SLS Heavyweight. American astronauts rush to Mars. Part of 2

It seems that NASA decided to make the "Martian" super-rocket the whole world: for this, they attracted three agencies at once. This is the George Marshall Space Flight Center, the Lyndon Johnson Space Center and again the John F. Kennedy Space Center, which provides all history their starting complexes.



Layout of the SLS in NASA research wind tunnel

But this is not the whole company of developers. The Ames Research Center is responsible for the fundamental physical problems of the project, and Goddard Space Flight Center is responsible for the nature of the payloads, as well as the Glenn Center for new materials and the development of payload fairings. Research programs in wind tunnels are assigned to the Langa Center, and tests of the RS-25 and J-2X engines - to the Stennis Space Center. Finally, the assembly of the central unit with the main propulsion system takes place at the plant in Michuda.



The entire SLS program is divided into three stages, united by several moments: liquid oxygen and hydrogen in the cruise engines, as well as a multi-section solid-fuel accelerator. The first stage of the central unit (Core Stage) with a length of 64,7 m and a diameter of 8,4 m will also be the same for all modifications. So, the firstborn SLS Block I has an equivalent payload mass of 70 tons - the four RS-25D engines provide the necessary traction for such gravity. Actually, this first version of SLS is intended for the certification of the central unit and the performance of pilot missions. The upper stage is represented by the ICP (Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage) “temporary cryogenic upper stage”, built on the basis of the second stage of the Delta IV Heavy carrier. The engine at ICPS is one - RL-10B-2 with a vacuum in 11,21 tf vacuum. Even in this, the most “weak” version of Block I, the rocket will develop starting thrust by 10% more than the legendary Saturn V. The carrier of the second type was named SLS Block IA, and the equivalent payload of this giant should be already under 105 tons. Two performances are envisaged - cargo and manned, which should return the Americans more than forty years ago and finally send the person back beyond the limits of the near-Earth orbit. NASA's plans for these devices are the most modest: in the mission EM-2 somewhere in the middle of 2022, fly around with the crew of the Moon. A little earlier (mid-2020 of the year), astronauts are scheduled to be sent to a near-moon orbit on the Orion spacecraft. But this information dates back to the summer of the 2018 of the year and has been repeatedly corrected before - for one of the projects, the SLS was supposed to soar into the skies this fall.


SLS Block II - a carrier with equivalent capacity in 130 tons, is already equipped with five RS-25D engines on the central unit, as well as the “research upper stage” EUS (Exploration Upper Stage), which, in turn, has one or two J- engines 2X 133,4 mb each. The Block II-based “truck” is notable for the 10 meters with the above-caliber head fairing. This will be, if the US succeeds, the true giants: in the final version of the rocket, the launch rocket missiles will exceed Saturn V on 1 / 5 and plans for the Block II series are also extremely ambitious - in the 2033 year, to send an EM- manned mission to Mars orbit 11, which will travel through space for at least 2 years. But before this momentous date, Americans are planning to fly 7-8 once again to lunar orbit. Does NASA plan to land astronauts on Mars seriously, nobody knows.


Tests of the experimental cryogenic LRE with adjustable CECE (Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine), which was used under the RL-10 improvement program, operated from 1962 on the Atlas, Delta iV, Titan and Saturn I missiles -10.

The history of the SLS series of engines as the main components of the rocket began in the 2015 year on the stands of the Stennis Center, when the first successful fire tests of the duration of 500 seconds passed. Since then, the Americans are going like clockwork - a series of full-fledged tests for a full flight resource instills confidence in the performance and reliability of engines. The first deputy head of NASA's Directorate for the Development of Manned Research Systems, William Hill, said:

“We approved the project SLS, successfully completed the first round of testing of engines and accelerators of the rocket, and all the main components of the system for the first flight have already been put into production. Despite the difficulties that have arisen, the analysis of the results of the work speaks of confidence that we are on the right path to the first flight of the SLS and its use for expanding the constant presence of people in deep space. ”


During the work on the engine, changes were made - the carriers of the first and second stages were equipped with solid-fuel boosters (boosters), which made the model the name Block IB. The top stage of the EUS received an oxygen-hydrogen engine J-2X, which in April 2016 had to be abandoned due to the large share of new elements that had not previously been developed. Therefore, they returned to the good old RL-10, which was mass-produced and had already managed to “fly” over more than fifty years.

