Military Review

European values ​​of the frigate FREMM

46
The second largest in the world series of surface warships with a displacement of more than 5 thousand tons. To date, 14 units have entered into service; laid and completed five more. By the beginning of the next decade, their number promises to reach 20.


European values ​​of the frigate FREMM


Having managed to be buried and in vain by the efforts of the domestic media, the European military industrial complex turned out to be very much alive. The construction of ships under the FREMM program takes place against the background of a gradual and continuous strengthening of European fleets, which can hardly be explained by a surge of militarism or preparation for a big war. The emergence of projects such as FREMM, just a consequence of a developed economy, in which even the minimum defense costs (within 2% of GDP of these countries) is enough to completely update the composition of their Navy. The observed situation is greatly contributed by the technologies of our time, thanks to which the frigate acquires the value of a ship of 1 rank. His presence can be felt throughout the theater of operations. A couple of decades ago, installing a weapon with similar characteristics required a ship with twice the displacement.

In a number of aspects, FREMM is a step backwards compared to the previous European project CNGF, under which the Horizon frigate 4 was built - in pairs for the French and Italian Navy. Objectively speaking, these are the best ships for solving air defense tasks ever created in stories military fleet.


“Horizon” is an example of the capabilities of the European military industrial complex, if they decide to “play muscles” seriously. Excessively powerful and expensive ship for peacetime


The current FREMM is different.

The reduced air defense capabilities and the minimum composition of the strike weapons (half of the frigates do not have it at all) indicate the absence of intentions to conduct full-scale military operations. FREMM (Frégate multi-mission) are patrol ships of the far sea zone, focused on participation in low-intensity conflicts, “police” and humanitarian operations. This conclusion emphasizes the priorities of their design, in which significant volumes of the hull and superstructure are reserved for the placement of rigid hull high-speed boats and helicopters.

A certain role is played by financial constraints, which caused a reduction in ammunition and other design compromises. The variegated composition of the frigate series, which are built in four versions (air defense / air defense / multi-purpose / multi-purpose percussion), is not due to the popular concepts of "modularity", but a more prosaic reason - the desire to keep the cost of units within 600-700 million euros. Each frigate is equipped with only a portion of the available equipment. The choice of means to be installed is determined by its “purpose”.

Constructive underdevelopment and “reserved volumes” are more or less characteristic of most modern ships. However, in the case of FREMM, savings have become a priority for the entire project.

Of course, not missile cruisers and dreadnoughts. But you should not flatter yourself. As noted, modern technologies allow more than it might seem at first glance.

French frigates (a subclass of "Aquitaine") are regularly equipped with the Hercules radar, which has an instrumental detection range of 250 km, with the possibility of tracking to 400 targets. The same multifunctional radar complex controls the anti-aircraft missiles on the cruise trajectory. No additional radar light is required - the FREMM frigates are armed with Aster family missiles with active guidance heads.



Italian frigates (subclass "Bergamini") are equipped with more advanced radar "Kronos" with an active phased antenna.

In addition to the main multifunctional RLK, European frigates are equipped with an additional centimeter-range 2D radar for detecting small surface and low-flying targets. The French - "Terma Scanner" high resolution. Italians - “Leonardo SPS-732”, emitting weak pulses in a wide frequency range, “red noise” to make it difficult to detect its operation. Unlike the enemy's RTR facilities, which do not pay attention to signals that are too weak or are mistaken for radio interference, the Leonardo SPS-732 processor gradually accumulates data and, according to the theory of probability, determines the position of the target.

The flight range of the Aster-30 anti-aircraft missiles, according to the data presented, leaves 100 + km. However, six of the eight French frigates (in the "budget" PLO version) can not boast of this opportunity. Their weapons include only Aster-15. Missiles of this type due to the absence of a starting stage and a shortened "dead zone" are ideal for short-range interception. But they have limited range (total km 30).

