Military Review

Old Russian spears. In battle and hunting

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For long centuries, one of the main weapons of infantry and cavalry was the spear. The product of the simplest design made it possible to solve various problems and confidently hit the enemy. Long stories this weapons also contributed to the high potential in terms of modernization. The shape of the tip and the basic parameters of the spear as a whole were constantly changing, increasing its fighting qualities and allowing it to remain in the army. Like all the armies of their time, spears used and the squads of ancient Russia.


It is known that the Slavs from the earliest times used pole-arms, including spears. Already in the 6th-7th centuries, such weapons became the main means of a typical warrior. Later spears were repeatedly upgraded and improved, which allowed them to remain in the ranks for many centuries. Due to this, a significant number of spear tips, which are valuable archaeological material, are still preserved in the cultural layer and burials. Scientists regularly find them, and this makes it possible to correct known data on past times.

Old Russian spears. In battle and hunting
Battle of Novgorod and Suzdal, 1170. Fragment of the 1460 icon. The guards of both cities are armed with spears. Figure Wikimedia Commons


It should be noted that the active study of Slavic and Old Russian copies began relatively recently - at the turn of the XIX and XX centuries. Until then, archaeologists and historians had paid more attention to cold arms or means of protection, while the woody samples were hardly studied. However, at the beginning of the last century, the situation changed, and in just a few decades the gap in knowledge was filled. So, only by the mid-sixties more 750 copies from different regions were discovered and studied. Over the next half century, the number of objects found has increased significantly.

Search for the best

The gunsmiths and warriors of Ancient Russia — like their colleagues and rivals from other countries and regions — were constantly searching for new designs and spear variants capable of providing an increase in combat characteristics. As a result of this, for several centuries many structures have been introduced and tested in practice. New spears differed from the existing shape and size of the tip, the parameters of the shaft, etc.

With the study of archaeological finds, Soviet and Russian historians have long come to an interesting conclusion about the development of ancient Russian spears. It is believed that our ancestors did not focus on the invention of completely new weapon designs. They preferred to study the existing foreign samples and, if they have any advantages, to adopt ready-made designs. In this regard, some Old Russian spears resemble weapons from western countries, while others show eastern influence.


Typology of ancient copies. Drawing from the book "Old Russian weapons. Issue. 2"


However, there was also inventive activity. Apparently, it was in Russia that a weapon like a spear was invented and massively spread - a special heavy spear with a reinforced tip. At the time of the appearance of such weapons, its direct counterparts from other nations were absent. Moreover, in some foreign languages, a modified Russian word is used to designate such a spear.

Thus, the ancient Russian gunsmiths saved time and energy on finding completely new solutions by studying and introducing someone else's experience. Of course, this did not allow them to be fully leaders of their industry, but it gave other well-known advantages. One way or another, as subsequent events showed, such an approach provided the necessary contribution to the combat capability of the troops.

A characteristic feature of the Old Russian copies is their utilitarian appearance. Unlike other nations, the Slavs almost did not pay attention to the decoration of their pole arms. In particular, there are no significant number of tips with silver ornaments on the sleeve, characteristic of Scandinavia. It is curious that this fact, among other things, was interpreted as evidence of the presence of developed local production of armaments.

Weapon evolution

For many centuries, the Old Russian and foreign gunsmiths constantly refined and changed the shape of the spear tip, seeking to improve its fighting qualities. As a result, a large number of forms and classes of such products are known both in our country and abroad. In the case of the shafts, the situation is much simpler.


Tips of copies of different types. Photo Swordmaster.org


The shafts did not differ in the complexity of the design and in fact represented a stick of the necessary length and thickness. In most cases, the length of the shaft corresponded to the average growth of the infantryman or was slightly different from it. The diameter of this part provided the convenience of holding and was approximately equal to 25 mm. A spear with such a shaft weighed no more than 350-400 g, which did not make it difficult to work with it. Spears for riders changed over time and acquired new features. Thus, the length of the pole of such a weapon could reach 2,5-3 m, and its diameter increased to 30-35 mm. The longer and thickest shaft helped to “reach” the enemy on the ground or on horseback, and also withstood a more powerful blow.

However, from the historical and technical point of view, the tips of the spears are of the greatest interest. The oldest in the context of ancient Rus are lanceolate-type tips - such weapons became widespread by the beginning of the 10th century. Such a design, borrowed from the Vikings, was distinguished by a relatively long feather of a rhombic cross-section, smoothly passing into the sleeve. As it developed, the lanceolate spear changed. Its length decreased and the proportions of the pen varied. Around the XI century, such a weapon fell into disuse due to the advent of more sophisticated models.

