamorphosis gives us life. Today for some, tomorrow for others. However, on the other hand, everything is in the Bible. Recall the prophet Ecclesiastes, who said that a living dog is better than a dead lion. And so it happens in life most often.

Well, since 1923, the period of the most fascinating adventures of Jacob Blumkin began, only the information about them is still closed in secret archives and when their content becomes public knowledge is unknown. It would seem, what is easier - to take, and to gather in one place all the cases where his name is mentioned, come and work, gentlemen researchers, separate, so to speak, the wheat from the chaff, but ... everything has a hitch with us. And the Bolsheviks are long gone, and the USSR itself rested in the Bose, and historians still have only to guess about many moments in the life of the spy terrorist Yakov Blumkin.

Well, we should start here with the fact that Grigori Zinoviev himself, who headed the Comintern at that time, asked Blumkin to help in an important matter: once again to organize a revolution in Weimar Germany. Moreover, he was only required to instruct the "German comrades" in the field of subversion and terror. He did the work, but nothing happened to Germany, and Blumkin went to the Foreign Department of the OGPU, where he became a resident of his Eastern sector, and began work, receiving the nicknames "Jack" and "Live." The foreign spy's career, Blumkin, took place in Palestine, where in the city of Jaffa, having documents in his hands on the name of the orthodox Jew Gurfinkel, he opened a laundry room. What he did there is unknown, but he only worked there for a year, then returned to Moscow. However, the benefits of his trip, of course, was. Here in Palestine, Blumkin met with German Leopold Trepper. They met, and how this acquaintance ended does not even know the "all-knowing" Wikipedia. However, after all, it was Trepper who in the future turned out to be the leader of the famous “Red Chapel” and the Soviet intelligence network in Nazi Germany. So they certainly spoke about something “such” there ...

After Palestine, as a political representative of the OGPU, he again goes to Tbilisi, where he becomes an assistant to the commander of the OGPU troops in the South Caucasus and at the same time authorized by the Commissariat of Foreign Trade in combating smuggling. And here he too has to smell gunpowder: suppress the peasant uprising and liberate the city of Bagram-Tepe, which the Iranians seized in 1922 year. He had to work in the border commissions to resolve various controversial issues that occasionally arose at that time between the USSR, Turkey, Iran.

Being in the South Caucasus and knowing Eastern languages, Blumkin managed to visit Afghanistan, where he tried to get in touch with the Ismaili sect (descendants of ancient assassins), in whom the Bolsheviks wanted to see their direct allies in the fight against the English colonialists. He then traveled to India, where he studied the position of the British colonial troops and even traveled to Ceylon. He returned to Moscow only in the 1925 year, and he brought various Eastern "antiques" to his apartment and played out in front of friends and acquaintances of a certain Eastern guru.

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Jacob Blumkin: poet-SR, KGB terrorist (part one)
Jacob Blumkin: poet-SR, KGB terrorist (part two)
64 comments
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  1. Brutan
    Brutan 17 November 2018 07: 32
    +8
    Only somehow painfully sloppy killed Yesenin ...
    These ruffles are accustomed to leave no traces.
    Well, I honestly read about Blyumkin for the first time and with interest, for which thanks to the author
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 17 November 2018 14: 47
      +3
      To some extent, I agree with you: for the authorities, he was not a priority enemy, and the OGPU then had enough other things to do to engage in amateur activities. Regarding: "These guys are accustomed not to leave traces," one can object: the current experience of the special services and the then - heaven and earth. In my opinion, at that time at least 85% of the staff members of the OGPU did not have any specialized education.
      1. Brutan
        Brutan 17 November 2018 16: 23
        +3
        Yes, but professional education was often replaced by a wealth of experience.
        replenished so to speak
        Malyuta Skuratov, too, had no education, but how counterintelligence worked — on business and without work wassat
  2. Olgovich
    Olgovich 17 November 2018 07: 55
    +2
    Mirbakh, Crimea, Tambov, Yesenin, Ungern, the Academy and others and others: direct Bosharov of those days. request
    What is true is that fiction, what caused such unusual turns, ups and downs, is a great secret ....
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 17 November 2018 14: 50
      +4
      Perhaps this mystery has a clue and call it Trotsky,
  3. Korsar4
    Korsar4 17 November 2018 08: 22
    +9
    All the same poetry you can’t write for Yesenin.
    1. Baloo
      Baloo 17 November 2018 20: 07
      +2
      Quote: Korsar4
      All the same poetry you can’t write for Yesenin.