Among other notable features and “high-tech” new products in the asset of FREMM frigates:

- cruise missiles SCALP-Naval - European analogue of “Calibrov” and “Tomahawks” with a smaller starting mass (1400 kg), stealth technology and a flight range of 1000 km. In reality, SLCMs were installed only on French ships (16 CWR). The Italians confined themselves to reserved space for vertical launchers;

- Adjustable artillery shells VULKANO caliber 127 mm with a declared range of 120 km. Only for Italian "multi-purpose" frigates;

- two sonar - hook and towed, with a low-frequency antenna. Italians are equipped with an additional power to detect mines;

- only on Italian frigates - anti-submarine missile system MILAS, a rather rare phenomenon for European ships;

- the French also did not remain in debt - the Artemis system was included in the standard equipment of the frigates to monitor the situation in the IR range in any visibility conditions and any time of day.



The list of differences in the composition of weapons of French and Italian FREMM can take more than one page, and Latin abbreviations and numbers will cause boredom even among a specialist. This material does not claim to be a technical report. Its goal is to ensure that readers have an opinion about these ambiguous ships.

Strictly speaking, the frigates “Aquitaine” and “Bergamini” are two different projects, using a hull of similar shape and some technical solutions (for example, a SYLVER type CIP). They are related to common features and their tasks. Ideal compatibility for actions as part of a single operational connection.

Each country seeks to support domestic producers. Hence the national flavor in the "stuffing" of each frigate. From anti-ship missiles of its own production (the French - the traditional "Exochet", the Italians - "Automatic") to deck devices for forced landing, mooring and moving helicopters. Unlike the French, who use their own Samahé system, the Italians chose the American TC-ASIST.



Despite all the fraternization of European nations, surrounded by a network of data exchange on the NATO Link-21 standard, the ships of France and Italy retain their independence in such critical areas as the management process and decision-making. The frigates of each country are equipped with their own sample BIUS. The French system is called SETIS. The Italians - "Athena".

Not to mention such “trifles” as encrypted communication channels. For example, the equipment of the French FREMMs includes communications equipment through the military satellites of the Syracuse series.

There are differences in the power plant. Both subclasses of frigates use a modern combined diesel-electric transmission with the ability to connect a full-speed gas turbine. At the same time, the Italian project implies the possibility of simultaneous operation of propeller electric motors and gas turbine engines operating on both shafts. Due to this, the Italian FREMM have a slight advantage in speed of full speed (30 vs. 27 knots.). Also, either due to the better efficiency of the GEM, or due to the increased fuel supply of the Italians, there is an advantage in the navigation distance by the economic move.

The French MTU diesel engines, the Italians - their own "Izotta-Frascini" were chosen by the French as the power plant of the economical course. An Italian gas turbine Avio LM2500, a licensed copy of General Electric, is installed on all frigates in full swing. In addition, all frigates are equipped with an auxiliary thruster in the bow of the hull.

Based on the “table” characteristics, among the FREMM class ships built so far, the Italian multipurpose version of the “Carlo Bergamini” looks the most attractive. Here and long-range anti-aircraft missiles, and a radar with AFAR, and a pair of 127 and 76 mm caliber artillery systems, and even a hangar designed for two helicopters.

As for the absence of cruise missiles, a dozen and a half of the CRBDs do not solve anything in any conflict. Equivalent - the departure of a pair of tactical links aviation. Much more important is the ability of Bergamini to provide zonal air defense / missile defense of naval formations, and this is precisely the purpose of the ship's existence of 6700 tons.



The French also do not sit on their hands. In 2016, the Alsace was laid at the shipyard in Lorient, the differences from which of the base FREMM were so great that it was classified as a new type of FREDA (“air defense frigate”). Among the main differences are the reconfiguration of the nose of the frigate with the installation of 32 missile silos SYLVER in the "tactical" version (instead of 16 "short" mines for self-defense SAM and 16 "long" mines for the Kyrgyz Republic on the base FREMM). As ammunition - any combination of Aster anti-aircraft missiles in order to provide air defense in the near and far zones. To keep the cost of the ship at an acceptable level, the designers had to sacrifice the towed antenna.

