Military Review

"Red Eagles" of Altai. Guerrillas Rogov against Kolchak and the Bolsheviks

The civil war in Russia has become a true Hobbes “war of all against all,” in which not only the “red” Bolsheviks and their “white” opponents clashed with each other, but also numerous peasant rebel armies. The epicenters of the peasant movement were those parts of the former Russian Empire, in which the tillers of the land had greater autonomy, were active and more organized.

In the west, in the Ukraine, the center of insurgency was Gulyaypole, which turned into the capital of the Revolutionary Insurgent Army, the Natior Makhno fathers. The peasant movement developed in the Tambov region, in the Volga region, and in the east of the country, in the Altai, its own insurgent army was formed and successfully acted against the “Whites”. We know less about her than about the rebels of Makhno. Moreover, in Soviet times, the theme of the peasant insurgency of the Civil War did not appeal. The rebels were called “green” and actually equated to gangsters, sometimes mixing more with “whites,” although, speaking of Altai, it was the rebels who freed the region from “whites”, setting the stage for the establishment of Soviet power here.

The population of Altai and Siberia at the time of the events in question was divided into two main groups - the old-timers and the settlers. Old-timers, including the Cossacks, owned the main part of land and, by right of precedence, considered themselves to be a more privileged group of the population. In turn, the immigrants who arrived here from the European part of Russia, felt disadvantaged. This social polarization contributed to the spread of revolutionary sentiments among immigrants. The exiled Bolsheviks, Socialist Revolutionaries and Anarchists, as well as soldiers and junior officers who were returning from the fronts of the First World War, made a great contribution to this process.

The uprising, raised by the Czechoslovak Corps in the spring of 1918, became the starting point for the subsequent transition of most of Siberia under the control of anti-Bolshevik forces. At the same time, in the villages and cities of Altai, a rebel movement began to take shape, which at first set itself the task of self-organizing the peasants to fight the actions of the “white” and Czechoslovaks. Indeed, many “white” detachments not only fought with the Bolsheviks and sympathizers, but created real chaos, including purely criminal crimes against the peasant population.

Quite quickly, in the rebel environment, their own commanders emerged, creating their partisan detachments and gaining great prestige among the peasants. Efim Mamedov at the time of the events described was only 29 years old. Coming from a family of peasant migrants, he lived in the village of Vostrovo (Kabanye) of the Pokrovsky volost, which was part of the Slavgorod district of the Tomsk province (today it is Volchikhinsky district of the Altai Territory), and received his primary education.

In 1910, Mamontov was called up for military service, and he returned home only seven years later. Mamontov served as a telegraph operator at the engineer battalion, and was sent to the front, where for bravery he received the St. George crosses of the 4 and 3 degrees. Returning from the war to his native Vostrovo, he quickly established contacts with local revolutionaries and was elected to the village council. When the anti-Bolshevik government was finally established in the province, Mamontov created a rebel detachment, where the peasants from Vostrovo entered. Mamontovtsy went to the aid of the rebels of the village of Black Dol. Although the Chernodolsk uprising was quickly suppressed, the Mamontov partisans continued to resist "white". Since the spring of 1919, the Mammoths fought a partisan struggle in the south of Slavgorod district, attacking wealthy peasants, merchants, forest guards.

Grigory Fedorovich Rogov was also a front-line soldier. He was born in 1883, in the village of Zhulanikha, Mariinsky volost, Barnaul district, where his parents - poor peasants - moved from the Tomsk province. Then Rogov was called up for military service, he participated in battles during the Russian-Japanese war, was awarded the St. George's Cross and received the rank of sergeant-major, which in itself was already very much for the soldier of the tsarist army. In 1907, Rogov returned from work, worked as a salesman in a wine shop

Despite the fact that Rogov had five children, in 1914, he was again drafted into the army and sent to the front. He served in the railway battalion, was promoted to ensign. In 1917, Rogov returned home and first joined the Social Revolutionaries, and after the October Revolution he supported the Bolsheviks. But in his political views, Grigory Rogov was even to the left of the Bolsheviks. Soon he began to declare himself as an anarchist. Anarchist position Rogov outlined and at the Kuznetsk Congress of Soviets.