      This is not Yesenin, he has a completely different vocabulary.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 17 November 2018 21: 11
        +3
        “In this life, dying is not new.
        But living, of course, is not newer. ”

        It is Yeseninsky.
  4. Yuri Guliy
    Yuri Guliy 17 November 2018 09: 27
    +4
    Blyumkin, Zemlyachka or Rozaliya Samoilovna Zalkind, Bela Kun - about the revolutionary exploits of these ... in Sevastopol (the murder of thousands of Russian officers who believed Frunze and did not leave Russia) were told by the grandfathers and grandmothers of the native Sevastopol.
    Personally, I was told about the participation in executions of officers by a veteran of the Bolshevik party, whom I was sent to congratulate on the occasion of the Revolution. He was about 90 years old, but the old man was directly younger when he began to tell how he chopped the heads of officers with an ordinary ax.
    1. Forestol
      Forestol 17 November 2018 13: 35
      +8
      and you didn’t watch the film “We are from the Baltic!”, about hundreds and thousands of sailors, with grates on the neck thrown by the White Guards from a cliff into the sea? “The heart of Bonivur”? "Eternal Call"? No? I thought so. Class society, which returned to us from 1917 immediately into the 21st century, has not yet been realized by the plebeians themselves.
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 17 November 2018 13: 50
        +2
        Actually, a feature film is not documentary evidence.
      2. Flavius
        Flavius 17 November 2018 14: 39
        0
        Quote: Forestol

        and you didn’t watch the film “We are from the Baltic!”, about hundreds and thousands of sailors,

        Have you watched the cartoon "Little Red Riding Hood", where two hunters were sitting in the wolf's stomach? No? I thought so..
      3. kalibr
        17 November 2018 17: 05
        -2
        Cinema is not a source! Moreover, the Soviet one ... You will also remember the film "We are from Kronstadt". Where just the sailors are thrown off the cliff with stones around their necks. I remember when I was a child I watched this and a seditious thought came to my mind: what for the whites had to do this? Where did they get so many ropes, they dragged the kamenyuk, tied it around their necks ... They had nothing to do, right? And so we began to play "war", and the plot was "we are from Kronstadt" and I was the main white chief and I had all kinds of small fry under my command, and the older guys were of course for the red heroes and had to escape. Well, we tied them with twine somehow (to get loose). They put it on a cliff ... But there are no stones. Well, how to knit them? Then I gave the order - Bayonets in their belly! And they were all punctured and no one was saved! There was a cry !!! Don't play like that! It wasn't like that in the movies ... So you are the same, right?
      4. Captain45
        Captain45 17 November 2018 17: 16
        +3
        Quote: Forestol
        and you didn’t watch the film “We are from the Baltic!”,

        Actually the film is called "We are from Kronstadt" hi
    2. Sugar Honeyovich
      Sugar Honeyovich 19 November 2018 04: 04
      +1
      Quote: Yuri Guliy
      in Sevastopol (the murder of thousands of Russian officers who believed Frunze and did not leave Russia) were told by the grandfathers and grandmothers of the indigenous Sevastopol.


      “... I could not believe the“ atrocities of the Reds ”about which Melgunov wrote, because, having lived in Sevastopol since 1948, I hadn’t heard anything like this from local residents. But by that time less than 30 years had passed, and witnesses are alive (Compare: more than 50 years have passed since the Patriotic War, and millions of witnesses are still alive.) In addition, during and after the Civil War, my grandfather lived with his family in a village, and my father, who was then 14 years old, lived In Simferopol. I heard nothing from them about the "atrocities of the Reds." Moreover, in Sevastopol two older brothers of my father, privates who served with the Whites, were taken prisoner. One of them was wounded in Perekop and was in the hospital. I was not exposed and was not exiled to the North. ”To clarify what was and what was not, I turned to the native Sevastopol, now a pensioner, almost ninety-year-old Vladimir Romanovich Kulish.
      He was 1920 years old in 11, and, disappearing for days on the street, he saw a lot, but about the "atrocities" described by Melgunov, he resolutely said that there was nothing of the kind, that not a single person in Sevastopol was hanged by red , not a single port worker was shot, and no one touched civilians. Moreover, ordinary soldiers of Wrangel's army were left to their own devices and no one touched them either "(V. STAVITSKY," Sevastopolskaya Pravda ").

      And 20 years later, in the 1940s, the former white officer, L.D. Bobkov, still lived in Sevastopol.
      1. kalibr
        19 November 2018 16: 05
        +1
        - Sultan-Galiev M. On the situation in the Crimea. Memorandum (14 / IV-21, Moscow). Archived February 16 2013 of the year.
      2. Yuri Guliy
        Yuri Guliy 20 November 2018 09: 29
        0
        For Sahara Medovich
        The newspaper Sevastopolskaya Pravda was the official body at the beginning of the Communist Party, and now the Communist Party has always reflected and reflects events like art film "We are from Krondstadt". I once talked with the historian Stavitsky (he taught at a branch of St. Petersburg University), read his book on the history of the Empire, and if you quoted him, then I was surprised by his one-sided look in the communist newspaper.
  5. Forestol
    Forestol 17 November 2018 13: 31
    -6
    The greatest man of his time. exactly. For some reason, even in Russia, Saldafon Otto Skorzeny is respected, and Blumkin in size simply does not fit into any framework. I think it’s either early or too late, to dunk it in manure or to put a bust, in which sequence it’s even difficult to say. This is a real legend, not a man. And not for us to judge him.
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 17 November 2018 14: 33
      +3
      "a real legend, not a man" from our point of view: the biography is bright and legendary to some extent, but at that time he had nothing supernatural. I have already said that an unusual time gives rise to unusual people.
  6. Forestol
    Forestol 17 November 2018 13: 38
    +1
    According to one version, Blyumkin, like Roerich, searched for Shambhala, tried to get to Tibetan thinkers, then along their route went “Annanerbe” of fascist Germany. Strange coincidences and goals.
    1. kalibr
      18 November 2018 06: 48
      0
      It will be about that ...
  7. vladcub
    vladcub 17 November 2018 14: 28
    +2
    A lot of dark things are connected with the death of Yesenin, by the way, with the death of Mayakovsky, there have already been so many different versions. V.O. does not rule out that the last poem was written by Blumkin, I do not presume to judge, but I read it in one of the "thick" magazines: Yesenin wrote the poems a few days before his death. On TV in the late 90s, some expert, based on the protocol and the death mask of Yesenin, claimed that Yesenin committed suicide and no one "helped" him. Is it so?
  8. Alexander Greene
    Alexander Greene 17 November 2018 14: 30
    +11
    So, at the end of 1920, he went to the Crimea ... There, many thousands of White Guard officers surrendered and then "passed registration", ...