In addition to the four base, FREMM has a pair of export versions - “Tahia Misr” for the naval forces of Egypt and “Mohammed VI” for the Moroccan Navy. However, there’s nothing to talk about there: export frigates differ from French ones in dismantled mines of SLCMs. But the customer is satisfied - there even such ships will go for the flagships.

Some interest in the project is shown by the Americans, who consider the FREMM as the basis for their promising FFG (X) frigates. For those who do not know: the United States and Italy are connected by invisible but strong ties in the field of military shipbuilding. For example, a shipyard in Wisconsin, on which ships of the coastal zone LCS are massively built, is part of the Italian “Fincantieri Group” - the one that created FREMM.

Epilogue

Most of all, I would not like to see comments in the form of “the French and Italians are great, seven feet under the keel.” Unlike any news about the update of the American fleet, the news of the increased sea power of Europeans does not cause that stir, the desire of all sorts of curses and accusations of militarism.

Dear Sirs, let's be logical to the end. We are talking about the fleets of NATO countries that continuously commit provocative acts and are involved in creating threats against Russia and our allies. From regular trips to the Black Sea to rocket attacks on the territory of Syria. The existence of the FREMM armada directly contradicts our interests. This is an adversary. And it is very bad that it surpasses us in the quantity and quality of combat units.

As for the purely technical side of the issue, FREMM is another example of the fact that modern ships are designed only for single shots and counteraction against point attacks. For a serious confrontation at sea, they are not ready.

Author:
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  1. Conductor
    Conductor 27 October 2018 06: 35
    +4
    Thank you for the article . Yes, the enemy is serious, and do not forget about it. All friends of Berlusconi, friends to us, so far understand that they can receive from their cunning face.
    1. Machito
      Machito 27 October 2018 09: 57
      0
      Oleg, as always, is in shock. The claim that these frigates are better than ours is highly controversial. The number of frigates of likely opponents exceeds our strength. Recall Suvorov: not by number, but by skill.
      1. bayard
        bayard 27 October 2018 13: 15
        +12
        Donetsk.
        Will we throw our hats? In our country, only "Gorshkov" is equivalent to them. Next year there will be 2 copies of them. After 3 years, a couple more will be added - a total of 4. The Black Sea frigates and air defense, and strike capabilities are two times lower ... and their "Whole" 3. But according to the rosy plans, there should have been 2020-15 of them by 20.
        Somehow we do not rush military shipbuilding. How could you start such a program and not localize the production of gas turbines and marine diesel engines on your territory? Now even "Karakurts" are left without diesel engines ... Did you want to keep Ukraine on military-industrial cooperation? It’s rather easier under capitalism to buy than to establish production at home ...
        1. gunnerminer
          gunnerminer 27 October 2018 17: 19
          +5
          - Rather, under capitalism it’s easier - to buy than to establish production at home ...-