In July, 1918, Rogov created a partisan group in his native Zhulanikha and soon formed on its basis a whole detachment, which joined the struggle against the Provisional Siberian Government, and then Admiral Kolchak. In the second half of 1919, under the command of Rogov, an entire guerrilla army of a total of thousands of people in 5 turned out to be in Prichumysh and managed to free 18 volosts on the right bank of the Ob from Kolchak.

One of the great victories of the Rogovites was the battle of Sorokino, where they managed to defeat a squad of 1500 fighters under the command of Lieutenant Romanovsky. In the area of ​​Zyryanovka, the corneas defeated the Uhlan squadron of Ataman Annenkov, then in the village of Togul defeated the local white garrison, which numbered more than a thousand people.

The fame of Rogov and his fighters spread through the Altai very quickly. Many poor peasants treated the cornets as liberators, but numerous testimonies of the atrocities of the rebels remained. Rogovts mercilessly punished wealthy peasants and Cossacks - old-timers, killed priests, did not disdain to robberies of churches. Naturally, the Bolsheviks, who decided to put the formation of Rogov under control, soon turned their attention to such a significant force. In June, the Barnaul Committee of the RCP (B.) Sent 1919 Communists headed by Matvey Vorozhtsov to the Rogov Detachment. That is, in Altai, the line was also tested, which the Bolsheviks adhered to in the Ekaterinoslav region in relation to Nestor Makhno and his rebel army. Formally supporting Rogov, the Bolsheviks created their own cells behind him, village councils subordinate to the regional congress of Soviets under their control.

"Red Eagles" of Altai. Guerrillas Rogov against Kolchak and the Bolsheviks

In the end, the policy of the Bolsheviks led to a sharply negative reaction from Rogov. He reacted to the actions of the Bolsheviks as well as the other rebel leader Makhno at the opposite end of the country. In early December, 1919, Grigori Rogov drove the Bolsheviks out of his squad, but the latter were able to carry a large part of the rogovskih fighters.

Gradually, Rogov began to treat the Bolsheviks no less negatively than the whites. Entered into history the famous capture by the cornea and the settlers of Kuznetsk. The city detachments gf Rogov and I.P. Novoselov entered 12 December 1919 of the year. Almost immediately, the “rogovian cleansing” began, as the inhabitants nicknamed three-day reprisals against all those whom the cornea considered enemies of the revolutionary working people. All Kolchak's officers, officials, policemen, priests, most of the merchants and kulaks were definitely subject to the death penalty. The buildings of the Transfiguration Cathedral and the Odigitrevskaya church, a city prison, were set on fire by the Rogovians. In total, during the "cleansing" at least several hundred people died. Now accurate data on the number of dead are unknown, but we are talking about about 400-700 residents of Kuznetsk.

Having managed for three days in Kuznetsk, the corneses left the city and moved in two directions. One part went in the direction of Kolchugino, another - in the Biysk and Barnaul counties. It should be noted that the Kolchakites, who eventually managed to press the corneses, behaved no better, or even worse, than the peasant rebels. Kolchak detachments continued to rob and rape the local population, and they also killed any citizens and peasants who seemed suspicious to them.

Meanwhile, a little more than a week after the capture of Kuznetsk, namely 21 of December 1919, the corneas were able to knock out an entire infantry regiment of Kolchak's army from Shcheglovsk with a lightning strike. Then the squad of Rogov joined the battle with Kolchak in the area of ​​the station Topki, but, having lost about a hundred soldiers, the rebels were forced to retreat. In the meantime, the Bolsheviks intervened. 25 December 1919 of the year came the order of the Revolutionary Military Council of the 5 Army, that Rogov and his unit join the 35 Division. The chieftain, naturally, refused such an offer and 29 of December 1919 of the year was arrested by the Reds. He was transferred from Shcheglovsk to Kuznetsk, then to Novonikolaevsk, but in February 1920 was released with full rehabilitation and paid 10 thousand rubles in compensation and recognition of his revolutionary achievements.

The Bolsheviks tried to persuade Rogov to join the RCP (b), knowing full well that the authority and abilities of the peasant commander could still serve them well. But Rogov, who was an ideological anarchist, refused the proposal of the Bolsheviks. He returned to the village of Zhulaniha, where he tried to create a “true working commune”.