    ... Then, according to various sources, from 50 to 100 thousand people were destroyed.


    Well, our historian-raster from the CPSU cannot, without exaggeration, manipulate numbers the only way. 50 thousand shot! No, 100 thousand! So spectacular. The author, apparently, never served in the army and does not represent such a mass of people.

    Here is what Baron Wrangel writes in his Notes (November 1916 - November 1920) in two books, in chapter IX, “Everything on Wrangel” of the second book:
    “By September 1, our forces did not exceed 25 bayonets and 000 pieces. And in Crimea, for the prepared fortifications, even a smaller number of the military personnel of our troops retreated ”.

    Well, let's say that 30 retreated. If every officer in the subordination had at least four to five soldiers, it turns out that there were about 000 white officers in the Crimea. To them you can add some more officials accumulated there.

    In total, Wrangel managed to evacuate more than 145 thousand people from the peninsula, including up to 15 thousand Cossacks, 12 thousand officers, 4-5 thousand soldiers of regular units, more than 30 thousand officers and officials of the rear units.

    Therefore, the question is: Where did so many officers come from in Crimea? When on all fronts of southern Russia in the white army served only 40 officers.

    Of course, those who were shot were shot, but the documents say that in Crimea only those who "distinguished themselves" by atrocities during the stay of Wrangel's troops on the Peninsula were convicted and executed. In the Crimean archives there is data on almost 3000 who were shot for the case, but in the cases of those who were shot there are documents, photographs, testimonies of witnesses about their activities.

    So it should be a shame for a person with a scientific degree to lower to anti-Soviet "black" myths.
    1. karabas86
      karabas86 17 November 2018 15: 48
      +3
      Shame on him is not smoke; he does not eat his eyes.
    2. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 17 November 2018 18: 02
      +7
      So it should be a shame for a person with a scientific degree to lower to anti-Soviet "black" myths.

      He has a degree - K. and. N., he somehow regretfully wrote that D. and. n he did not succeed due to the collapse of the USSR. What is shame here?
    3. vladcub
      vladcub 18 November 2018 16: 31
      +4
      Possibly, V. O. has “turned down” about 40, but the fact remains: M. V. guaranteed the life of ALL who surrendered, but Trotsky ordered: to destroy everyone.
      V.O. made a mistake when he wrote that Frunze was the front commander and Trotsky was the People’s Commissar
      1. Alexander Greene
        Alexander Greene 18 November 2018 19: 49
        +2
        Quote: vladcub
        but Trotsky ordered: to destroy everyone.

        I am not a supporter of Trotsky, but show his order, the existence of which, I deeply doubt, Trotsky, on the contrary, advocated the use of old military experts, he accepted all the tsar’s officers, so they later supported him.
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 18 November 2018 20: 57
          +3
          Generally speaking, VI also advocated the widespread involvement of specialists on the side of the revolution. So there is no need to make Trotsky a "benefactor of officers"
          The fact that in Crimea Bela Kun and Zemlyachka committed atrocities in full was known back in the late seventies and early eighties. Although I do not like to refer to fiction or films, I respect Bolgarinov for the film: "Adjutant of His Excellency" (he wrote the script)
          By the way, Koltsov Kovalevsky had prototypes: Kovalevsky'-Mak-Maevsky, and his adjutant was one of Koltsov's prototypes
          1. Tutejszy
            Tutejszy 19 November 2018 16: 13
            +2
            Quote: vladcub
            Koltsov Kovalevsky had prototypes: Kovalevsky'-Mak-Mayevsky, and his adjutant was one of Koltsov's prototypes

            not "Mac", but May-Mayevsky. The film ends with Koltsov waiting to be shot, but after all, the real prototype of Koltsov - Pavel Vasilyevich Makarov - successfully escaped from arrest, fought partisans in Crimea (and again partisan there already in the Patriotic War), wrote a book of memoirs, based on which the film was shot - even the film caught (the film was released in 1969, and Makarov died in 19709)
            1. your1970
              your1970 10 December 2018 10: 35
              0
              Quote: Tutejszy
              Ilm ends with Koltsov awaiting execution, but the real Koltsov prototype - Pavel Vasilyevich Makarov - successfully escaped from arrest,
              - the book had a continuation, where he escaped.
  9. kalibr
    17 November 2018 17: 08
    -3
    Quote: Alexander Green
    but the documents say