          The point is not capitalism, but the low level of planning, and the blind faith that the loot conquers evil.
        2. Cetron
          Cetron 27 October 2018 20: 14
          +1
          Delov then, remake into galleys in the absence of engines. And environmental friendliness, and partners with laughter will die, no need to shoot!
        3. tihonmarine
          tihonmarine 27 October 2018 23: 38
          +5
          The Anglo-Saxons tore Ukraine away from us and tore it like Tuzik a hot-water bottle, Nikolaev shipyards and the ship turbine plant went to the "needles", the docks fell into disrepair. Well, the Russian shipyards are yesterday, the example of the Baltic Shipyard, the Kanonersky shipyard, were taken by the lads of the Magnit company from the Krasnodar Territory and turned it into a port for transshipment of oranges and other refrigerated cargo. More or less only Sevmash works. And the fleet is already outdated, this is the fleet of my youth, and I am already 70 years old. You can fight at sea only with peakless caps or hats (and they say they will soon be removed).
        4. Sckepsis
          Sckepsis 31 October 2018 17: 53
          0
          [quote] The Black Sea frigates and air defense, and strike capabilities are half as low / quote]
          If there are no questions regarding air defense, then with impact weapons you have given a big blow.
          1. bayard
            bayard 1 November 2018 10: 06
            0
            Donetsk.
            Just in 2 times, and in shock weapons:
            - "Gorshkov" - 16 UVP ("Caliber", "Onyx");
            - "Chernomorites - 8 UVP (" Caliber "," Onyx ").
            The weapon, of course, is of the same type, but the quantity still matters.
  2. Jolly oldster sailor
    Jolly oldster sailor 27 October 2018 07: 51
    +13
    Oleg! Write more often, and don’t listen to jokes from members of the forum, it’s not a co-evil, these are jokes of humor! I always read it, it’s very interesting !!! Thanks for the work that made another and interesting article to write this article .. hi
  3. san4es
    san4es 27 October 2018 08: 11
    +6
    The French frigates (subclass Aquitaine) are equipped with Hercules radar ...
    hi ... The Aquitaine class FREMM is a class of multi-purpose frigates developed by the French shipbuilder DCNS. France plans to operate eleven FREMM frigates, which will become the backbone of the French Navy (Marine Nationale). Designed for the AAW, ASW, and ASUW missions, these true multi-purpose ships are also capable of delivering deep strikes against ground targets. Morocco also ordered one frigate of this class, a ship called Mohammed VI should become the flagship of the Royal Moroccan Navy.
  4. san4es
    san4es 27 October 2018 08: 27
    +7
    Italian frigates (subclass "Bergamini") are equipped with more advanced radar "Kronos" with an active phased antenna.
    The French also do not sit idly by. In 2016, Alsace was laid down at the shipyard in Lorient .... it was classified as a new type of FREDA (“air defense frigate”) ... hi
    1. merkava-2bet
      merkava-2bet 30 October 2018 00: 23
      +1
      Judging by the video, the frigate has a large keel pitching, at the sea 4-5 points, unsatisfactory germination on the wave, the bow is buried strongly in the water, if I am wrong correct me.
      1. san4es
        san4es 30 October 2018 09: 19
        +2
        Quote: merkava-2bet
        ... the frigate has a large pitching, at sea 4-5 points ...

        On a wave hit - a little rocked. From the gulf, overlooking the ocean (Point Lonsdale, Australia.), And there the wave is liyiny fellow


        ... Short waves are a separate issue. They (in this case) from the wind on top of a long wave (apparently) have a place to be ... It pumps it from a long swell, from the ocean. hi
        1. merkava-2bet
          merkava-2bet 30 October 2018 15: 16
          0
          All the same, I do not like its stability, perhaps because of its sailing, with such a small displacement, or God forbid they saved on active pumping dampers, saving her mother, these budget ships for peacetime, I'm afraid when the time is X, then I don’t have time to retrofit them or build new ones, the modern war is fleeting and incinerating, okay, bad thoughts aside.
  5. san4es
    san4es 27 October 2018 08: 46
    +5
    In addition to the four basic ones, FREMM has a couple of export modifications - Tahiya Misr for the Egyptian naval forces and Mohammed VI for the Moroccan Navy ...
    France handed over FREMM frigate Tahya Misr (meaning "Long live Egypt") hull number 1001 to the Egyptian fleet during a ceremony held June 23 at DCNS shipyard in Lorient, Brittany. Egypt becomes the second FREMM export client for DCNS after Morocco, which commissioned the frigate Mohammed VI in 2014.
    DCNS handed over the frigate multipurpose Mohammed VI Royal Navy. This is the second ship of this type designed and built by DCNS on 12 vessels for the French and Moroccan Navy. Mohammed VI takes advantage of the same technological and manufacturing innovations as the FREMM frigates for the French fleet. The Royal Moroccan Navy will purchase weapons systems and ammunition directly from its own suppliers. hi
    1. Cherry Nine
      Cherry Nine 27 October 2018 11: 51
      +3
      Sanchez, thank you very much for your input.
      1. san4es
        san4es 27 October 2018 14: 16
        +3
        ...You're welcome hi
  6. Usher
    Usher 27 October 2018 09: 39
    -3
    Quote: san4es
    Not to mention such “trifles” as encrypted communication channels. For example, the equipment of the French FREMMs includes communications equipment through the military satellites of the Syracuse series.

