Military Review

The West "did not notice" Soviet data on the presence of water on the moon

54
In the year 1976, with the help of the Soviet automatic interplanetary station "Luna-24", it was possible to deliver lunar soil to Earth, which was taken from depths to 2 meters. In it, scientists found a high water content. Some samples were given by NASA, but the Western scientific community ignored this data. Why?

It is obvious that the existence of any human lunar base largely depends on whether there is water on the earth satellite. Everybody perfectly remembers the epic of the last eighteen years, during which the presence of water on the Moon was established. In fact, this is just another independent "invention of the bicycle."

The West "did not notice" Soviet data on the presence of water on the moon
Automatic station "Luna-24". State Museum stories cosmonautics named K.E. Tsiolkovsky in Kaluga


In 1994, the American automatic interplanetary station "Clementine" conducted a radar survey of the surface layers of the Earth satellite, during which there were encouraging, but not entirely clear, results. AMC Lunar Prospector also searched for water, measuring neutron absorption by the surface layers of the moon. Finally, in 2009, the Indian Chandrayaan-1, as well as Galileo, were used to search for water.

What is all this for? After all, on Earth lunar soil abound. For example, Apollo brought about three hundred kilograms of such soil, and a significant part of the samples was lost. American astrophysicist Arlene Crots, a staff member at Columbia University, tried to answer these questions.

Everything is quite simple: scientists who adhered to the 60-70-x opinion that the Moon is an anhydrous celestial body, made the assumption that lunar soil samples that brought Apollo were contaminated after they returned to Earth. This was the only way to explain the fact of water availability where, in the opinion of the scientific community, it was not.

In addition, when the lunar soil was being transported, NASA used not entirely sealed containers, as a result of which the regolith particles fell out, and this made the version believable.

Whatever it was, the development of science occurred at that time not only in the West; The Soviet Union had other views on this problem.

The AMS Luna-24, which made the last soft landing on the Earth’s satellite in 1976 last year, mined the ground, which was delivered by the take-off module back to Earth. Data relating to the weight of the soil varies (from 160 to 170 grams), but this is not the case. This mission, unprecedented and outstanding from the technical side, was the most logical way to check for water on the moon: if there are traces of it, then there is a high probability that they are in the subsurface layers.

The main part of the AMC "Luna-24" remained on the Moon: it can still be distinguished in the pictures. (Photo by NASA)


Of course, Soviet researchers, using the method of infrared spectroscopy, analyzed the materials and found unambiguous traces of water (0,1% by weight of lunar soil), and the water content increased as the depth increased. Scientists also suggested that earthly contamination of samples with water could hardly have occurred, since regolith does not tend to absorb water from the air.

As a result, it was concluded that there are at least millions of tons of water on the moon. Why "at least"? Because the place (Sea of ​​Crises), from where the ground was taken, is not at the pole, which means not the maximum possible water content, but rather the opposite: after all, at the poles the loss of water by the lunar soil is much weaker.

These research results in 1978 were published in the journal Geochemistry, which also had the English version. However, as it turned out, the West is not familiar with these articles, and if someone read, then nothing is known about this.

According to Arlene Crots, no one quoted the work on the lunar soil, which was brought by “Moon-24”, therefore, “what we don’t know, doesn’t exist for us”.

As Mr. Crotts said, significant progress has recently been made in estimating the average water content in the moon's regolith: while in the West 2006 in the West, water content was postulated in 1: 1 000 000 000, today many scientists believe that there is more water in the ground . This achievement is, of course, valuable, but even in the 1978 year, the materials published in English, said that the water content in the lunar soil is 1: 1 000 ...

However, this is not all: some of the samples brought by Luna-24 were transferred to NASA for further research. What happened to them is an intriguing question. One thing is clear: the Soviet lunar missions did not give science the answer to the question of the existence of water in the lunar soil, despite the fact that the water content was measured and then presented to the world scientific community!