    What kind? You have your documents, I have mine. Why are yours better than mine? On December 6, 1920, Vladimir Lenin said: "There are 300 bourgeoisie in Crimea now. This is the source of future speculation, espionage, and any help to the capitalists. But we are not afraid of them. We say that we will take them, distribute, subjugate, digest them." Digested ...
    1. kalibr
      17 November 2018 17: 19
      +2
      The first and very big mistake in this regard was the too widespread use of red terror in Crimea. According to the Crimean workers themselves, the number of executed Wrangel officers reaches in the whole Crimea from 20 to 25 thousand. Indicate that in only Simferopol shot to 12 000. Popular rumor extols this figure for the whole Crimea to 70 000 ...

      The worst thing that happened in this terror was that among the executed there were a lot of working elements and people who fell behind Wrangel with a sincere and firm decision to honestly serve the Soviet regime. Particularly great illegibility in this regard was shown by local emergency agencies. There is almost no family where someone would not suffer from these executions: one has his father shot, this one has a brother, the third has a son, etc.

      But what is especially striking in these executions is that the executions were carried out not by themselves, but by entire parties, several dozen people together. The executed were stripped naked and lined up in front of the armed detachments. They point out that with such a "system" of executions, some of the convicts managed to escape to the mountains. It is clear that their appearance in a bare state almost in a crazy state in the villages produced the most negative impression on the peasants. They hid them at home, fed and sent further to the mountains ...

      Such reckless and cruel terror left an indelibly severe reaction in the minds of the Crimean population. Everyone feels some kind of strong, purely animal fear of Soviet workers, some kind of mistrust and deeply hidden anger ...

      In the small territory of Crimea there is an 3 body to combat counter-revolution: a special department of the 4 Army, Crimea. The Cheka and the special department of the maritime department (instead of the former naval tsarist secret police), operating for 50 miles of the coastline. In addition to them, in the localities there are also district political departments that conduct parallel work in the same area. In fact, no distinction between their competence exists. Everyone acts on their own ...

      - Sultan-Galiev M. On the situation in the Crimea. Memorandum (14 / IV-21, Moscow). Archived February 16 2013 of the year.
      1. kalibr
        17 November 2018 17: 22
        +1
        The exact number of victims can not be counted, but, according to the Crimean local historian Petrov, amounted to at least 20 thousand (provable number). The historian I. S. Ratkovsky believed that the total number of people executed in the Crimea was about 12 000 people. The maximum number of victims of terror was estimated at 120 000 people, the minimum - at 15 000. However, in the 2008 year, the Crimean historian V.G. Zarubin estimated the number of terror victims in 120 000 as unrealistically large and drew attention to the fact that such mass graves (tens of thousands of bodies) of that period were not found on the territory of Crimea on 2008 year.

        According to official Soviet data, in 1920-1921, about 20 thousand people were shot in Simferopol, about 12 thousand in Sevastopol, about 8 thousand in Feodosia, about 8 thousand in Kerch, and 4-5 thousand in Yalta, all in Crimea - up to 52 thousand people. According to M.A. Voloshin’s estimates, only one of the three Crimean intellectuals survived the 1920-1921 terror.
        The historian S.V. Volkov gave the following calculations:
        under the Russian Wrangel Army, there were up to 300 000 military and civil servants, including up to 50 000 officers;
        up to 70 000 military personnel and employees were evacuated, of which approximately 30 000 officers;
        according to the rules approved by the Crimean authorities, all officers and officials of the military department, as well as soldiers of the “colored units” were subject to destruction;
        according to data from Soviet sources, 52 000 people were executed;
        this figure is consistent with the number of people in the Russian army who could not or did not want to be evacuated and were assigned to the category to be destroyed.
        At the same time, the historian draws attention to the fact that the witnesses of the incident were so impressed by the scope of the killings that the figures of the people executed in 120 000 or even in 150 000 were indicated.
        The intensity of violence that took place in Crimea during the Civil War can be judged by the fact that the urban population of Crimea in the 1921 year decreased by 106 thousand people compared to the 1917 year. Data on the number of rural population are not available, but it also decreased significantly; it is known that the population of many villages has completely disappeared.
        1. Alexander Greene
          Alexander Greene 18 November 2018 01: 01
          +6
          Quote: kalibr
          At the same time, the historian draws attention to the fact that the witnesses of the incident were so impressed by the scope of the killings that the figures of the people executed in 120 000 or even in 150 000 were indicated.


