Military Review

AKS-74U: a shortened version of the "Kalash"

AKS-74U - 5,45-mm Kalashnikov assault rifle folding shortened (GRAU index - 6П26) - a shortened version of the widely-used model AK-74. This version of the machine was developed in the Soviet Union at the end of 1970 - the beginning of 1980-s. First of all, the shortened version was intended for arming the crews of various combat vehicles, calculating artillery pieces, as well as paratroopers. In addition to the army, the machine gun is actively used in the Ministry of Internal Affairs and various security structures that value weapon for its small size.

The need for such weapons in the army existed for many years, so its appearance was greeted by the military with enthusiasm. This is easily explained, given the fact that after the end of World War II and the transition of the Soviet army to the AK family of small arms, there was not a single production model of a submachine gun adopted in the country, despite the fact that the need for such weapons was quite sharp. Kalashnikov assault rifles and their descendants could not replace submachine guns because of their size. The creation of weapons that would occupy this niche in the USSR was returned only with the adoption of the intermediate cartridge 5,45x39 mm.

The AKS-74U machine gun was created as part of the work on the Modern contest, in which gunsmiths from Izhevsk, Tula and Kovrov took part. The problem of creating a small-sized automaton in the Soviet Union was addressed following the designation of a global trend to create such weapons. At the end of 1960 - the beginning of 1970-s, designers from the United States, Great Britain, Belgium, Hungary and other countries tried to develop a small-sized assault rifle, but only Germans from Heckler und Koch achieved success. In 1975, they began producing the HK53, the total length of which with the butt folded was only 563 mm. The Soviet AKS-74U, created as part of the Modern contest, managed to surpass its German counterpart in this indicator.


We started work on the new machine gun in Tula, Kovrov and Izhevsk, but, naturally, in the capital of Udmurtia, work went faster and more successfully. Here they created a small-sized model based on the main machine. The design of the AKM, worked out to the smallest detail, and the project of its 5,45-mm automaton successor under the code A-3, noted the need to start all the work from scratch. Izhevsk designers shortened the barrel of a standard automaton to 255 mm, carried the gas vent and the front end back (respectively, shortening the length of the gas piston rod), a full cylindrical muzzle (conical flame arrester) was inserted into the design to completely burn the powder. The Kalashnikov automatic rifle scope was replaced with a simple L-shaped reversible one, located on the cover of the receiver, now permanently mounted on the machine and pivoted up when disassembling the weapon. The metal wire stock with a rotatable butt pad, like that of the Stechkin machine gun, was folded upward, reducing the overall length of the model to 475 mm.

In the future, in the development process, the machine continuously changed and improved. So in 1973, the mini-version of Kalashnikov was slightly improved. The barrel of the machine was shortened by another 35 mm. The butt was borrowed from AKMS (AKM with a folding butt). The design of the muzzle and the vapor section has undergone minor changes. The prototype of the 1976 automat of the year had an even shorter stem - the 206,5 mm, the butt folding to the right in the form of a tubular figured shoulder rest and a reduced weight - to 2,4 kg. The final version of the Kalashnikov small-caliber was maximally unified with the AKS-74 automatic rifles already adopted (the stock was also folded to the left). The AKS-74 machine gun was a classic AK-74, equipped with a metal frame butt folding to the left, this model was created specifically for the Airborne Forces.

In the end, the winner of the “Modern” competition was precisely the shortened machine gun of Izhevsk gunsmiths, which was distinguished by high standardization of production and operation in relation to the machine gun AKS-74, which was well mastered by the Soviet industry. The layout of controls, mechanisms and the general structure of the small-sized AKS-74U automatic machine were similar to those of the AKS-74, which not only led to cheaper mass production, but also facilitated the repair and maintenance of the new model of firearms. Also an important role was played by the simplification of the training of personnel for the operation of the AKS-74U assault rifle. In 1979, the new machine gun was adopted, and already in 1980, under the designation AKS-74U (6P26), began to enter the army.

At the same time, the small-sized AKS-74U, which was sometimes affectionately called “shortened” or “Ksyuha”, had its obvious disadvantages. Twice the shortened trunk in comparison with the full-size AK sample could not but affect ballistics. As expected, this led to a decrease in the initial speed of the bullet to 735 m / s and a decrease in the targeting range of fire (along with the effective one). However, at the same time there was no need for a complex aiming device, a simple rear sight was used for two positions - 350 and 500 meters.
Initially, a plastic pistol grip was placed on the AKS-74U machine gun, but the barrel trim and handguard were wooden.

Around 1991, on this model, as well as on other representatives of the AK-74 family of machines, all wooden elements were replaced with impact-resistant glass-filled polyamide. The use of plastic parts made it possible to reduce the mass of the product and to somewhat increase its wear resistance.