Prepared by materials arXiv и compulenta.ru
54 comments
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  1. Temer
    Temer 1 June 2012 09: 23
    +20
    Well, there is nothing surprising. The West is stubbornly trying to draw in the idea that the first cosmonaut was not Gagarin, but Alan Shepard.
    1. vozn_ser
      vozn_ser 1 June 2012 09: 40
      +22
      I agree that they are waging an information war against us, which means we are not yet defeated!
      1. 755962
        755962 1 June 2012 17: 01
        +12
        We love Muammar Gaddafi
        not because he wrote the Green Book,
        and not even for building "green" socialism,
        but for the fact that not afraid to fight against NATO,
        to protect your country from occupation and plunder
    2. Ross
      Ross 2 June 2012 00: 08
      +1
      Temer,
      Everything is simple. They are not going to master the moon with us, they are doing all the work for themselves and in secret from everyone.
  2. Rus_87
    Rus_87 1 June 2012 09: 28
    +16
    The main part of the Luna-24 AMS remained on the moon: it can still be distinguished in the pictures. (NASA photo) But I wonder if there are similar pictures of Amer’s lunches of the descent modules of the Apollo? ... Just this photo immediately inspired me to the ongoing debate about whether the Americans really were on the Moon or not? ...
    1. Indigo
      Indigo 1 June 2012 10: 26
      +8
      Caught the eye:
      1. Availability of optical control devices from a height of 300 km and the Earth's atmosphere - "read" license plates, but from 15 km above the lunar surface "see" blurred x ... nu in the form of landing sites -?
      2. Upon a request to NASA about a photo from the mission landing site - why do you need it, give arguments - you will receive a couple of days with retouching ....
      1. Eraser
        Eraser 1 June 2012 15: 36
        +5
        Here is the site http://www.lroc.asu.edu/index.html, and an example photo from it.
        1. recitatorus
          recitatorus 1 June 2012 16: 25
          +6
          Eraser,
          Not much! I can draw such a thing! Hrn Americans with them, I want to believe that people were on the moon, but I won’t be surprised, the amers again lit the whole world!
          So, at best, 50 to 50.
          1. Eraser
            Eraser 1 June 2012 17: 38
            +5
            The man asked, "But I wonder if there are such pictures of the amers' lunar Apollo descent modules?" ,I answered . wink I also got a minus. wassat
        2. ICT
          ICT 1 June 2012 19: 27
          +1
          about these pictures, on the NASA website, even the American patriots cheers, they are outraged, why can't you remove something clearer and half of the questions will disappear right away, the rest half when some kind of "opacity" eats at the landing sites
        3. alex21411
          alex21411 1 June 2012 19: 51
          +1
          I’ll even draw better for you in mheit paint than it is ...
          1. Eugene
            Eugene 3 June 2012 16: 25
            0
            It’s foolish to believe that the Americans were not on the moon.
    2. Scorpio 83
      Scorpio 83 4 June 2012 21: 09
      0
      What are you! Transformers 3 did not look !? belay
  3. 916-th
    916-th 1 June 2012 09: 28
    +20
    The Americans did not want to admit that the Soviet cosmonautics managed to get a more accurate and correct result at a lower cost.
  4. Oladushkin
    Oladushkin 1 June 2012 09: 36
    +9
    Yes, there were no Americans on the moon. In the best case, their semi- and automatic stations flew there. I don’t want to start a discussion about whether they were there or not. In my defense, I’ll say that there’s just a couple of completely logical considerations that refute the version of the flight to the moon of the American .... uh .... astronauts.
    1. Vasilenko Vladimir
      Vasilenko Vladimir 1 June 2012 11: 07
      +4
      Quote: Oladushkin
      Yes there were no Americans on the moon

      "is there life on Mars, is there life on Mars, science is not known" smile
      1. Drednout
        Drednout 1 June 2012 19: 15
        +2
        The joke is a little off topic:

        - Recently, Dmitry Medvedev and Vladimir Putin were present at the launch of the intercontinental ballistic firecrackers, which can be congratulated on any New Year to any country in the world!