          Yes, your sources are strong to lie, because all of them are based on the lies of Melgunov, who, as you know, is also the storyteller. He wrote his book on the Red Terror on the emigrant White Guard newspapers, where the "ducks" flew one after another.

          Some sources even indicate where they were shot, for example, in Sevastopol in the estate of the Sevastopol city governor Alexei Maximov, in the territory of the modern Khersones reserve, in the city, English and French cemeteries, but no matter how hard they tried anywhere and did not find any mass graves.

          I believe that if there were such large-scale executions of his officers, then General Slashchev would hardly have come to Soviet Russia in 1921,

          So, it’s better to go to the Crimea yourself, he’s now Russian, and work in the archives, there you can show the lists of people executed in the cities of Crimea: Dzhankoy - 253 people, Simferopol - 2066 people, Kerch - 624 people, Feodosia - 550 people ., Yalta - 822 people, Sevastopol - 57 people, Yevpatoria - 154 people, Bakhchisaray - 24 people. Total shot - 4550 people. and sent to a concentration camp - 148 people.

          But, you see, the 4550 executed - this is not 65 thousand and not 150 thousand. In addition, there were ordinary bandits among the executed, because in 1920 all the rot gathered in Crimea, all that escaped from the Bolsheviks, and these were by no means innocent lambs, but crooks, swindlers, smugglers, pimps, cocaine dealers, etc. P.

          Even Slashchev wrote about this. “Crimea was flooded with gangs of hungry people who lived at the expense of the population and robbed it. There was no accounting, the panic was complete. Everyone only dreamed of looting and boarding a boat or dissolving among an unfamiliar population. ”
  10. Captain45
    Captain45 17 November 2018 17: 12
    +4
    Reading the cycle about Blumkin, I remembered an episode from the movie "Don't be afraid, I'm with you", where the heroes of the film are chased by the dzhigits of the bek, and a peasant stands by the road and says: "They went there, they were chasing. They go back - they are chasing. What an interesting life for people! " So Blumkin, according to the proverb - our shot, ripe everywhere. In all the slightest events of the beginning of the century and the revolution he was noted. But, as a rule, people with such a biography do not live long. "As one of my acquaintances, the deceased, said, I knew too much!" (C) "The Diamond Arm"
    1. kalibr
      17 November 2018 17: 24
      +1
      "They took to the front sight", "set against the wall",
      "Charged to expense" -
      So changed from year to year
      Speech and everyday life shades.
      “Slam”, “ditch”, “send to the slap”,
      “To Dukhonin’s headquarters”, “exchange” -
      It’s easier and easier to pass
      Our bloody rake.
      The truth was poked out from under the nails,
      Landmines were inserted into the neck,
      “Sew epaulettes”, “cut stripes”,
      "They made one-horned devils."
      How many lies took
      In these damned years
      To infuriate and raise on knives
      Armies, classes, peoples.
      We all stand on the last line,
      All of us wallow on a lousy litter,
      Everybody be flattened with a bullet in the back of the head
      And with a bayonet in his stomach.

      Maximilian Voloshin
      April 29 1921 years
      Simferopol
      1. kalibr
        17 November 2018 17: 31
        0
        In Sevastopol, at the Maximova dacha, the cross of reconciliation was established for the 90 anniversary of the end of the Civil War
        10: 4019.11.2010

        During the years of the Civil War, as you know, thousands of people were shot here. But exactly how much is still not known exactly. The total number of people executed in Sevastopol in the 1917-1920 years is about 29 thousand people.

        The author of the sketch of the cross, Grigory Grigoryants, in an interview with the Independent Television of Sevastopol, said that in addition to the cross of reconciliation, it is also planned to equip a memorial square, and a chapel on the hill. A memorial museum will be located in the lower level, where the names of all those killed will be knocked out in granite.

        It turns out that the idea of ​​installing a chapel is not the first. True, earlier the place was supposed to be different. In 1989, negotiations were held with the Russian Church Abroad to establish a chapel. The project could not be implemented.

        The idea to establish a cross, to put in order the adjacent territory to the initiative group of citizens came unexpectedly, and in 10 days the idea came true. With money, a charity fund named after St. Luke helped.

        Relatives of Russian emigrants also took part in the event at the Memorial Stone “To Victims of White and Red Terror” and at the Cross of Reconciliation at Maximova Dacha.
        Roman Mayorov. "New Sevastopol"
        1. your1970
          your1970 10 December 2018 10: 42
          0
          Quote: kalibr
          0
          In Sevastopol, at the Maximova dacha, on the 90 anniversary of the end of the Civil War, a cross of reconciliation was established. During the Civil War, as you know, thousands of people were shot there.
          Are there any traces of mass graves?
      2. vladcub
        vladcub 18 November 2018 20: 36
        +1
        Civil war is a disaster for the people. There are no white and fluffy ones. The Reds had all sorts of bullshit and the White had enough of various bastards.
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 18 November 2018 19: 57
      +3
      Thanks for recalling these movies. The first t.s. is weak, but the Chambers sang beautifully, I remember it with songs and individual cool episodes.
      "The Diamond Hand" is one of the pearls of Soviet cinema
  11. Baloo
    Baloo 17 November 2018 20: 14
    +3
    The farther, the more fun. Involuntarily recalled the memories of the scout Verkholetov.
    On Yesenin’s forehead there is indeed an imprint from a blow with a pistol grip, and maybe from two strokes.
    At school they told us that the reason is Yesenin’s reluctance to sing Lenin and Stalin.
    that concerns Blumkina, an adventurer, a successful adventurer. The end is quite natural. It is not entirely clear that one moment in the arrest was allegedly bringing money to Trotsky, but whence there was so much that Trotsky needed it. Although at that moment he wandered around with his archive throughout Europe, no government wanted to visit him.
  12. Catfish
    Catfish 17 November 2018 23: 19
    +3
    Quote: Alexander Green