SLS Heavyweight. American astronauts rush to Mars. Part of 2


Reliability in manned projects is always put at the forefront, and not only in NASA. NASA's official documents mention: “The best combination of requirements is a bunch of four RL-10 class engines. It is established that it is optimal in terms of reliability. " The five-section accelerator was tested at the end of June 2016 of the year and became the largest at the moment solid-fuel engine ever built for real launch vehicles. If it is compared with the Shuttle, it has a starting mass of 725 tons against 590 tons, and the thrust is increased compared to the ancestor from 1250 ton to 1633 ton. But SLS Block II should get new super-powerful and ultra-efficient accelerators. There are three options. This is the Pyrios project from Aerojet Rocketdyne (formerly Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne), equipped with two rocket engines on oxygen and kerosene by 800 tf each. It is also not an absolute innovation - the “engines” are based on the F-1, developed for the first stage of the same Saturn V. Pyrios dates from 2012 for a year, and after 12 months, Aerojet and Teledyne Brown are working on a fluid booster with eight oxygen-kerosene AJ-26-500. Everyone can reach 225 TC, but they are collected on the basis of the Russian NK-33.




RS-25 oxygen engine tests at Stennis Center booth, Bay St. Louis, MS, August 2015

Finally, the third engine option for SLS is presented by Orbital ATK and is designed as a powerful four-piece solid fuel accelerator Dark Knight with 2000 ton hardware. But one cannot say that everything in this story was completely smooth with the American engineers: very many competencies and technologies were lost with the closure of the Apollo and Space Shuttle projects. We had to invent new ways of working. So, friction stir welding was introduced to assemble the fuel tanks of future rockets. They say that the plant in Michuda is the largest machine for such a unique welding. Also in 2016, there were problems with the formation of cracks in the manufacture of the central unit, more precisely, in the tank of liquid oxygen. But most of the difficulties were overcome.

Americans are gradually returning their astronauts to near-Earth orbits and beyond. A natural question arises: why do this if robots do a great job? We will try to answer this a little later.

To be continued ...

According to the materials of the publication "Rise".
Author:
Photos used:
kiri2ll.livejournal.com, wikipedia.ru, nasa.gov, cezarium.com
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  1. Andrey Yuryevich 16 October 2018 06: 09 New
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    American astronauts are eager for Mars.
    yes let them fly one way ....
    1. For example 16 October 2018 19: 38 New
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      Americans are gradually returning their astronauts to Earth orbits and beyond.

      Is it so "gradual"? Now what is the return stage - loading an astronaut in a spacesuit laughing
      So far, that astronauts fly on Russian rockets, if not to consider Hollywood flights. There yes, the Americans conquered the universe long ago laughing
    2. Tarhan 24 October 2018 19: 41 New
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      The flight to Mars, whoever flies, is the flight of all mankind. So no, there are those who spit saliva.
  2. Ravik 16 October 2018 06: 28 New
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    The main thing is not to lose the rocket and paper overnight ... there were precedents))))
    1. volot-voin 16 October 2018 11: 40 New
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      Quote: Ravik
      The main thing is not to lose the rocket and paper overnight ... there were precedents))))

      For all my negativity to a potential adversary, I can only say one thing: Great, majestic, cool. Korolyov SP was still preparing the flight to Mars, but death prevented him. Well, then a grand seam .... the end of the 80s and the end of the Great Power in '91 ...... EC. Mastering deep space is the supranational task of all mankind as a whole, by and large, then what would the super powers need to do together, discarding their conflicts and competition (ideally). It’s a pity that this is utopia.
      1. avdkrd 16 October 2018 19: 43 New
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        Quote: volot-voin
        For all my negativity to a potential adversary, I can only say one thing: Great, majestic, cool. Korolev SP was engaged in the preparation of a flight to Mars