The main differences of AKS-74U from AKS-74:
- halved trunk;
- shortened gas piston rod;
- the cover of the receiver is attached to the receiver in the front part with a hinge;
- installed rear sight on 350 and 500 meters;
- there is no retarder rate of fire;
- there is a special muzzle, which serves as an expansion chamber and flame arrester.
- the length of the rifling stroke is reduced from 200 to 160 mm, this is done to better stabilize the bullet in flight when using a short barrel.

At the same time, from the point of view of mechanisms, the compact AKS-74U machine gun was completely identical to the AK-74 / AKS-74 models, with the exception of the trigger stop, which was installed instead of the retarding rate of fire.

AKS-74U: a shortened version of the "Kalash"

Shooting from the AKS-74U is conducted by two types of ammunition with ordinary and tracer bullets. A bullet with a steel core 5,45-mm cartridge when firing from this machine provides the following punching action: breaking through steel sheets with 50% probability at the meeting angle 90 degrees: 3 mm at a distance of 500 meters and 5 mm at a distance of 210 meters. Breaking a steel helmet with 100% probability is provided at a distance of up to 500 meters; penetration of a bullet-proof vest with probability 50% - at a distance of 320 meters; breaking through with the probability 50% of the wall of dry pine bars 20 thick in cm at a distance of 400 meters; penetration into the parapet of rammed loamy soil on 15-20 cm - at a distance of 400 meters; penetration into the brickwork on 6-8 cm - at a distance of 100 meters. The killer action of a bullet fired from the AKS-74U is maintained at a distance of up to 1100 meters, the maximum range of the bullet is 2900 meters, muzzle energy is 902 J.

There were requirements for normal combat for the small-sized AKS-74U submachine gun: four bullet holes had to lie in a circle with a diameter of 15 cm when firing from a prone position located at a distance of 100 meters. At the same time, we should not forget that the purpose of the shortened model of the machine gun was to fight at minimum distances, but in reality the shooter could not always take a recumbent position for firing.

The AK-105 submachine gun, which was created in 1994 on the basis of the AK-74M model, was considered as a replacement for an honorary veteran in the Russian army and law enforcement structures. The intermediate barrel length between the AK-74M and AKS-74U models reduced the size of the machine, leaving the vapor chamber in the same position relative to the breech section of the trunk, as the AK-74М model, rather than carrying it back, as happened with the AKS-74U. At the same time, the new version with a folded butt on the 94 mm is longer than the AKS-74U, but the extra 94 mm of the barrel made it possible to improve the ballistic characteristics of the model and slightly reduced the heating of the barrel due to its greater mass. Compared to the full-size AK-74M, the AK-1990 developed in 105-ies is shorter on the 119 mm (with the butt unfolded).


The AK-105 assault rifle was equipped with a redesigned (as compared to conventional AK 100th series) aiming bar with markings up to 500 meters. And the butt and forend of the model are made of impact-resistant black plastic. It is known that the AK-105 was not purchased by the army of the Russian Federation, but was adopted by the FSSP of the Russian Federation, private security and FSUE "Protection" of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation. At the same time, the main machine gun, which is in service with the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, is still the AKS-74U, since the department has large stocks of automatic machines of this model with expired service life.

Performance characteristics of the AKS-74U:
Caliber - 5,45 mm.
The cartridge - 5,45x39 mm.
Length - 730 mm (490 mm - with a folded butt).
Barrel length - 206,5 mm.
Weight - 2,7 kg (without cartridges), 3,0 kg (curb).
Rate of Fire - 650-700 rds / min.
Combat rate - up to 100 shots / min (bursts), 40 shots (single).
The initial speed of the bullet - 735 m / s.
Sighting range of shooting - 500 m.
Effective firing range - 300 m.
Shop - boxed on 30 cartridges.

The source of information:
Open source materials

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  1. RuslanD36
    RuslanD36 20 September 2018 07: 29
    AKS-74U assault rifle is fired by two types of cartridges with ordinary and tracer bullets.

    But others are not? Single, Usami? BT?

    Compared to the full-size AK-74M, the AK-1990 developed in the 105s is shorter by 119 mm (with the butt extended).