    Of course, those who were shot were executed, but the documents say that in Crimea only those who "distinguished themselves" by atrocities during the stay of Wrangel's troops on the Peninsula were convicted and executed. In the Crimean archives there is data on almost 3000 people shot for the case


    Do you seriously think that all this Caula, led by White Kun, was conducting some kind of investigation to find out which of the officers was really to blame for the massive repression. Look, this isn't even funny. What do you want to prove that the Bolsheviks fought and carried out cleansing in "white gloves"? Fear at least your red god, he will vomit in the next world from such an outright heresy. You probably still believe that "Lenin is more alive than all the living" and that "communism is the bright future of all mankind"? If so, then this is really funny ... bully
    1. Alexander Greene
      Alexander Greene 18 November 2018 00: 38
      +4
      Quote: Sea Cat
      Do you seriously believe that all of this Caudla, led by Bela Kun, conducted some kind of investigation to find out which of the officers was really to blame for the mass repression.

      Do you still believe that 150 thousand were shot in the Crimea? But this is just not funny: an adult believes in fairy tales ..
  13. Catfish
    Catfish 18 November 2018 12: 40
    +1
    Quote: Alexander Green
    Quote: Sea Cat
    Do you seriously believe that all of this Caudla, led by Bela Kun, conducted some kind of investigation to find out which of the officers was really to blame for the mass repression.

    Do you still believe that 150 thousand were shot in the Crimea? But this is just not funny: an adult believes in fairy tales ..


    I never claimed that they were shot in Crimea exactly 150000 people. And you obviously believe in fairy tales about the "bright future" and about the "honor and conscience of the planet". It’s time to start learning something other than party reports about Soviet history. fool
    1. Alexander Greene
      Alexander Greene 18 November 2018 15: 37
      -1
      Quote: Sea Cat
      And you obviously believe in fairy tales about the "bright future" and about the "honor and conscience of the planet".

      Unlike you, I believe, because the future, and the party, was really an honor and conscience for socialism-communism, while there were purges in it, as soon as Khrushchev canceled them, all kinds of crooks crawled into it.
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 18 November 2018 20: 31
        +4
        Green, in part, I agree with you: a batch of Stalin’s model is not a couple of those from the times of NS, and even more so of 1990.
        If you look closely at the history of the party, 4 dates are indicative: 1918, when the VKP (b) party was created, I am not a fan of the Communists, but I RESPECT those Bolsheviks, they were ideological! 1922 a sharp increase in the number, the war is over and membership in the party promises some bad guys, Mikoyan has this, 1941 membership in the party already raises a risk. Berezhkov, Stalin's personal translator, Pokryshkin, had this when hundreds of party cards with a selected page were lying around. 1944 membership in the party increases: no longer scary, and after 1956 the remnants of the ideological "drowned" in the sea of ​​crooks
      2. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 19 November 2018 00: 35
        -2
        "and the party was really an honor and a conscience" /////
        ------
        rather, after all, a mafia-type structure ...
        1. jhltyjyjctw
          jhltyjyjctw 26 November 2018 19: 54
          +1
          Quote: voyaka uh
          "and the party was really an honor and a conscience" /////
          ------
          rather, after all, a mafia-type structure ...


          So it was, while your fellow tribesmen formed its basis. The first thing that Beria began with, after his appointment to the NKVD, demanded that only Russians, Belarusians and Ukrainians with higher education be accepted into leading positions. The overwhelming majority of Yezhovites, as well as Trotskyists, were Jews. This is a historical fact. They are to blame for the unjustified repression under Yezhov. But the party ranks of the LP was not authorized to clean up. So what about the organization of the mafia type - to the very point ...
          1. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 26 November 2018 21: 03
            -1
            It was such - a mafia structure - regardless of the national composition of its leadership.
            And under Stalin, and under Khrushchev, and under Brezhnev, and beyond. Until her death from old age in 1991.
            Amen. smile
            1. jhltyjyjctw
              jhltyjyjctw 26 November 2018 21: 11
              +1
              Quote: voyaka uh
              It was such - a mafia structure - regardless of the national composition of its leadership.
              And under Stalin, and under Khrushchev, and under Brezhnev, and beyond. Until her death from old age in 1991.
              Amen. smile