After recovering slightly from prison, Rogov again tried to assemble a rebel detachment. 4 May 1920, he appeared in the village of Togul, where he attacked with his supporters at the local Soviet institutions, defeated and robbed them. In the footsteps of Rogov was sent to the Red Army detachment. Fearing torture and bullying in case of being captured, 3 July 1920, Grigory Rogov, who was at that time in the village of Evdokimovo in the Dmitro-Titov Volost, shot himself. However, there is another version - the field commander was allegedly shot by the chairman of the local party cell Poletayev, to whom Rogov, who had spent the night in the barn, was given out by one of the local peasants.

The renowned chieftain was buried in the village of Khmelevka in a mass grave, and on October 20 2007, 87 years after his death, in Khmelevka opened a memorial plaque in memory of Rogov as one of the notable historical figures of the Altai during the Civil War. The tragic figure of Grigory Rogov reminds us of that terrible time when brother raised weapon against the brother, and the simple civilians suffered the most.

Similarly, the fate of Efim Mamontov. Back in October 1919, he was elected commander-in-chief of the West Siberian Peasant Red Army. In the best time in the army, there were 18 thousands of fighters, brought together in regiments and troops. The most combat-ready, “elite”, as they would say now, was the 1 th Peasant rebel regiment “Red Eagles”.

They were commanded by Fyodor Efimovich Kolyado - a very young 20-year-old guy who came from a family of immigrants. In 1916, he was called up for military service. In October 1917, Kolado deserted and soon joined the partisans, where, as a man with a military background, he quickly moved into the rebel commander's regiment. In November, 1919, Kolad died in the Solonovsk battle, during which the rebel army clashed with Kolchak. That battle ended in a crushing defeat of Kolchak, but the rebels suffered serious losses.

Under the command of Mamontov 6-7 in December 1919, the rebels tried to storm Barnaul, but their attacks were repelled by the enemy’s artillery. However, on the night of December 10 1919, White nevertheless left Barnaul. When Soviet power was restored in Altai, Mamontov was appointed an assistant to an inspector of infantry of the 5 Army, then head of the spare parts supply department of the 5 Army. Unlike Rogov, the Mammoths were more compliant with the red ones, but this did not help him. Despite the fact that from June to September 1920, Mamontov was the commander of the First Separate Red Volunteer West Siberian Rifle Brigade, fought against the Wrangel, then commanded the brigade as part of the 27 Infantry Division of Internal Service Forces, December 25 1920, he was arrested by the Cheka in Barnaul. Mamontov was then released, but 25 or 27 in February of 1922, he was killed in the village of Vlasikha near Barnaul.

The exact circumstances of the assassination of the former rebel commander are unknown. There is a version that he, like Rogov, fell victim to agents of the OGPU, who were cracking down on uncontrolled and unreliable former partisan commanders. The Soviet government was very afraid of such people - "violent" front-line soldiers, field commanders who enjoyed great prestige among the revolutionary peasantry and had personal merits in the struggle against the "whites." After all, many of these commanders have never concealed their disagreement with Bolshevik politics, considering it to be an attack on the interests of the working peasantry, then still the main majority of the Russian population.

Even those of yesterday’s partisans who were lucky enough to survive the Civilian years, still ended their lives tragically. Thus, one of the associates of Mamontov, anarchist communist Mikhail Sidorovich Kozyr was arrested in 1930 year and shot in Tobolsk. Alexander Andreevich Neborak, who replaced Kolyado at the head of the rebel regiment, then served in the Red Army, taught at the military academy, during the Great Patriotic War he was appointed commander of the 253 Infantry Division as a brigade commander. But because of the conflict with the military commissar, Neborak was removed from office and shot himself.