        So, facts are facts. We are the first in space and our merits have been recognized by all! I won’t say that history will judge, because history is finer than the law (I mean the saying about drawbar).
      2. ICT
        ICT 1 June 2012 20: 02
        0
        Quote: Vasilenko Vladimir
        science does not know this "


        Well, I want to know something, and those. Means like there is so at least one question can be closed (I'm talking about the moon)
        1. El13
          El13 2 June 2012 13: 58
          0
          I studied this question under a microscope for a long time, there are a lot of illogicalities there, but the conclusion is disappointing - they were there.
    2. Alone
      Alone 2 June 2012 21: 35
      0
      It's better not to open this topic here. There will be "astronomers" right away who will provide links to influential people.
    3. Alone
      Alone 2 June 2012 21: 40
      0
      It is better not to open this topic here. Many "astronomers" will immediately appear with links to influential people.
  5. Amur
    Amur 1 June 2012 09: 40
    +13
    which country we lost ... sad
    1. Vanek
      Vanek 1 June 2012 10: 20
      +15
      I would rephrase a little
      1. Indigo
        Indigo 1 June 2012 10: 37
        +9
        probably SUCH.
        1. snek
          snek 1 June 2012 15: 03
          +16
          You can moan for a couple of generations about "what country have we lost / lied to", etc., or you can try the country in which we live to do better.
          1. alex21411
            alex21411 1 June 2012 19: 59
            +5
            We must not try, but start ... With yourself, be good People, we are Slavs ...
  6. construction battalion
    construction battalion 1 June 2012 09: 47
    +7
    Yes indeed, where is 300kg of soil delivered by the Americans?
    It’s not even very important for me whether they stomped there at all.
    Not even 300 kg, but at least one gram !!!
    And was there any point at all to collect garbage polluted by meteorites from the surface of the moon?
    1. Aleksey67
      Aleksey67 1 June 2012 14: 41
      +4
      Quote: building battalion
      Yes indeed, where is 300kg of soil delivered by the Americans?


      "The moonstone delivered by Apollo 11 turned out to be a cheap fake" [21]: "Dutch experts have analyzed the" moonstone ", officially, through the Department of State, presented to the Prime Minister of the Netherlands Willem Drize by US Ambassador William Middendorf during a visit to the country of astronauts." Apollo 11 "- October 9, 1969. After the death of Mr. Driz $ 500K relic., became an exhibit of the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. And only now studies of the "moonstone" have shown that the gift from the United States was a simple fake - a piece of petrified wood».

      Only a month has passed since the delivery of the piece of wood to the Dutch Prime Minister, and The United States decided to organize a massive donation of "lunar soil" to all countries - 135 UN members. In this action they have already provided so that you can reach the “lunar samples” only by breaking the gift (and who will decide on such a scandal?). “In November 1969, four months after the landing of Apollo 11, the then US President Richard Nixon ordered NASA to isolate about 250 fragments of the“ lunar rock ”and to make boards (nameplates) on which they were to be mounted acrylic balls with tightly sealed inward by four samples of lunar rock». Now, “lunar” stones were presented in tightly sealed Plexiglass balls (ill. 4), as well as in similar cylinders [22]. The donation procedure was repeated in 1972, when, according to NASA, the last “moon landing” (A-17) was carried out.


      1. recitatorus
        recitatorus 1 June 2012 16: 31
        +4
        Aleksey67,
        Hollywood - Steers !!! wink wink wink
        1. wall
          wall 1 June 2012 23: 29
          0
          Fight stereotypes. Cinema is not everything !!
      2. revnagan
        revnagan 2 June 2012 19: 55
        +1
        Quote: Aleksey67
        “Dutch experts have analyzed the moonstone, officially through the Department of State, donated to Prime Minister of the Netherlands Willem Drize by US Ambassador William Middendorf during the visit of the Apollo 11 astronauts to the country on October 9, 1969. After the death of Mr. Driz, the relic, insured for $ 500 thousand, became an exhibit at the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. And only now studies of the "moonstone" have shown that the gift from the United States turned out to be a simple fake - a piece of petrified wood. "