In place of the lanceolate tip came the so-called. peaked In this case, the spear pen had the shape of a high equilateral triangle. The cross-section of the tip was rhombic and increased along the sleeve. It is curious that the peak tip was very successful and effective. The relative perfection of the design allowed him to remain in operation for the next few centuries.


Oblong-ovate tip. Photo Swordmaster.org


In the same X century, the Old Russian warriors mastered another type of tip. It was made in the form of a tetrahedral rod-blade connected to the sleeve in the form of a funnel. Such a tip could have a rhombic or square cross section. In addition, cross-sectional specimens are known. Spears of similar design can be considered direct ancestors of later peaks that appeared after several centuries. In this case, the gap in time between the two types of weapons was not too large: spears with a tetrahedral tip remained in service until the XIII century.

Another interesting novelty of the X-XI centuries is considered the so-called. A harpoon is a flat arrow-shaped tip with a pair of spikes in the back. Such tips are found in the graves of the X-XIII centuries, but in most cases it was a question of hunting weapons. The two-ship spear-harpoon had limited capabilities in the context of infantry or equestrian combat, and therefore quickly ceased military service.

In the XI century in Russia mastered the new version of the spear tip. It had an oblong-ovate shape with a rhombic cross section, as well as a sleeve of small height. It is curious that a similar form of a spear or arrowhead was created during the Bronze Age and received a certain distribution. Ancient Russia mastered such weapons only at the beginning of the last millennium.


Peak spear. Photo Swordmaster.org


The development of the oblong-ovate tip is the product of the so-called. laurel-shaped forms. In the 12th century, the development of defenses and pole weapons led to an increase in the latter’s strike power. Accordingly, it was necessary to strengthen the design of the tip. The laurel tip had curved blades, which gradually diverged in the front half of the product and converged in the rear. The sleeve had a medium length, and its connection with the feather was strengthened. Such spears were actively used until the XIII-XIV centuries.

A variant of the laurel spear was the already mentioned cattle, a heavy spear for solving certain problems. To increase the penetration strength, the end of the ratchet could have a length up to 500-600 mm and a width up to 60-70 mm. The bushing diameter reached 30-50 mm. The total weight of the spear could reach 800-1000 g - more than two times heavier than a “simple” spear. It should be noted that the spears could have tips of different shapes, but the laurel type provided the best combination of strength and fighting qualities.

In the X-XI centuries, so-called petioled tips. If all the other tips had a sleeve mounted on the shaft, the petiolate was fastened to the wooden part with the help of a pointed stem. The latter was literally driven into the pole. The shape of the tip could be any — samples of the lanceolate and leafy types are known. Such weapons were used in the Eastern Baltic and other northwestern regions. However, these spears did not receive more distribution, and soon they were abandoned. The scape did not provide reliable retention of the tip on the pole, and besides, with strong punches, it could destroy the latter.

On foot and on horseback

For obvious reasons, the spear was originally an infantry weapon. However, the emergence and development of cavalry has led to new ways of using such weapons. As a result, until the very end of the service, the Old Russian spears were used by both the main "branches of the military." In addition, parallel spears were used in another area. In ancient times, such a weapon appeared as a tool for hunting, and retained such functions for many millennia. Naturally, infantry, cavalry and infantry spears had certain differences related to the peculiarities of their use.


The tip of the spear. Photo Swordmaster.org


Spears for infantry differed in the smaller sizes and weight. Their total length rarely exceeded 1,7-1,8 m, and the mass was usually within 300-400 g. With such parameters, the weapon combined the convenience and sufficient fighting qualities. With the development of defenses, cavalry needed larger and heavier spears, capable of increasing the blow to the enemy. For these reasons, the length of the products reached 2,5-3 m, and the weight increased by more than two times.

It should be noted that infantry and cavalry could use spears with tips of the same types. Depending on the application, they differed from each other only in size and weight. As new types of tips were studied and introduced, re-equipment of both foot and mounted soldiers was made.

The situation in the hunting field changed differently. Initially, the spear of a “military” specimen with tips of actual types was used to hunt large and dangerous animals. However, over time, by the XI-XII centuries, new trends have emerged. In the course of numerous battles, it was found that the heavy double-hinged harpoon did not show itself in the best way in combat. At the same time, this product was distinguished by high efficiency when hunting for an animal. The rear spikes of the tip could cling to the edges of the wound and did not allow the spear to be removed, increasing the impact on the target. On the battlefield, this property turned out to be unnecessary, but was useful in hunting. Another popular tool for hunting was spear-spear, also effective in war.