              Do you have all the saints in your leadership, especially in the 40s, when they just started as a state? Hands to the elbow in blood, all former fighters and terrorists. What the British cut, what the Arabs. Bernadotte why soaked? Do not compare my country with a criminal organization. You, as a nation, have survived, because the Russian infantry Vanya put cancer in half of Europe ...
              1. voyaka uh
                voyaka uh 26 November 2018 21: 31
                -1
                "Do not compare my country with a criminal organization" ////
                ------
                Country? In no case. The country was the victim of this criminal organization.
                Country, I just really sympathize and wish to get out, as soon as possible, in the light
                future. good
                1. jhltyjyjctw
                  jhltyjyjctw 26 November 2018 21: 44
                  +1
                  Quote: voyaka uh
                  "Do not compare my country with a criminal organization" ////
                  ------
                  Country? In no case. The country was the victim of this criminal organization.
                  Country, I just really sympathize and wish to get out, as soon as possible, in the light
                  future. good


                  As I understand it, you are already in the bright present. It is pleasant to realize that we have the prospect of soon joining the happy community of civilized states, finally catching up with exceptional nations in our development. And you let us drink your tap water ...
                  1. voyaka uh
                    voyaka uh 26 November 2018 23: 02
                    -1
                    Always Glade. Welcome to the club drinks
  14. Catfish
    Catfish 18 November 2018 15: 51
    +2
    Quote: Alexander Green
    Quote: Sea Cat
    And you obviously believe in fairy tales about the "bright future" and about the "honor and conscience of the planet".

    Unlike you, I believe, because the future, and the party, was really an honor and conscience for socialism-communism, while there were purges in it, as soon as Khrushchev canceled them, all kinds of crooks crawled into it.


    Naturally, you don't think. By the way, despite the negative attitude towards Leonid Brezhnev, I do not consider him a crook. And what about Khrushchev: do you regret not being "cleaned up"? I don't think it would have helped anyway. Tightening the nuts has never done anything good. Even our "little brothers" Chinese understood this. A country under a totalitarian regime cannot develop and progress normally, which was proved by the collapse of the USSR. And let’s not argue about the future of socialism-communism, and you and I will live to see it. wink
    1. Alexander Greene
      Alexander Greene 18 November 2018 20: 15
      +1
      Quote: Sea Cat
      And what about Khrushchev: do you regret not being "cleaned up"?

      It is not a matter of personality; Khrushchev simply turned out to be the spokesman for the right-wing deviation in the party, which had gained strength after the war, whose basis is petty-bourgeois consciousness.

      The fact is that during the war an entire generation of politically literate Soviet youth brought up by the Komsomol died, the working class suffered heavy losses, three Communist Party members who had experience in the ideological struggle against opportunist deviations died on the fronts. At the front, new people, heroes, but politically illiterate, joined the party. Candidate experience was absent.

      In addition, the remaining working class in the city was dissolved in the mass of immigrants from the village and from the occupied territories, where the petty-bourgeois consciousness prevailed, and when Khrushchev proposed his reforms, there was practically no one to resist them, because few understood what they were leading to. And those who understood it were called an anti-party group.

      And the Khrushchev-Brezhnev reforms led to a change in the economic basis of socialism (the Stalinist model of the economy was curtailed). Changes in the basis, in turn, affected the superstructure (the revisionist Program of the party was adopted in 1961), and as a result, a shift in the mass consciousness of Soviet people towards the petty-bourgeois one, and the gradual restoration of capitalism, which Gorbachev and Yeltsin completed.
  15. Catfish
    Catfish 18 November 2018 22: 23
    0
    Quote: Alexander Green
    politically illiterate, because Candidate experience was absent.


    Those. people are not fooled, independently thinking and defending this right under bullets in the war.
    They paid for their "candidate experience" with their own blood. We would all have a similar "illiteracy".
    1. Alexander Greene
      Alexander Greene 18 November 2018 23: 32
      0
      Quote: Sea Cat
      They paid for their "candidate experience" with their own blood. We would all have a similar "illiteracy".

      Do not confuse heroism with political and economic literacy... "Illiteracy" cost us our state.

      During the war it was clear: here we are, and here is the enemy. And after the death of Stalin, when Khrushchev began to scale back the Stalinist model of the economy, they were easily deceived, because few of them understood what it was.

      For example, the first step of the Khrushchev reforms: the sale of MTS to collective farms. In words, everything seems to be correct, but military heroes could not understand that this would lead to higher prices for agricultural products, as collective farms will have to include the price of tractors in the price of their products, which happened in 1961.

      And further reforms: the orientation of enterprises to profit instead of focusing on reducing the cost of production led to the fact that prices for all goods began to grow continuously instead of their annual decline, as it was under Stalin.
  16. Catfish
    Catfish 18 November 2018 23: 36
    +1
    Quote: Alexander Green
    will lead to higher prices for agricultural products, as collective farms will have to include the price of tractors in the price of their products, which happened in 1961.