        No, how low the Dutch fell! After all, a gentleman must trust the gentleman by word of mouth, and these ... Savages, and nothing more. Just give a try to the tooth ... How impolite, politically incorrect even.
  7. vostok
    vostok 1 June 2012 09: 54
    +7
    The moon is a satellite, but Mars is a planet and we definitely need to be there first!
    1. танк
      танк 1 June 2012 10: 36
      -11
      What is the habit of piping up?
      1. Dr. Pilyulkin
        Dr. Pilyulkin 1 June 2012 15: 58
        0
        No, just for any normal person, the spirit of competition and the desire to be the first is normal. During the Cold War, the world made a giant leap in technology. I do not think that such a pace of development is possible in the modern world.
      2. Horde
        Horde 1 June 2012 19: 18
        -1
        What is the habit of piping up?


        the steeper the Soviet symbolism in the image, the more pacific the cosmopolitan is sitting there
        1. танк
          танк 4 June 2012 10: 07
          0
          The spies were not given a word
        2. Scorpio 83
          Scorpio 83 4 June 2012 21: 22
          0
          someone old sore on the ass prevents live))
  8. foxstrat89
    foxstrat89 1 June 2012 10: 11
    +3
    About the Americans' visit to the moon. I want to say, I had a chance to talk with a man who at one time was the driver of a planetary rover, or in Russian "Soviet lunar remote-controlled rover." I quote his words: "The Americans were on the moon, we watched them, no matter what they said, and we were sincerely happy for them, since we considered this achievement to be universal!"
    1. construction battalion
      construction battalion 1 June 2012 10: 49
      +3
      Before flying to the moon, the hollywood people first flew to Mosfilm, they asked everything, but how is it that Vasilisa hangs translucent in the air, and how did it turn out to be water? drinks
      But I have no questions why the steel frames of the twin towers collapsed - the planes were filled with liquid nitrogen, now they scattered like frozen roses from falling to the floor. laughing
    2. snek
      snek 1 June 2012 15: 10
      +1
      Quote: foxstrat89
      About the Americans' visit to the moon. I want to say, I had a chance to talk with a man who at one time was the driver of a planetary rover, or in Russian "Soviet lunar remote-controlled rover." I quote his words: "The Americans were on the moon, we watched them, no matter what they said, and we were sincerely happy for them, since we considered this achievement to be universal!"

      YES, and in general all of our people who were directly connected with Kosomos do not express doubts that the Americans were on the moon. I personally saw television programs where Leonov, Grechko and Wolf said that the Americans were on the moon, and only these people in space understand something.
      1. construction battalion
        construction battalion 1 June 2012 16: 09
        +5
        SO! after all, Great Putin does not mind that the towers scattered on September 11, but we remember how, through the whistle of the State Department, representatives of independent, dimacratic and other liberal states ran out of their ears covering their ears during a speech by the President of Iran on this issue wink
    3. Horde
      Horde 1 June 2012 19: 35
      0
      We were sincerely happy for them, since we considered this achievement to be universal! "


      "common human nonsense, however, the fact that" common people "rejoiced is beyond doubt.
      1. Scorpio 83
        Scorpio 83 4 June 2012 21: 28
        -1
        your avatar is not the same, you jacked more and bring contention to the masses!
  9. Indigo
    Indigo 1 June 2012 10: 18
    +4
    Hmm! Grab 300 kg. that which was not - it is necessary to be able to. Either the regolith is polluted with water, then it does not absorb water, then it pours out like from a bag of holes, then it can bring in all sorts of rubbish from the Moon - something too many questions. And to the so-called. missions to the moon in the absence of engines of the required power - naked-wood helped "fly off". scammers however ...
    1. apro
      apro 1 June 2012 13: 20
      +6
      There were pi-sys on the moon or you couldn’t prove to them without a nuclear club, like the twins collapsed and they send all their condolences and send the fuck
      1. alex21411
        alex21411 1 June 2012 20: 13
        +3
        He came up with another, it is necessary to send GRU special forces there, in 5-6 large cities, blow up megatons, and then send letters to all clay-mixing channels that it’s like the state of Georgia takes responsibility for terrorist attacks ... Let them fight themselves then , they are instilling democracy ... And PEACE, rest from them ...
        1. ALPETSEM
          ALPETSEM 1 June 2012 20: 59
          -1
          And then what will we differ from them? These are not our methods.
          1. alex21411
            alex21411 1 June 2012 21: 40
            +1
            We will not shout about democracy, they will destroy themselves ... And the whole world will breathe quietly ...
          2. revnagan
            revnagan 2 June 2012 19: 58
            0
            Quote: ALPETSEM
            And then what will we differ from them? These are not our methods.