The turn of the ages

In the late Middle Ages, new types of weapons appeared that changed the situation on the battlefield. However, this did not lead to the abandonment of pole weapons. Spears were used and developed until the XV-XVI centuries, when they were replaced by more sophisticated and effective peaks. Also during this period, the cattle continued to develop, still being an effective means of defeating infantry and cavalry. At the same time, a completely new pole weapon was being developed.


Use spear spears on the hunt. 18th Century Lubok, Wikimedia Commons


The development of means of protection and the emergence of new weapons constantly changed the situation on the battlefield, and also presented new requirements for existing weapons. However, with all such changes, some classes of weapons remained in service for many centuries. A prime example of this is the spear. It remained in service with various formations for more than a thousand years and contributed to the combat capability of the troops. In the future, it was the spears and the experience of their combat use led to the appearance of new types of pole arms, which gradually replaced them.

Old Russian gunsmiths sought to follow current trends in the field of weapons and adopted someone else's experience; borrowed and developed the development of foreign colleagues. Because of this, they managed to create a large number of types of infantry and cavalry weapons, including a whole set of various copies. Spears of all kinds, along with other cold, pole and throwing weapons, ensured high combat effectiveness of troops for many centuries, and thus made a significant contribution to the construction and protection of the Russian state.

Based on:
https://swordmaster.org/
http://rusdarpa.ru/
https://slmogu.ru/
Kirpichnikov A.N. Old Russian weapons. 2 release. Spears, sulits, battle axes, maces, tassels of the 9th – 13th centuries. (AIS. Issue. E1-36). - ML: Science, 1966.
Archeology of the USSR. Ancient Russia. City. Castle. Village. Under the general editorship of Academician B.A. Rybakova. - M .: Science, 1985.
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  1. kalibr
    kalibr 28 October 2018 08: 11
    +1
    Very interesting material, dear Cyril! And then many readers of VO were interested in Russian weapons.
  2. Cat
    Cat 28 October 2018 08: 43
    +7
    Suddenly! From someone but from Cyril did not expect pole arms! Thank!
    Although I think it’s worth a little to correct the text, as in this quote we are talking about the tips of copies, and not about spears in principle!
    Thus, by the mid-sixties alone, more than 750 copies from different regions were discovered and studied.

    Wood is not a durable material, so scientists could only study the Collection of the Faceted Chamber and a dozen museums, and a couple of three cases of preserving artifacts in unique soil!
    I hope the author will not stop and we will continue the theme of picks, owls and portezans. I think it is worth investigating the question of polearms on the Kulikovo field. Where the chronicler writes that "the third row used spears." I did not see Cyril about winged spears and sulitsa. If the first can reveal the topic of the Varangian discoverers, then the second is a marker of purely ancient Slavic weapons and its evolution would be interesting for VO readers. The author has missed the elment of borrowing steppe and Tatar types of long-tree weapons. Just export, and then the "pipeline". Perhaps not everything is so simple! And last but not least, there are several copies with a flow in the Faceted Chamber !? By the way, in epics, the meaning of the spear is symbolic and symbolic!
    So the topic is extensive, interesting to be continued!
  3. alex-cn
    alex-cn 28 October 2018 08: 58
    +3
    Thank you, I read it with great pleasure.
    But I must say that lubok does not at all reflect the specifics of hunting a bear with a spear. Itself did not go, of course, the gut is weak ... but I read a lot of such books, because until the beginning of the 20th century there were enough lovers of such hunting. Even Tsar Alexander the third. I’ll try to insert a photo of the staghorn of the end of the 19th century, it may turn out ...
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 28 October 2018 10: 38
      +3
      At the end of the 20th century. lovers were also found. Non-poor people in search of thrills. After several fatal outcomes, the bend was bent.
      1. Cat
        Cat 28 October 2018 11: 17
        +1
        But I must say that lubok does not at all reflect the specifics of hunting a bear with a spear.

        Dear Alexey, who said that the Author of the popular print went to the "bear"!
        He didn’t see the bear in his eyes! Well, or gypsies on a chain, with accordion and dancing in a squat. So you can only look for reliability in one thing. We went to the beast with dogs and cattle!
        By the way, here comes our insenations about miniatures, when the Tatars are no different from the Russians! We forget that they were written decades and centuries later, and in monasteries and monks! One can only guess about their knowledge in military and ethnographic matters!
        Sincerely, Kitty!
        1. Curious
          Curious 28 October 2018 14: 11
          +2
          In general, the topic of a hunting spear is a question for a separate article, since since the Middle Ages it has been an independent type of weapon with its own "specialization".