    How much empty space.
    1. san4es
      san4es 27 October 2018 14: 18
      +2
      Quote: Usher
      Quote: san4es
      Not to mention such “trifles” as encrypted communication channels. For example, the equipment of the French FREMMs includes communications equipment through the military satellites of the Syracuse series.

      ... Didn’t confuse anything? .. Che attributed to me something?
  7. vuyko crest
    vuyko crest 27 October 2018 10: 49
    +4
    The first time did not recognize the article Oleg. pepper is not enough. and of course, thanks.
  8. gunnerminer
    gunnerminer 27 October 2018 11: 44
    +2
    FREMM, of course, is not a masterpiece of shipbuilding. But against the background of ships such as Vasily Bykov, and their modest number, it looks impressive. Compensation for the Russian Navy would be a sharp shortage of surface ships and submarines could be a Ural naval missile carrier aircraft, combined with aerial reconnaissance, but why no, that is not.
    1. demiurg
      demiurg 27 October 2018 13: 13
      -2
      Quote: gunnerminer
      FREMM is certainly not a masterpiece of shipbuilding. But against the background of boats such as Vasily Bykov, and their modest number, it looks impressive. Compensation for the Russian Navy would be a sharp shortage of surface ships and submarines could be a Ular maritime missile-carrying aircraft, combined with aerial reconnaissance, but what is not there is not.

      Yes Yes. Only for tugboats in the RF set is building packs of corvettes, diesel-electric submarines, strategic nuclear submarines and multipurpose ones in series, and the Potokovs finally delivered radars / air defense systems.
      This in comparison with the US Navy or China, Russia faded looks. And against the backdrop of Europe, we look very impressive.
      1. gunnerminer
        gunnerminer 27 October 2018 17: 04
        -6
        -Only to tugboats in the RF set, builds bundles of corvettes, diesel-electric submarines, nuclear submarines -

        The DEPL pack is a defect of project 677 of St. Petersburg, which is dangerous to send to the main event. And the same Kronshtadat. Without LIA, without VNEU, without torpedoes with hose TU, without vertical mines for ammunition of the Caliber complex.
        A submarine pack is the K-560 rumbling over the entire Baregtsev Sea, and unknownly entering the K-561 stand. And also Borea without the main ammunition.

        -yes and the potters finally surrendered the radar / air defense system. -

        One long-suffering Gorshkov was stolen. The crew of which was able to carry out basic anti-aircraft firing with the help of factory workers. in the simplest conditions. During the day, on a target flying at a constant rate, at a constant speed, at a constant height.
        1. Gray brother
          Gray brother 27 October 2018 20: 20
          +1
          Quote: gunnerminer
          In the afternoon

          Was the rocket visually pointed? Yes, gunya?
          1. gunnerminer
            gunnerminer 27 October 2018 22: 30
            -6
            In the afternoon, members of the commission could guess without overworking the vigil ..
      2. gunnerminer
        gunnerminer 27 October 2018 17: 17
        -4
        In Europe, shipbuilders without MAN and GTU Rolls Royce diesels do not suffer.
      3. gunnerminer
        gunnerminer 27 October 2018 17: 45
        -4
        I add that the tankers for the FRF Navy, laid down at a shipyard in the Crimea, disappeared.
  9. pilot8878
    pilot8878 27 October 2018 17: 04
    +1
    French and Italians well done, seven feet above the klotik wink
  10. Vladimir1155
    Vladimir1155 27 October 2018 19: 44
    +1
    Thank you for the article, and especially for the correct conclusion in the end, modern surface ships are too vulnerable and can participate in a serious war very limitedly, under the protection of their shores or not leaving bases at all, which is obvious to all little sailors who understand the sea, and apparently European admirals too. That is why frigates are so weakly armed these are peacetime ships, for the fight against pirates, for the conquest of a deliberately weak drunkard, for the presence and demonstration of the flag. We understand this in our fleet as well as adequate specialists, relying on submarines, and surface ships make even less displacement due to the need to transfer internal waterways ... however, in the vicinity of the sea party we have fans of aircraft carriers, destroyer battleships, linocoro = frigates and other rubbish, in the place of European experts
  11. NordUral
    NordUral 27 October 2018 20: 37
    0
    There is little joy in such articles.
  12. Hole puncher
    Hole puncher 27 October 2018 21: 04
    +2
    We are talking about the fleets of NATO countries that continuously commit provocative acts and participate in creating threats against Russia and our allies.