    Something I do not remember the rise in price of agricultural products in the 61st year, although my mother regularly drove me to the collective farm market for potatoes. request
    1. Alexander Greene
      Alexander Greene 19 November 2018 20: 44
      +1
      Quote: Sea Cat
      Something I do not remember the rise in price of agricultural products in the 61st year, although my mother regularly drove me to the collective farm market for potatoes


      First, the collective farm sells its products to the state, and does not sell them through the market. The collective farmers mainly traded on the collective farm market from personal subsidiary plots, which had no tractors.

      Secondly, after the sale of MTS equipment to the collective farms, the state had to increase wholesale purchase prices for agricultural products, as collective farms began to work at a loss. This did not immediately affect the urban population, but because raising procurement prices turned out to be unprofitable for the state, it also increased retail prices. The first to raise prices for meat and dairy products, remember what the workers opposed in Novocherkassk and other cities in 1961.

      And then, when the economy was transferred to a new economic reform (focus on profit) by the mid-60s, prices began to grow continuously, with all goods and agricultural and industrial ..
  17. M. Michelson
    M. Michelson 19 November 2018 05: 52
    +1
    some wrote. Trotsky and Blumkin are trying to kill Yesenin (he is the main literary Trotskyist), and Dzerzhinsky ("the most rightist", according to Valentinov) for some reason supports the most left Trotsky ... the author is zhzhot, karoch.
  18. Operator
    Operator 19 November 2018 13: 27
    +2
    In the mid-1920's, Leningrad turned into a Trotskyite nest - here, under the wing of Gersh Aronovich Radomyslensky (Zinoviev), Jewish members of the Trotskyist opposition fled to the CPSU (b) from all over the USSR. The Trotskyists mainly infiltrated the provincial and city party organizations, the local OGPU, the bodies of communist propaganda and agitation (editorial boards of newspapers, writers' associations, etc.).

    Yesenin arrived in Leningrad on the days when the Fourteenth Congress of the CPSU (B.) Was held in Moscow, at which the Trotskyist opposition was defeated and as a result of which the Russian Sergei Mironovich Kirov was sent to Leningrad, who replaced the Jew Radomyslensky, after which party cleansing of the Trotskyists began in the city .

    Esnin was threatened with a rebuttal under the article of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR for anti-Semitism (until the 5 years of the camps) - returning to Moscow from Baku on a train, he entered into a quarrel with two Jewish party members, calling them a forbidden word (he was drunk). Offended by the advice of Trotsky filed a corresponding complaint. Yesenin first mowed down under a psychiatric hospital in Gannushkin’s clinic, then burned the manuscripts, took all the money from the passbook and fled to Leningrad, as a fan of his work Chagin (Kirov’s assistant) informed him of the planned arrival of Kirov, who supports the poet in Baku.

    Yesenin literally hurried for a few days with the move from Moscow to Leningrad. As a result, Yesenin got from the station to the detention center of the OGPU in Leningrad and the Leningrad province, which was adjacent to the warehouse of the Angleterre hotel. In the pre-trial detention center, the Chekists-Trotskyists tortured Yesenin for four days so that he agreed to become an informant for the OGPU and receive, as a bonus, the right to travel abroad.

    In the process of torture Yesenin was broken skull (frontal bone), after which he died. The corpse in the cellars was first dragged to the warehouse, and then to the only hotel room on the ground floor, which had direct access from the warehouse, enclosed by a closet. Then they imitated the suicide of the poet in the form of hanging on a mount a vertical riser for steam heating (despite the fact that the ceiling height of the rooms on the first floor was 3 meters 80 centimeters, and there was no staircase in the room).
  19. Catfish
    Catfish 19 November 2018 21: 48
    0
    Quote: Alexander Green

    And then, when the economy was transferred to a new economic reform (focus on profit) by the mid-60s, prices began to grow continuously, with all goods and agricultural and industrial ..


    The fact that prices rose only after returning from the army in 1969. In Moscow, people literally hunted for the "Moscow Special" at 2.87. hi
  20. jhltyjyjctw
    jhltyjyjctw 23 November 2018 20: 39
    +1
    Yesenin, unfortunately, committed suicide. He drank a lot the day before. In the area of ​​three nights, his friend was supposed to come to his hotel room (he forgot his name), but that did not work out. Hearing the steps in the corridor, Yesenin, thinking that this is the one he was waiting for, decided to play it, depicting his hanging. Apparently the lack of proper coordination, due to intoxication, became a fatal circumstance. A trace on the forehead of a dead Yesenin from a red-hot heating pipe, formed in five hours, until the body was discovered and removed from the loop. No need to produce myths. Blumkin did a lot of things and his end was logical, but has nothing to do with Yesenin’s death ...
  21. gsev
    gsev 18 January 2019 04: 36
    0
    Quote: voyaka uh
    rather, after all, a mafia-type structure ...

    By definition, a party is a group of like-minded people to gain power. It was impossible to remove the king by legal means. But in 1970-1980, members of the CPSU were simply gentlemen compared to Kolomoisky.