        What does this have to do with the Americans? The fact that the Lunar program was a scam, says even the assistant to the president of ASP. I will not submit the theses for discussion, but even without a toilet, which NASA did not have and does not have, this cannot be done (in an oxygen atmosphere). There is still no clear answer on how to overcome the radiation belt.
        The only thing we can count on is another Hollywood masterpiece, filmed to clean up a whopping amount of bucks.
    2. Simargl 16 October 2018 14: 41 New
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      Quote: Ravik
      The main thing is not to lose the rocket and paper overnight ... there were precedents)))
      Are you talking about pH Energy?
      After all, we are not able to reproduce it - how much money we don’t pour.
      But the paper remained.
      Only now it will have to be converted to digital, and then more technological chains should be developed, although half the time has passed since the last launch of Saturn-5
      Read about the IL-476.
      1. Locksmith 17 October 2018 21: 22 New
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        Quote: Simargl
        Are you talking about RN Energy?
        After all, we are not able to reproduce it - how much money we don’t pour.

        You won’t believe it — but almost everything remains, and the workshops — as the equipment stood — and even the funniest design bureau how it worked — and it works, it’s exactly that design bureau that painted the Vostochny spaceport laughing
        It is this design bureau that designed the Energy and will "draw" a new rocket !!
        1. Simargl 17 October 2018 22: 42 New
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          Quote: Locksmith
          You won’t believe it - but almost everything remains
          Have to repeat and chew.
          Despite the fact that both the technical documentation and the technological chains have been preserved much better than from Saturn-5, it will not be possible to make energy. Yes, in about five years they will do something similar, but it will not be Energy in the form that it flew.
          Saturn is still sadder. Look at the situation with the tanks: they riveted under 10000 Abrams, they said: enough and closed the plant, which now looks no better than those that are shown from the collapsed ours.
          Because they knew that such an expensive and powerful missile would not be needed for a long time, for this practically everything would change “for a long time” and there was no point in keeping production.
          Quote: Locksmith
          It is this design bureau that designed the Energy and will "draw" new rocket !!
          See: new rocket! Not Energy, but the heiress!
          1. Locksmith 19 October 2018 20: 48 New
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            Quote: Simargl
            See: a new rocket! Not Energy, but the heiress!

            That’s not the problem there, the fact is that Moscow very intensively took over everything not so long ago. The plant has specialists, there are young people, there are professionals, TsSKB Progress is the alma mater of all cosmonautics in general !! The missiles are being designed and modernized, but people complain that not enough work !! Near the aircraft factory, Deripaska was once squeezed out of it, but it is not a member of the UAC !! And now there will be no work, a huge plant, he built TU154, TU95, AN148, and now he is trying to find any garbage at least. But no one wants to finance.
  3. Old26 16 October 2018 10: 36 New
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    Quote: Ravik
    The main thing is not to lose the rocket and paper overnight ... there were precedents))))

    Do not repeat the ravings of Mukhin about "Saturn 5". Technology was “lost”, but not blueprints. So we have the technology used to create the satellite "Sputnik" and "East" is also lost. They were replaced by others, more progressive. Or take the ICBMs of the USSR and ICBMs of Russia. The latter are sometimes just “wound up”. And the technologies for creating the same R-16 may have already been lost, since they have not been used for several decades
  4. wooja 16 October 2018 12: 25 New
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    With a warm Hollywood greetings, everything is on Mars ....,
  5. aristok 16 October 2018 13: 18 New
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    entrusted .. tests of RS-25 and J-2X engines on ..

    What thoughtless quoting from old sources?
    The use of J-2 on SLS was abandoned a long time ago.
    J-2 - open-circuit hydrogen liquid propellant rocket engine used at the 2nd and 3rd stages of the Saturn-5 launch vehicle.
    Naturally disposable.

    And on the SLS they will put an expensive, complex reusable RS-25 closed circuit, but use it as a one-time one.

    The mystery with this Saturn-5 rocket flied very successfully 50 years ago, but nothing is used from it - neither the unique F-1 nor J-2.
    Maybe they are too inefficient? nothing like this
    SLS will weigh more and output less than the legendary ancient Saturn-5.

    For 50 years, technology in all areas has stepped far forward, and stagnation and degradation only in heavy vehicles.
    Some kind of anomaly.
    1. Cherry Nine 16 October 2018 14: 03 New
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      Quote: aristok
      nor unique f-1

      F-1 tried in various projects over the years, including in the Shuttle. But it was believed that the use of solid propellant rocket motors is more profitable.
      Quote: aristok
      nor J-2.