          The tip of a boar spear, Germany, circa 1430.
      2. alex-cn
        alex-cn 28 October 2018 11: 45
        +2
        It is quite natural. To own any melee weapon, you need a school,
        training and experience. And where to find it now? Certainly not in the clubs of lovers of ancient battle.
  4. Thunderbolt
    Thunderbolt 28 October 2018 09: 03
    +2
    Battle of Novgorod and Suzdal, 1170. Fragment of the icon of 1460.
    Russians chop Russians, sadness ...
  5. KVU-NSVD
    KVU-NSVD 28 October 2018 09: 22
    +1
    in Russia, such weapons as staghorn, a special heavy spear with a reinforced tip, were invented and gained wide distribution.
    Isn't a catfish a two-pointed weapon?
    Spears for infantry were smaller and smaller. Their total length rarely exceeded 1,7-1,8 m, and the mass was usually in the range of 300-400 g.
    And long spears in combination with large shields of the Russian infantry in the battle were not used? And about borrowing designs of tips - the thesis is debatable. The similarity can be caused not by copying, but by the same conclusions of the gunsmiths under the same conditions, especially since the spear is a very simple structural weapon .. But on the whole, I was very happy for Cyril in his new form, it turned out better than usual and almost without diluting the text. Article plus .. PS Throwing spears - Streets for example, are not mentioned. PPS In advance I apologize for profanism ..
    1. alex-cn
      alex-cn 28 October 2018 09: 39
      +5
      spear and rampage - one type of heavy, more hunting, spear. It is possible that due to the need for a large length initially, the tip could also be made from a horn, but these are only assumptions. Due to the specifics of the application, the animal partially sat on the spear itself, on the neck of the tip of which an oak crossbar was attached to a rawhide belt, stopping the movement of the animal to the hunter ... Hence, "don't get on the rampage"
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 28 October 2018 15: 47
        +4
        Quote: alex-cn

        spear and rampage - one type of heavy, more hunting spear. It is possible that due to the need for a large length initially, the tip could also be made from a horn, but these are only assumptions. Due to the specifics of the application, the animal partially sat on the spear itself, on the neck of the tip of which an oak crossbar was attached to a rawhide belt, stopping the movement of the animal to the hunter ... Hence, "do not go to the trouble

        Let me disagree with you! If you delve into the origin of the word "rampage", then most often you can find the following explanation: 1. a rampage is a pointed stake dug into the ground obliquely (or installed obliquely with an emphasis ...). The settlements in the "zone of risky farming", temporary outposts, military camps (including temporary bivouacs) were "fenced off" with pointed stakes ... This was practiced, in particular, by the glorious Roman legionaries. 2. Sharpened pole of shepherds ... shepherds could threaten with such a horn both a bull that was crazed by testosterone, and a lover of someone else’s beef who had gone mad! Yes, there is also an "alternative" name for a spear of a spear ... but I doubt that the "mid-century" chroniclers flaunted it ... rather, this word "fell in love" by "researchers" of Russian history, writers in the 19th century!
        As for the horn ... here you are on the right track! The tip, of course, was not made of horn; but, when the spear was equipped with a "crossbar" (it could have been like this ...):

        they often used the horn of an animal, from which the name "spear" appeared.
        A little later, the variety of stag beetle that you mentioned appeared:

        You can see the hunting scene with such a horn:

        In "europ" were more common "boar" spears (as kindly reported by the respected Curious ...), which could be called pigs (or Swinefeather) ... from this slang name, the "Swedish feather"

        It is possible that the "descendants" of the "boar" copies or "winged" copies are the protazans (espantons) known in Europe ....
        PARTISAN
        1. Tutejszy
          Tutejszy 30 October 2018 16: 38
          0
          Quote: Nikolaevich I
          You can see the hunting scene with such a horn:

          But this class is not like splint! The artist is clearly in the subject! The hunter hides the rampage from the bear - this beast is very smart and will not trample the rampage, it will knock it out with its paw! And when the bear is close - a step to the side follows and a blow to the passing bear from side to back under the scapula (or directly into the scapula - the stag beetle pierces it at a time). But to write something is easy, but to do it ...
          1. Michael
            Michael 1 January 2019 21: 16
            0
            That was sarcasm?
    2. abrakadabre
      abrakadabre 28 October 2018 16: 51
      +5
      Throwing spears are not mentioned - shuli for example
      Just the same, and mentioned several times. The truth is not called by its own name:
      The diameter of this part provided ease of retention and was approximately 25 mm.