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  1. Chichikov
    Chichikov 8 November 2018 06: 02
    Anarchists and bandits, one and the same! The peasants were completely devout and fact
    The corpses set fire to the buildings of the Transfiguration Cathedral and the Odigitrevskaya church
    speaks of himself - a gang without faith and belief.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 8 November 2018 21: 13
      The piety of the peasants ended during WWI. See "Essays on Russian Troubles" by A.I. Denikin
  2. Basil50
    Basil50 8 November 2018 06: 10
    A typical * dad * is described so brilliantly shown by Papanov in the film "The Adjutant of His Excellency", dense in ignorance and concerned only with his own well-being. Moreover, he sees prosperity in robberies and the accumulation of his own * gold reserve *. Nothing but one more gang *, all these * dad * did not know how to create, and did not want to,
  3. Chichikov
    Chichikov 8 November 2018 08: 09
    After I looked through the available materials about Kolyada, including the last ones, for 2012, that is, in a period when no one was infected with Bolshevism, I did not find "the author's testimony" about his dissatisfaction with the Soviet regime! [media = https: //]
  4. BAI
    BAI 8 November 2018 13: 40
    Cited in the comments yesterday:
    It is known, along with this, what fear the Siberian partisans, who were not at all from among the Communists, were catching up on the Kolchakites and Czechoslovak legionnaires. The exhausting war against their own, who had become "green", further demoralized the White Guards.

    Buldakov V.P.
    Red trouble. The nature and consequences of revolutionary violence

    Well, 100% match with this article.
    1. Chichikov
      Chichikov 9 November 2018 07: 26
      Well, almost! Given that the Communists were in almost all units, only in the ratio of no more than 1-3 people per unit. Do not mess the story, dear! Even without you, pseudo-patriots with their Western sponsors are trying to rewrite it.
  5. Adjutant
    Adjutant 8 November 2018 13: 48
    That's interesting.
    I heard about red eagles. They were also called "red mountain eagles"
    1. Tutejszy
      Tutejszy 9 November 2018 12: 46
      Quote: Adjutant
      They were also called "red mountain eagles"

      in Ust-Kamenogorsk, the street "Red Mountain Eagles" and under the Union was, and to this day, it seems, has not been renamed!
  6. Theodore
    Theodore 8 November 2018 19: 16
    Bumps story of Vataga wrote! Apparently impressed at these events!
  7. Tutejszy
    Tutejszy 9 November 2018 12: 45
    Rogovtsy ruthlessly cracked down on wealthy peasants and Cossacks - old-timers, killed priests, did not disdain robberies of churches.

    Almost immediately, the "Rogue purge" began, as the inhabitants called it a three-day massacre of all those whom the Rogovs considered enemies of the revolutionary working people. All Kolchak officers, officials, police, priests, most of the merchants and kulaks were clearly subject to death. The corpses set fire to the buildings of the Transfiguration Cathedral and Odigitrevskaya church, the city prison. In total, at least several hundred people died during the “purge”. Now exact data on the death toll is unknown, but we are talking about 400-700 residents of Kuznetsk.

    20 2007 October, the, 87 years after his death, a memorial plaque was opened in Khmelevka in memory of Rogov as one of the most prominent historical figures of Altai during the Civil War.

    And what liber.ast am enough brains fool to open a board in memory of such a "zhegtva kgovy gezhim"?
  8. Horse, people and soul
    Horse, people and soul 9 November 2018 16: 32
    Revolution, Civil ... romance. Blood poured in. Horror ...

    A little earlier, after the Revolution of 1905.

    "Lbov and Arkady Myshkin, a former Vyatka seminarian, who was with him, were arrested in Nolinsk, on the afternoon of February 17, 1908, they passed the apartment of the police warden, carefully examining the house and the surrounding area. The warden, who was standing at the window at that time, sensed something- The face of a tall stranger with imperious manners (it was Lbov) caught his eye and he immediately sent after the disguised guard Selyunin, who was killed by Lbov when the chase began. Myshkin was seized first. when he released the entire clip from the Mauser. In a hurry, Lbov tried to load it on the run with two more cartridges, but one of them was inserted incorrectly: a bullet not to the barrel, but, on the contrary, to the drummer. This oversight killed Lbov. Mauser jammed, and pursued turned out to be practically unarmed, although during a search they found 74 live cartridges and four clips of 10 rounds each. The mouse had no weapon. "(" Vyatskiy Vestnik ", 1908 24, April XNUMX.)

    Who carries how many cartridges?

    1. Horse, people and soul
      Horse, people and soul 9 November 2018 16: 49
      The bandit Lbov and his accomplices were hanged.
  9. hunn
    hunn 24 January 2019 07: 23
    Shishkov has a book called "The Vataga". It describes what Rogov's "heroes" were doing in Kuznetsk. It's scary to read, if Mamontov's partisans really fought for liberation, then this character had a rabble aimed at robbery, violence and looting