      The RS-25 is no worse.
      Quote: aristok
      SLS will weigh more and output less than the legendary ancient Saturn-5.

      The load of Saturn is traditionally supplemented with the weight of the third stage with the remaining fuel, and not just the payload.
    2. Simargl 16 October 2018 14: 56 New
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      Quote: aristok
      SLS will weigh more and output less than the legendary ancient Saturn-5
      Where is such information?
      The first stage is about 2000 tons, the second - about 30 tons, i.e. about 2500 tons per DOE (including payload), against almost 3000 tons at Saturn-5.
      We do not know yet the relative cost of launches.
      Quote: aristok
      For 50 years, technology in all areas has stepped far forward, and stagnation and degradation only in heavy vehicles.
      Actually, it’s just stagnation: if instead of a worthless orbiter on the Space Shuttle they were building a payload - it would be possible for the DOE to (under, would be ...) 80 tons of payload, and only 25, the rest is ballast.
      And yes: until the moment when they decided that it was time to explore deep space - strands were not needed. After 70 years, it may turn out that 300 tons at the IEO is not enough.
      1. prodi 16 October 2018 16: 09 New
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        - “chemical” missiles have no any meaningful prospects, except for military
        1. Simargl 16 October 2018 16: 14 New
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          This is for what perspective? If 100 years - maybe. Only those living now will see.
          This is to overcome the Earth's gravitational pit. Interplanetary soon - all but purely chemical.
          1. prodi 16 October 2018 16: 23 New
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            interplanetary, even if it’s compressible, will have no applied value - neither economic, nor cognitive
            1. Simargl 16 October 2018 19: 52 New
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              Quote: prodi
              interplanetary, even if it’s compressible, will have no applied value - neither economic, nor cognitive
              Absurd delirium!
              Applied value is always economically justified. If extraction and transportation are economically viable (fairly cheap means have been developed, a series has been established, reliability, etc.), then it will be used.
              The simplest example is shale.
              1. prodi 16 October 2018 20: 29 New
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                it is very doubtful that with the depletion of available resources, the economy will allow this in principle
                1. Simargl 16 October 2018 20: 34 New
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                  Again nonsense! When resources are depleted, in order to prevent stagnation, the search for these resources will be intensified, including on other planets.
                  Further it is not interesting with you - study better.
                  1. prodi 16 October 2018 21: 37 New
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                    you look better at yours: the main problem is not even resources, but access to energy at the level of thermonuclear or antimatter. On this problem, space open spaces are also completely unnecessary
  6. DimerVladimer 16 October 2018 14: 33 New
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    Progress in the field of astronautics is the success of all mankind, and not of a separate nation.

    The survival of humanity on one planet is debatable. The mass extinction of dinosaurs - taught nothing ...

    Until we find a way to protect the Earth from the threats of rapprochement with massive cosmic bodies, we cannot feel completely safe.
    There is no other way than space exploration and colonization of other worlds.

    Now we rush at an orbital speed of 29,8 km / second and close our eyes, hoping for good luck that the orbit will not intersect with a large asteroid that will interrupt or reduce life on the planet to the simplest.
    It is not a question of whether this will happen, but when it will happen, whether we will be ready for it.

    At that moment when the threat will become imminent, and the time to resolve it will be insufficient, will we think that it was necessary 50 years ago to engage in rocket science, and not political squabbles, to solve problems - which at the same time became secondary with the advent of that same ...

    Potentially Dangerous Astronomical Object (POAO)
    An object is considered potentially dangerous if it crosses the Earth’s orbit at a distance of less than 0,05 a. e. (approximately 19,5 distances from the Earth to the Moon), and its diameter exceeds 100-150 meters.
    Objects of this size are large enough to cause unprecedented destruction on land, or a huge tsunami in the event of a fall into the ocean.
    Events of this magnitude occur approximately once every 10 years.
    Based on the information obtained from the WISE space telescope, scientists estimate the presence of 4700 ± 1500 potentially dangerous objects with a diameter of more than 100 meters.
    By 2012, from 20 to 30% of these objects were discovered. Asteroids with a diameter of more than 35 meters can also pose a significant threat - for example, in the event of a fall on the city

    Chelyabinsk is very lucky - be the trajectory a few degrees steeper ...