      Their total length rarely exceeded 1,7-1,8 m, and the mass was usually in the range of 300-400 g.
      This is just a description of the streets - throwing darts. Likewise, tips with reverse notch hooks are exclusively throwing spearheads - it’s easy to stick in and it’s difficult to pull out. For just a spear, this is a big drawback. Since in the whirlpool of a mass battle, a warrior risks in a critical instant being left without a weapon due to the inability or difficulty to pull out a spear after an impact. For sulits, this is just a plus.
      The normal size of the universal spear of a walking warrior is 220-250 cm with a shaft diameter of 35-40 mm and a total weight of about one and a half kg, which is just a feather for a two-handed weapon.
  6. Bormanxnumx
    Bormanxnumx 28 October 2018 09: 29
    +1
    However, there was an invention. Apparently, it was precisely in Russia that such a weapon as staghorn, a special heavy spear with a reinforced tip, was invented and gained wide distribution. At the time of the appearance of such weapons, its direct analogues were absent from other peoples.

    Archaeological finds in the Scandinavian countries suggest that the Vikings in the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries had spears "structurally similar" to spears.
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 28 October 2018 10: 27
      +3
      "Winged spears" with a cross member on the sleeve were everywhere!
      1. Cat
        Cat 28 October 2018 11: 21
        +4
        Quote: kalibr
        "Winged spears" with a cross member on the sleeve were everywhere!

        Shh ... Vyacheslav Olegovich, call out to our soul!
        Sincerely, Kitty!
      2. alex-cn
        alex-cn 28 October 2018 11: 55
        +1
        Probably, winged spears are still more infantry weapons. I can not imagine a collision of two horsemen with spears that stop ... these are almost a ton "complexes" rushing towards at a speed of 60 km / h. I understand that special saddles, armor and a bunch of bells and whistles ... but the human body has its limits. But at tournaments, they used blunt spears, how they survived after that - I can't imagine.
        1. Cat
          Cat 28 October 2018 15: 12
          +1
          Let's not mix "spears" and "winged spears" in one heap! Rogitina is a hunting spear with a large massive tip and a cross-section made of a wooden stop.
          The winged spear is the weapon of the Scandinavians against the hospitable wars the supports (wings) of iron! According to archaeological finds, the diameter of the shaft of the winged spear is much narrower than the staghorn. However, the traditions of the northern Germans in hunting used winged spears of considerable thickness for hunting! But from whom they borrowed history is silent! However, our bastards receive metal stops at about the same time! So throw gepotiziz gentlemen.
        2. abrakadabre
          abrakadabre 28 October 2018 17: 08
          +1
          I can’t imagine the collision of two horsemen with spears that stop .. these are almost a ton "complexes" rushing towards at a speed of 60 km / h.
          It is for this reason that a knight (well, or a heavy horseman with a spear in general) attacks the other knight holding the spear obliquely through the neck of the horse from right to left. And not forehead in a straight line. Because in this case, the blow knocks back-to-side and the spear goes to bend. And allows you to reduce the impact on the holding spear rider. Well, turn the spear when driving abroad attack. All this is clearly visible in the next video. And even in this case, there are cases when a successful hit does not just break the spear (ash shafts with a diameter of 4-6 cm, by the way) or kicks a rider out of his deep saddle, and even knocks a horse down his ass.
          If the riders went at each other holding the spears right on the hike, that is, to the right of the horse’s head, then with a direct hit the chances of surviving a collision without consequences would be much less. A bit like ramming a concrete wall. And for both: the one who gets the tip, and the one who holds the spear. For Newton’s law is fundamental: the force of bestowal is equal to the force of impact on the target.
          Or a situation would arise when the enemy was planted on a spear and he would slip on it to the very hand holding the spear. After which I would encounter an attacking rider.
      3. Horse, people and soul
        Horse, people and soul 29 October 2018 14: 48
        +1
        Quote: kalibr

        "Winged spears" with a cross member on the sleeve were everywhere!