            E, no matter how sick, just to die ...
          3. Scorpio 83
            Scorpio 83 4 June 2012 21: 31
            0
            I completely agree! Our Slavs have a different understanding of being on earth than than trading aliens
  10. Rus_87
    Rus_87 1 June 2012 12: 42
    +5
    I quote his words: "The Americans were on the Moon, we watched them, no matter what they said, and We were sincerely happy for them, since we considered this achievement to be universal!"


    Well, this is how it is always and everywhere ... all the arguments at the level of someone said something to someone ... and there are countless numbers of such "someone told someone" on the Internet, and as "for", and "against" the fact that the Americans were on the moon ... I wanted to say, here is a photo in which, even if not very distinctly, a certain spacecraft is visible, are there any similar pictures of American landing sites, because they are at every they left a lot of goods there, the same electric car on which they cut across the moon, etc. considering that modern means of space reconnaissance and tracking can, as they say, "asterisks on shoulder straps" can be distinguished, is it really impossible to take such a picture, where the landing module would be visible, or rather a part of it and the same little car and finally the same developing American flag ...
    1. recitatorus
      recitatorus 1 June 2012 16: 36
      0
      Rus_87,
      All rubbish on the moon, and so you can throw, without nil and armstrong!
  11. Volkhov
    Volkhov 1 June 2012 13: 21
    +2
    There is water on the American moon because the Aleuts are islands in the Pacific Ocean.
  12. skullcap
    skullcap 1 June 2012 14: 20
    +11
    These research results in 1978 were published in the journal Geochemistry, which also had the English version. However, as it turned out, the West is not familiar with these articles, and if someone read, then nothing is known about this.
    ---------------------------------------------------------------
    The reception is as old as the world.
    Even the Romans at one time decided: "Etruscan is not readable!"
  13. Oladushkin
    Oladushkin 1 June 2012 17: 30
    +1
    Here is a small digression about our cosmonauts who "saw the Americans on the moon." I'm afraid they say this simply out of solidarity with people of the same profession, American astronauts. Although Leonov swore that he did not doubt, but I am afraid in this matter he cannot be trusted. One of the cosmonauts said so bluntly - if we declare our questions about the visit by the Americans to the Moon, then they can declare (and informationally rob us of the glory and honor of the first cosmonaut, Yuri Gagarin) about their first cosmonaut. Like, why are you fussing everywhere I am a complete asshole, are you not enough of the first astronaut? It is simply the fear that those in power today will give up with giblets what is already sacred for the Russian people.
  14. Very smart
    Very smart 1 June 2012 20: 21
    +3
    The information in the article is very interesting. It somehow passed me by. I'm sorry. To the author - respect.
    The issue of water availability is a question of the possibility of exploration of the moon. A nuclear reactor is a technical matter. And oxygen from water is a possibility of life !!! And not somewhere far away in any galaxy in a million years, but now, very close, a new life, a new planet !!! That's cool. There is an opportunity to be the first to capture an entire planet. Long live the galactic expansion !!! Branch of the Russian Federation on the moon !!!
  15. nemo778
    nemo778 2 June 2012 06: 47
    +1
    On the moon? No water! AND NO !!! OIL!!! Otherwise SHE Bylbyy AMEROVSKY staff !!!! lol Yankees .... GOU ,, HOU ,,,, bully
  16. nemo778
    nemo778 2 June 2012 07: 09
    +1
    On the moon? No water! AND NO !!! OIL!!! Otherwise SHE Bylbyy AMEROVSKY staff !!!! lol Yankees .... GOU ,, HOU ,,,, bully This We strangled Nazism !!! This is We first in space !!! etc drinks
  17. Rus_87
    Rus_87 2 June 2012 07: 36
    +4
    One of the astronauts said so bluntly - if we announce our questions about the Americans’s visit to the moon, they can declare (and take away information from us the glory and honor of the first astronaut, Yu.A. Gagarin) about his first astronaut