    Believe exaggerating?
    In 2005, the US Congress challenged NASA to detect by 2020 90% of all objects approaching the Earth and having a size of more than 140 meters.


    From some detected objects:
    2005 YU55 - has a dark surface, its diameter is about 400 meters. November 8, 2011 at 15:28 the time of the Pacific coast of the USA (23:28 UTC) flew at a distance of about 324,6 thousand km from Earth, which is approximately 85% of the distance from Earth to the Moon [5].
    2008 TC3 - discovered 20 hours before it burned out in the atmosphere over Sudan on October 7, 2008.
    2009 DD45 - discovered on February 28, 2009 (three days before it reached Earth at a minimum distance). Dimensions - 20-50 (27-40) meters. Distance to the Earth - 66 (72) thousand km. The speed of movement (at the time of being at a minimum distance from the Earth) is 20 km / s. In a collision, the energy of the explosion would be equal to 1 megaton (one nuclear bomb of high power) in TNT equivalent.
    2009 VA - a 7-meter-high celestial body that passed at a distance of about 14 kilometers from Earth on November 000, 9 [2009].
    2010 AL30 - discovered on January 11, 2010. The size of the object is about 15 meters. January 13 at about 12:48 GMT (15:48 Moscow time) passed at a distance of 130 thousand km from the Earth.
    2011 AG5 - opened on January 8, 2011. Diameter - about 140 m. Awarded 1 point on the Turin scale (data for February of the same year)
    2013 EC - opened March 1, 2013 by the Hawaiian observatory Pan-STARRS. There was no danger of a collision with the Earth, on March 4, an asteroid flew past the Earth at a distance of about 362 thousand km.
    2014 RC - diameter 20 meters. September 7, 2014 flew from the Earth at a distance of about 40 thousand kilometers.
    During the approach of asteroids to planets and their satellites, gravity acts on them, changing their orbit, and asteroids can transition from the list of VET to the list of safe ones, and vice versa. This is a reflection of the dynamic nature of the solar system.


    The asteroid decaying over Chelyabinsk at an altitude of about 30 km had a size of 19,8 meters and a mass of about 13000 tons. The power of the explosion that occurred when a meteorite entered the atmosphere over the Chelyabinsk region amounted, according to NASA estimates, to about 440 kilotons of TNT, according to RAS estimates, to 100-200 kilotons, and according to estimates by INASAN employees, from 0,4 to 1,5 Mt .
    The asteroid was not detected before entering the atmosphere, since it belonged to dark asteroids that did not reflect light.
    1. Cherry Nine 16 October 2018 15: 03 New
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      Quote: DimerVladimer
      Chelyabinsk is lucky

      The asteroid was also very lucky. The area of ​​urbanized territories of the Earth does not exceed 10 million square meters. km., 2% of the Earth’s area. Anything can fall on the remaining 98% (and falls from time to time).
      Quote: DimerVladimer
      Be a few degrees cooler

      and he wouldn’t reach Chelyabinsk, exploded in Northern Kazakhstan.
      Quote: DimerVladimer
      Until we find a way to protect the Earth from the threats of rapprochement with massive cosmic bodies, we cannot feel completely safe.

      Until we find a way to protect the solar system from the threat of supernova explosions in the immediate stellar environment, we cannot feel completely safe.
      In this particular case, it is required not to fly to Mars — wait too long for the Martian colony to become completely independent of the Earth in terms of resources — but to improve the search systems for small bodies in the SS. A lot is being done in this direction.
      Well, and to strengthen civil defense, by the way. It may come in handy not only with a meteorite.
      1. DimerVladimer 17 October 2018 10: 07 New
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        Quote: Cherry Nine
        The asteroid was also very lucky. The area of ​​urbanized territories of the Earth does not exceed 10 million square meters. km., 2% of the Earth’s area. Anything can fall on the remaining 98% (and falls from time to time).


        And yet - by cosmic standards, the distance of an asteroid explosion over million cities is scanty.
        When you are shaken out of bed in the morning by the fact that the shock wave rocked a multi-storey building with an amplitude of half a meter, you start to perceive the “imaginary” threat from space in a very different way.
        In general, our city is accustomed to explosions - when 70-20 tons of ammunition were blown up at a training ground 30 km from the city (disposal by an explosion) - the house rocked - but they got used to 10 centimeters on 10 floors.
        However, the meteoroid explosion was very strong. The swing amplitude of buildings on the 10th floor is up to half a meter.
        About broken glass can not be mentioned.