        This crossbar is not so much "for flight", but so that the stabbed enemy in a rage could not reach the spear and hit him with his sword a couple of times before dying from blood loss and shock. In short, a crossbar for pricking and keeping at a distance. It makes no sense for throwing.
  7. Vladimir GRIGORIEV
    Vladimir GRIGORIEV 28 October 2018 11: 12
    +3
    How is it? "... The shafts did not differ in the complexity of the design and actually represented a stick of the required length and thickness." What was made of (what kind of wood they preferred), how they sought
    straightforwardness, what was processed? Go to the forest and select the 3m shaft (for riders)! Chess word, I opened an article to find answers to these questions.
    1. KVU-NSVD
      KVU-NSVD 28 October 2018 11: 46
      +4
      Quote: Vladimir GRIGORIEV
      how to achieve
      straightforwardness than

      Quote: Vladimir GRIGORIEV
      how to achieve
      straightforwardness than

      Of course, I can’t say for ancestors, but I can tell you a method from personal experience (in childhood, I didn’t have money for a folding fishing rod and therefore did it myself) In the autumn, I cut down a straight branch of acacia suitable for length and less. Hanging to the ceiling in the barn with a thin end to the ceiling, and on the other end a double bag - stuffing stones and other heavy loads into it for fifty pounds. By spring, the branch was like a string. The method is the simplest, so I dare to think that in that era they did the same
      1. Vladimir GRIGORIEV
        Vladimir GRIGORIEV 28 October 2018 12: 01
        +2
        A perfect layman, but your method is probably suitable for arrows (I’ll use it, I recently bought dear bow arrows for my daughter). The spear tree must be, first of all, very strong.
        1. KVU-NSVD
          KVU-NSVD 28 October 2018 12: 12
          +4
          Quote: Vladimir GRIGORIEV
          A perfect layman, but your method is probably suitable for arrows (I’ll use it, I recently bought dear bow arrows for my daughter). The spear tree must be, first of all, very strong.

          In this method, the strength of the tree does not play a role, I straightened the oak sticks - the load will pull everything out, it just can be harder to hang. Probably smaller arrows. And strength was probably achieved not only by the suitable species and age of the wood, but also by processing - proper drying, firing, impregnation, etc. .. Daughters of accuracy and success hi PS From childhood - goose feathers were not bad for plumage ..
          1. alex-cn
            alex-cn 28 October 2018 12: 30
            +3
            I know that the village elders, where I have a dacha, heated fir trunks in the "right way" and controlled them. then they were hung up with a load or bandaged to a straight board. I did it myself with bamboo, it turned out well.
            1. KVU-NSVD
              KVU-NSVD 28 October 2018 12: 43
              +2
              Quote: alex-cn
              I know that the village elders, where I have a dacha, heated fir trunks in the "right way" and controlled them. then they were hung up with a load or bandaged to a straight board. I did it myself with bamboo, it turned out well.