    And now I'm wondering, and what questions can the amers ask about whether Gagarin was the first cosmonaut, and even more so how can they take away the glory and honor of the first cosmonaut from us? Honestly, for all the time since the first man's flight into space, I have not heard that someone even gave a hint and brought at least some reasoned facts that Gagarin was not the first or that he did not fly at all ... because this fact is indisputable, and you can pour water as much as you like! But disputes over cowboys on the Moon have been going on since 1969 ... and in favor of the "about Hollywood" version, a lot of pretty weighty facts are given, and the supporters of the fact that amers were really on the Moon have only video and bare words, even if very respected and competent people ...
    PS Were the Americans on the Moon, were the Americans on the Moon, this is not known to science ... =)) If they were honored and praised, if they were not, let it remain on their conscience (if, of course, they have it), but so I think that the first person on Mars must necessarily be a Russian, anyway, brothers, and let anything they tell me about the impossibility of pulling such a program by one country, etc. etc., if Russia wants to remain among the leading space power, it needs to independently develop this topic! And tell me what you want to me, I personally believe that it will be so and we will fly to Mars, so we will fly so that not a single bastard will even hint to say that they did not fly, or that it was filmed at Mosfilm!
    1. Eugene
      Eugene 3 June 2012 16: 30
      0
      Yes, as well as the soil from the moon coinciding with the Soviet models, as well as the direction finding of negotiations with the earth of American astronauts.
  18. bagira
    bagira 2 June 2012 19: 27
    +4
    In favor of the fact that the Americans were not on the moon, the fact that they managed to lose not only 300 kg of lunar soil, but also the production technology of launch vehicles, is now being used by our rockets to deliver cargo to the ISS. And the fact that Leonov and our other astronauts say that they allegedly watched the landing of the Americans on the moon is not a fact that the television signal was transmitted from the moon, and not from the set.
  19. Stasi.
    Stasi. 3 June 2012 01: 17
    +2
    Whether Americans were on the moon or not, it doesn’t matter. The most important thing now is to develop in every possible way its cosmonautics and the program of moon exploration. The Americans are now curtailed and cut back on all programs related to space. Maybe even NASA itself will be disbanded. Therefore, we must intensively develop our space program, because the Moon is a pantry of minerals and is simply a launching springboard for space exploration. By the way, in the States themselves there are a lot of those who do not believe that the Americans were on the moon. It means something.
  20. Shaman fish
    Shaman fish 3 June 2012 22: 14
    +1
    They are trying to destroy us, not only on earth, but also in history.
  21. turchenko_
    turchenko_ 22 July 2012 15: 46
    0
    Politicians don’t want to learn from history lessons, they don’t care what others think of you and bend their line that is beneficial to you in everything!
  22. cropman
    cropman 10 December 2012 15: 53
    +1
    Quote: Rus_87
    because this fact is undeniable

    You are making ridiculous claims! In fact, not a single proof of the reliability of Gagarin's flight into space simply does NOT exist. They forgot to give him a camera and he did not take a single picture of the Earth from space. Suspicious? It landed separately from the Vostok ship. Suspicious? He is caught lying about landing in the ship (for record recognition). More than suspicious! Boarding a rocket, radio communications with Korolev and the famous "Let's go" - were filmed after the flight (officially recognized). He didn't even die of old age. More than suspicious! What's left? Radio exchange with the MCC? The simplest tape recorder trick. Just don't think that I doubt Gagarin's flight. I have no doubts, as well as in the flights of the Americans to the moon. As well as the fact that the first on Mars will be Elon Musk, because he not only dreams about it, but already DESERVED it by creating: SpaceX, Falcon and Dragon.