    The existence of the FREMM armada directly contradicts our interests. This is the adversary. And it’s very nasty that he surpasses us in the quantity and quality of combat units.

    Dear Oleg Kaptsov, did Damantsev bite you or something? Where did these passages come from?
  13. Cherry Nine
    Cherry Nine 27 October 2018 22: 55
    +6
    Oleg Kaptsov, it seems, decided to try his hand at the genre of adult articles, abandoning his usual julvernism. I cannot but support the initiative (for the first time in a long time I’ve supplemented its text), but a lot of work awaits him on this path, both in content and in style. In particular, it would be worthwhile to refrain from politoty (participating in creating threats against Russia and our allies) and biting statements that are not backed up by material (they are not ready for a serious confrontation at sea).

    Frigates are a very interesting class of ships. It is available to many states and does not have a "standard" that everyone looks up to, as is the case with EVs. The variety of projects, solutions, concepts is preserved. The latest tenders (Australian, Canadian, American and others) provide some serious food for thought. It is Europe that sets the tone for the frigate class. Overseas, after the OHP, they abandoned the topic, which they now regret.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 29 October 2018 00: 15
      0
      "It is Europe that sets the tone in the class of frigates. Overseas, after the OHP, they abandoned the topic," ////
      ------
      Europe is saving to stay with its 1% defense. Who is serious, puts RCC on frigates. It’s ridiculous not to do this: you ran into the enemy’s ship and you cannot harm him at all. But even one anti-ship missile can seriously destroy a destroyer, for example.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. Cherry Nine
        Cherry Nine 29 October 2018 00: 43
        +1
        Quote: voyaka uh
        Europe saves to stay with its 1% on defense

        Even the Americans had to admit that Burke is not a stopper for every barrel. For many tasks, a ship over 2G is redundant. In the case of the Americans, however, everything goes to the first ship with AN / SPY-6, even before Burke of the 3rd series. The Americans demand that the contestants meet the 950M, but, given the traditions, it is hard to believe.

        At the same time, the lack of extra money in many European fleets contributes to the work of thought. When there is no way to stuff everything you want into the ship, you have to look for the most reasonable compromise. Even unsuccessful models - Baden-Württemberg, for example - often carry interesting and promising ideas.
        1. Avior
          Avior 29 October 2018 10: 21
          +1
          a reasonable compromise is Singapore's Formidel.
          With a displacement of 3200, there are 32 air defense systems, a 250 km radar and a helicopter with a hangar
          and all this costs 1,6 billion for 6 pieces, that is 275 million per unit.
      3. Avior
        Avior 29 October 2018 10: 18
        0
        in my opinion, everything is not so simple - for self-defense within the radar visibility it is much more convenient to use anti-aircraft missiles - almost all of them can shoot at surface targets.
        4,5 a missile cannot be shot down, the flight time is minimal, the launch is much faster than in the case of anti-ship missiles, the working time of the air defense system is 10-15 seconds or less.
        And for the after-battle, aviation was invented.
      4. goose
        goose 29 October 2018 10: 24
        +1
        Quote: voyaka uh
        It is Europe that sets the tone in the class of frigates. Overseas after UCP abandoned the topic