              Necessity for inventions is cunning, if you want to live - be able to spin, if you want to live - you will jump so ... well, so on ... Our ancestors were more inventive and resourceful than us - representatives of the ready century. And they scratched their turnips less, and conclusions about the impossibility of answering the question "how?" did it less often .. The same Macedonians somehow made the strongest 4-5 meter sarissas for phalangites and hardly suitable ready-made ones grew in those places, but they did, and the strongest, and they conquered the whole Oikumene, and what they did not conquer was not out of impossibility, but simply hesitated to fight ...
              1. Cat
                Cat 28 October 2018 13: 58
                +3
                The most famous spear shaft material from literary and oral sources is ash! Although in Russia I think they also used birch. Fir....? I don’t know if it’s possible for sluts, it lends itself well to processing like pine, but coniferous and resinous. Larch will also go to the shaft of the cleaver, perhaps spears, but I doubt the spear. There is also a hornbeam, a beech and a pear. But here it is necessary to look from the habitat. As they say "no stamp we write in ordinary"!
                Sincerely, Kitty!
                Ps Tournament spears were made with deliberately reduced durability, mainly from spruce! I think the corpses on the lists were of no use to anyone. Like linden shields, lightness and convenience are superior to strong weight. Although in our sources and finances - "oak shield"?
                But this is to the experts!
                Sincerely, Kitty!
                1. KVU-NSVD
                  KVU-NSVD 28 October 2018 14: 08
                  +2
                  I think the birch was for Russia. And it grows everywhere, and strong, and relatively light, and slender, even juveniles of suitable length in a birch grove forever suffice .. However, ash is unmeasured in our area ...
                  1. Vladimir GRIGORIEV
                    Vladimir GRIGORIEV 28 October 2018 14: 35
                    +1
                    Thank. I try to make friends with my daughter around the world. Therefore, we do not go the easy way and we will make real arrows. And archery for agility.
                    This is how it turns out to be "simple": "... just a stick ...". But the point is not only the ingenuity of past generations, the point is, after all, centuries, centuries of observing the material, there was enough time to chess, and you would simply be eaten.
                    1. alex-cn
                      alex-cn 28 October 2018 15: 07
                      +1
                      Well, about "real" arrows - I don't know ... the guys who communicated with the Khanty and Mansi said that this is a whole art and not everyone can do it.
                      1. Vladimir GRIGORIEV
                        Vladimir GRIGORIEV 28 October 2018 17: 02
                        0
                        Meant from wood. It's just a way to distract the growing up person from the information noise. I think now it is difficult and borscht is a real "pesti"
                  2. Cetron
                    Cetron 28 October 2018 23: 38
                    0
                    In childhood, we made arrows, bows, and fishing rods from hazel. The main thing is to dry it properly.
                2. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 28 October 2018 15: 15
                  +1
                  I doubt the subject of birch, pricking very much.
                  1. abrakadabre
                    abrakadabre 28 October 2018 17: 18
                    +1
                    I doubt the subject of birch, pricking very much.
                    Birch is just the same. It is not for nothing that the handles of shovels, rakes, hammers, sledgehammers and other equipment are now being made from it. Because it is durable and cheap. There are a lot of birch trees in Russia. Ash, oak, hornbeam, beech, elm and yew are better, but more expensive. Especially in our time, when a considerable part of the forests is plowed under farmland, roads and settlements.
                    Pine - a completely disgusting option. Because it breaks easily, absorbs water very well and then warps - a very loose structure. Larch and fir are also not so hot for the poles.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 28 October 2018 17: 37
                      0
                      The number of broken, over 25 years of practice, all kinds of cuttings and handles made of birch, allows me to doubt its normality. But in my case it is just about work, and not about protecting life.
                      1. Vladimir GRIGORIEV
                        Vladimir GRIGORIEV 28 October 2018 17: 50
                        0
                        Locals say that birch is a big plus in good depreciation, hands do not get tired and do not give to the brain. Probably after all, birch is the most universal option for everyday life.
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 28 October 2018 21: 06
                        0
                        Well, fig knows. I have worked a lot and do not feel much difference in ergonomics. But in terms of reliability, birch is the "handle of the last chance" laughing Maybe pick and choose.
                      3. abrakadabre
                        abrakadabre 10 November 2018 10: 07
                        0
                        But in terms of reliability, birch is the "handle of the last chance"
                        Compared to ash and other such types of wood, yes. But compared with pine - a model of resistance and strength.
                      4. abrakadabre
                        abrakadabre 10 November 2018 09: 41
                        0
                        The number of broken, over 25 years of practice, all kinds of cuttings and handles made of birch, allows me to doubt its normality.
                        They say that with due diligence and scrap can be broken.
                        In general, if you tried to make handle cuttings from pine, then questions about the priority of birch for such use should not arise.
                      5. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 10 November 2018 10: 04
                        +1
                        I made of beech and rosewood.
                  2. Al Al_2
                    Al Al_2 28 October 2018 22: 24
                    0
                    You do not have the right birch. For hatchets you need to use twisted / twisted birch wood. Whoever injected knows that this urine is (she doesn’t stupidly inject).
                    For a spear, a birch is not suitable - it is too heavy, the pine is cracking and a large knot (more like a Christmas tree or aspen).
                    1. Horse, people and soul
                      Horse, people and soul 29 October 2018 14: 42
                      +1
                      The Japanese used their white oak for the pole. There is also a red oak, but a white oak, it seems, is stronger.
                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 10 November 2018 20: 21
                        +1
                        White oak is much stronger than red.
                3. Tutejszy
                  Tutejszy 30 October 2018 16: 46
                  0
                  Quote: Kotischa
                  The most famous material for a spear shaft from literary and oral sources is ash! Although in Russia I think they used birch.

                  For sulitsy - anything, but a spear for melee birch is not a substitute for ash - it can break. In ash, the fibers are intertwined - the ash shaft cannot be broken in half (the halves will remain "tied" by a soaked area). Hornbeam is not bad, but it only grows in the south.
                  Quote: Kotischa
                  Like lime shields, lightness and comfort are superior to heavy weight.