        The effects of the shock wave.

        Quote: Cherry Nine
        and he wouldn’t reach Chelyabinsk, exploded in Northern Kazakhstan.


        At least look at the trajectory on the NASA website - low-frequency sound sensors recorded its entry into the atmosphere over Alaska - what does northern Kazakhstan have to do with it?
        He entered the atmosphere at an acute angle and only therefore did not reach the surface.

        Quote: Cherry Nine
        Until we find a way to protect the solar system from the threat of supernova explosions in the immediate stellar environment, we cannot feel completely safe.

        Well, just do not have to bring “scarecrows” from near-scientific cognitive programs for dumb teenagers - this is just an unproven theory with a probability of ten zeros after the decimal point, in contrast to the very disappointing statistics of regular approximations with VET.

        Do not be like an ostrich, turning a blind eye to a problem that is already technically possible to solve.
        1. Cherry Nine 17 October 2018 12: 55 New
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          Quote: DimerVladimer
          low-frequency sound sensors recorded its entry into the atmosphere over Alaska - what does northern Kazakhstan have to do with it?

          Seriously? They write about the border of the Kurgan region and Kazakhstan. However, even if you are right, and he came from the northeast, the essence of the matter does not change.
          Quote: DimerVladimer
          The effects of the shock wave.

          Almost all victims - with cuts from broken windows. Speaking of GO. You see the flash - get away from the window. It seems easy, but you go.
          Quote: DimerVladimer
          in contrast to the very disappointing statistics of regular rapprochements with VET.

          Over the past 100 years, 10 people who died from meteorites have not recruited. Frankly, not the most pressing problem.
          Quote: DimerVladimer
          Do not be like an ostrich, turning a blind eye to a problem that is already technically possible to solve.

          It was not you who suggested flying to Mars? I just wrote that meteorite danger is not an argument for such an undertaking.
          Again. In the foreseeable future, Mars will not become a backup for humanity. Take measures to protect the Earth much faster, cheaper, goes well with the popular topic of missile defense, and, in many ways, is already being done.
    2. voyaka uh 16 October 2018 22: 29 New
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      "There is no other way but the development of outer space and the colonization of other worlds." ////
      ----
      Evolutionarily, subconsciously, as a biological species, people feel it.
      But again, the real incentive will be again the money or prestige of nations: resources on the planets, space tourism, stations in orbits.
      1. Simargl 17 October 2018 20: 38 New
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        Quote: voyaka uh
        But again, the real incentive will be again the money or prestige of nations: resources on the planets, space tourism, stations in orbits.
        For a prestige race, it is necessary that nations can invest approximately equally in this race, and now only the USA and China can do it, but the latter is not a rival to the Americans.
        The prosaic interests of moneybags for the future.
  7. Horse, people and soul 16 October 2018 15: 20 New
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    There kaklov need with malas, lol That the sensor with protection against a fool all the same on the contrary to hammer into place.

    And the rocket will fly instead of the zenith - into nadir.

  8. Dr. Sorge 16 October 2018 20: 26 New
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    Recognize that they are not building trampolines, and not talk about robots.
  9. pafegosoff 17 October 2018 20: 29 New
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    Let them spend ...
  10. Vlad5307 17 October 2018 21: 47 New
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    Quote: pafegosoff
    Let them spend ...

    These costs may well pay off in the future, which needs to be prepared for today, and not the “trampolines” of 50 years ago, to be riveted and outstripped by the tongue like the current head of the Russian Space Agency, who could not be allowed to get close to space. The Americans are systematically moving towards the goal and will soon be able to abandon our carriers, the business approach still prevails when it is necessary to implement ambitious projects. Our bureaucrats and oliks can only steal from the budget, and work only on pain of death or ruin. Unfortunately, our cosmos has been left at the mercy of their "spectacular" managers, hence the results.
  11. Larum 28 November 2018 09: 29 New
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    They did it like yesterday — their satellite on Mars landed ...
    And while our photographs all the bridge
  12. Leiba Bronstein 7 January 2019 16: 53 New
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    Apparently and successfully break through.