        The OXP has a very modest cruising range (and autonomy), which does not even allow a normal escort of convoys in the Atlantic along a detour route. The Americans reasonably considered that the most important threat now is missiles, not submarines, but against missiles. 1 Burke-class destroyer is better than 4 OHP frigates, and cheaper to operate. In addition, in rough seas it is problematic to fly from the UHP, and frigates become useless in their main role. The modernization potential is near-zero, in contrast to the modular "constructor" on Berki.
        Colleagues just count money
      5. yehat
        yehat 29 October 2018 12: 00
        +1
        In Europe, different conditions for frigates.
        Scandinavian Peninsula - there ships are armed for battle close by.
        The Germans - they have air defense and patrol, because nothing more to fear.
        Italians - they order the most toothy options, because the restless Middle East and Africa are nearby. The French are thinking more about providing "power projection".
        The British - the protection of warrants of the ocean squadron (air defense) and special operations.
        1. Cherry Nine
          Cherry Nine 29 October 2018 13: 23
          +1
          Quote: yehat
          In Europe, different conditions for frigates.

          All the more interesting.
          Quote: goose
          OHP has a very modest range (and autonomy)

          5 thousand miles?
          Quote: goose
          The Americans reasonably felt that the main threat now is missiles, not submarines

          The Americans felt that there was no threat at all now, so providing the number of ships needed to control communications was not required. And for local operations and escort AUG Berkov enough.
          Quote: goose
          Near-zero modernization potential

          I did not write about the need to preserve precisely the UCP.
          Quote: Avior
          anti-aircraft missiles - almost all of them can shoot at surface targets.

          Seriously?
          Quote: Avior
          a reasonable compromise is Singapore's Formidel.

          A good boat, but it does not have strike weapons. I like Danish Ivar Huitfeldt for the same money. Moreover, the RCC for the Mk41 finally appeared.
          However, as yehat noted, understanding a good compromise is different in different circumstances.
  14. Saxahorse
    Saxahorse 28 October 2018 21: 35
    0
    The article is interesting, but it lacks some kind of common plate with the basic TTX. I see this in one photo in the corner, but it hurts finely. It would be more convenient to read this in the text of the article.
  15. yehat
    yehat 29 October 2018 11: 55
    +1
    the frigate photo shows that the helicopter, with strong rolling, remains in place at the landing site.
    educate how it is fixed, if anyone in the know
    1. Cherry Nine
      Cherry Nine 29 October 2018 12: 47
      0
      https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sikorsky_CH-124_Sea_King
      Look for Sea King Beartrap on YouTube.
  16. 3danimal
    3danimal 31 October 2018 09: 08
    0
    We are talking about the fleets of NATO countries that continuously commit provocative acts and participate in creating threats against Russia and our allies. From regular trips to the Black Sea to missile strikes in Syria.


    Oleg, are you this?

    Regular hiking in the Black Sea - provocations? Has it been established somewhere that it is purely Russian and closed? Or ships of countries that do not have access to it, delayed visits longer than the deadline established by international treaties? Or enter the territorial waters of the Russian Federation? Following your logic, sailing the ships of the Russian Navy in the Mediterranean Sea is also a provocation.

    Further. Do you seriously consider Assad an ally? He substitutes the RF more. Why try to "befriend" international "bums" and "criminals" at all? Our media, by the way, are silent about Turkey's actions in Syrian territory, which completely ignore Assad as a serious player in the region.
  17. Sckepsis
    Sckepsis 31 October 2018 17: 49
    0
    [quote] Objectively speaking, these are the best ships for solving air defense problems ever created in the history of the navy / quote]
    Dear Oleg, you cannot speak objectively.
  18. Arthur 85
    Arthur 85 2 November 2018 22: 09
    0
    Much more important is the ability of Bergamini to provide zonal air defense / missile defense of naval formations, this is precisely the purpose of the ship's existence of 6700 tons ... But I wonder, what kind of air defense formations can they provide? Or do they have something other than these frigates? Ships of the first rank there, well, or at least a boat with a 152 mm cannon, cover the landing there, or shoot at the port of some sort ...
  19. EvilLion
    EvilLion 4 November 2018 12: 05
    0
    If the ships are not ready for a serious confrontation, then there is nothing to build them for. And in fact, these are already small destroyers, not frigates.