                  I somehow calculated: with an equal mass, the lime shield has energy absorption twice higher than oak! So if oak is good against a sword and an ax (for solid), then from a club / mace / kisten - suddenly, lime!
        2. 97110
          97110 2 November 2018 14: 18
          +1
          Quote: Vladimir GRIGORIEV
          The spear tree must be, first of all, very strong.
          Type of shovel holder is better than oak? Or is it even better than iron wood? But for a shovel they use not even birch, but mountain ash. The question is interesting, I myself expected that it would be considered. Limited to silver jewelry on the tip. It is clear that there are no wood specialists among those present. But the question is ...
  8. bubalik
    bubalik 28 October 2018 19: 06
    0
    ,,, can someone tell me if the spear refers to melee weapons or not recourse
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 28 October 2018 20: 56
      +1
      Yes of course. Melee weapons include all types of weapons in which the striking element is activated by muscular force or mechanically.
      1. bubalik
        bubalik 28 October 2018 22: 24
        -4
        3x3zsave (Anton) Today, 21: 56 NEW
        ,, Assuming that I have a well-cleaned shovel (essentially a modified spear) in my country house, with which I not only dig beds, but also stray dogs for heads of dogs repeat which is also a cold weapon ,, request ?
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 28 October 2018 22: 50
          +2
          A shovel is a tool of labor that was originally intended for a specific function. Its use for other purposes is secondary and does not permit it to be attributed to weapons.
    2. Horse, people and soul
      Horse, people and soul 29 October 2018 14: 40
      +1
      Melee weapons include everything that was originally intended to kill people.
      1. Tutejszy
        Tutejszy 30 October 2018 16: 49
        +2
        Quote: bubalik
        I have a well-sharpened shovel in my dacha (essentially a modified spear), which I not only dig beds in, but also wander the heads of stray dogs

        Quote: Horse, lyudovѣd and soulѣlyub
        Melee weapons include everything that was originally intended to kill people.

        I will add my 5 kopecks: if you hack someone to death with a shovel, then it will appear in the criminal case not as a weapon, but as an "object, used as weapons "(ie the article" on illegal storage / wearing, etc. "You will not be additionally sewn)
        1. Horse, people and soul
          Horse, people and soul 1 November 2018 20: 49
          0
          The main weapon of man is his will to fight. Items for various purposes only project this will on the enemy. (WITH)
  9. ashnajder
    ashnajder 28 October 2018 20: 45
    0
    if briefly Russian gunsmiths did not come up with anything fundamentally new)) saved time and energy))))
    1. Horse, people and soul
      Horse, people and soul 29 October 2018 14: 37
      +1
      There is a refinement of the mind, but there is simplicity and efficiency. This is also characteristic of modern Russian weapons.

  10. Horse, people and soul
    Horse, people and soul 29 October 2018 14: 15
    +1
    Here, do not accidentally confuse the spear with a pike?

    A spear is thrown if necessary, like a dart, but the dart is lighter and there were usually several of them, just for throwing.
    The spear was heavier and one, originally used on foot as a peak, but it was possible in the heat of battle and throw. The length of the spear that could be thrown differed from the length of the peaks, which was used exclusively as peaks that were not thrown and were used in formation against the attack of the cavalry.

    In different peoples and in different periods, the length of the peaks varied greatly. So the Japanese could have a peak length of more than 6 meters.

    The spear was used in melee quite varied, for example, in the same Japanese spear Yari. Therefore, for convenience, to twist it, it was about 2 meters long, and the tip was razor-sharp, double-edged and had its own scabbard in the Japanese tradition. The peak was used statically in the pedestrian formation or (shorter) with the horse.

    My grandfather told me about the peak of the Cossacks - a terrible weapon ... the rear end is attached with a belt loop to the boat and the whole mass of the rider and the horse is in control. Nakolov unfortunate to the peak, the Cossack sharply raised the peak up and impaled flew from it from a height of meters with 3-4x. A terrible sight!

  11. Peaceful Atom
    Peaceful Atom 29 October 2018 23: 55
    0
    Interesting article, thanks! The topic is not mine, but the familiar Kopalkins presented a sulitsa (dart) and a knife, a bytovik from the times of Kievan Rus ....
  12. Tutejszy
    Tutejszy 30 October 2018 16: 33
    0
    The poles did not differ in the complexity of the design and in fact were a stick of the required length and thickness.

    Not so simple ... and the type of wood is important, and the method of drying, and impregnation ...
    the feather of the spear was in the shape of a high equilateral triangle

    generally isosceles - in an equilateral, all three sides are equal. lol
    Petiole did not provide reliable retention of the tip on the pole, and in addition, with strong stabbing strokes, it could destroy the latter.

    It depends on how you fix it ... Yapps have only been using such a scheme for a thousand years!
    The rear spikes of the tip could cling to the edges of the wound and did not allow to take out the spear, increasing the impact on the target. On the battlefield, this property turned out to be unnecessary, but was useful when hunting.
    But only for a throwing spear - so as not to fall out of the wound and prevent the beast from escaping. But I will not wish anyone to ward off such a pack of wolves (or even a pair) of wolves. For example, pierce the first ...