    And with folded not at 119?
  2. polpot
    polpot 20 September 2018 08: 10
    In TUKVO we called this masterpiece "Ubludok" and there was a reason
    1. Lexa-149
      Lexa-149 20 September 2018 10: 19
      He also has the nickname "bitch" ...
    2. Serge Gorely
      Serge Gorely 20 September 2018 10: 32
      Quote: polpot
      In TUKVO we called this masterpiece "Ubludok" and there was a reason

      Likewise. No "reprimands", "ksyukh", only
      1. Walking
        Walking 20 September 2018 12: 08
        This machine must be correctly used, do not replace it with a full AK. And in his niche, he is quite normal.
        1. lis-ik
          lis-ik 20 September 2018 19: 58
          Quote: Hiking
          This machine must be correctly used, do not replace it with a full AK. And in his niche, he is quite normal.

          I had one on an urgent basis, only positive emotions, although I did not use it in real combat, but I was very comfortable in the cockpit of the Ural.
    3. Tank hard
      Tank hard 20 September 2018 12: 57
      Quote: polpot
      In TUKVO we called this masterpiece "Ubludok" and there was a reason

      I heard the opinion that it is good to use the "ksyukha" in the building, you run across the floors, you smell the enemies behind, you turn the "cigarette butt" towards the enemy, especially without looking back, you release the "store", the bullets fly in different directions, they also ricochet, the enemies are very unhappy ... I don't know if it's true or not repeat . But each weapon probably has its own niche ...
      1. Bad_gr
        Bad_gr 20 September 2018 13: 46
        Quote: Tank Hard
        ..... each weapon probably has its own niche ...

        I have been traveling with this machine for more than a year in Afghanistan. If you have a tool bag on you, a viper in your hands, an automatic machine over your shoulder, then it’s shortened just right. I was the first to be issued with an AKS-74 with a wooden butt (oar), and once I jumped out of the body I got a butt from him on the head (the trunk snagged overboard). Little did not seem. With shortened such jambs were not.
        True, when shooting from it, there was more thunder than from a machine gun.
        1. Tank hard
          Tank hard 20 September 2018 20: 40
          Quote: Bad_gr
          With shortened such jambs were not.

          I heard a lot of good things from my friends, krapoviks about "ksenia". Each vegetable has its own garden ...
    4. The comment was deleted.
  3. Dzafdet
    Dzafdet 20 September 2018 09: 26
    Quote: Oleg Zhepalov
    I still can’t understand why Korobov’s machine gun didn’t work ... It was developed back in the 1960s. Why not missed, the Zionist wolves? I do not know...
    Caliber: 7.62x39 M43 (also 5.6x39 13MZh in the TKB-022PM5 version)
    Type of automation: gas vent, locking vertically with a sliding shutter
    Length: 525 mm
    Barrel length: 415 mm
    Weight: 2.8 - 2.4 kg
    Rate of Shooting: 560 rounds per minute
    Store: 30 rounds

    Try to run with him and shoot from different positions and all questions will disappear. Inconvenient he ...
  4. Blue fox
    Blue fox 20 September 2018 12: 07
    On the advice of senior comrades, I immediately received the AK-74U assigned to me in the warehouse, on the advice of my senior comrades, and, remembering the results of the shooting at the range during retraining, put it in the KDHO (replaced it with an AKM "found" somewhere), where it was calm before being returned to the warehouse and lay there. Prapor RAVist did not even open the shutter when receiving the weapon back, because the machine gun, as it was in the factory grease, remained in it.
    There was a problem at the firing range when firing at a range of more than 150-200 meters, they hit, of course, but the cartridge consumption was greater than when firing from the AK-74M. Although I observed with AK-105 scouts and they generally responded positively about it, given the use in mountainous-wooded areas with obvious restrictions on the visibility and range of fire.
  5. Catfish
    Catfish 20 September 2018 15: 50
    Quote: Blue Fox
    Although I observed with AK-105 scouts and they generally responded positively about it, given the use in mountainous-wooded areas with obvious restrictions on the visibility and range of fire.

    Thank you, Fox colleague, for the first time I see information about "one hundred and fifth" in real, not "polygon" use. hi
  6. Blue fox
    Blue fox 20 September 2018 16: 14
    Quote: Sea Cat
    Quote: Blue Fox
    Although I observed with AK-105 scouts and they generally responded positively about it, given the use in mountainous-wooded areas with obvious restrictions on the visibility and range of fire.

    Thank you, Fox colleague, for the first time I see information about "one hundred and fifth" in real, not "polygon" use. hi

    This was not a common phenomenon, but I observed one of the groups of explosives precisely, they had AK-74m and AK-105. 2008, somewhere in Russia :)
    1. NEOZ
      NEOZ 20 September 2018 17: 08
      Quote: Blue Fox
      somewhere in Russia :)

      May the Force be with you !!!!
  7. air wolf
    air wolf 20 September 2018 17: 30
    I think it was a mistake to release this AK on a 5,45x39 cartridge, it had to be created on 7,62x39 (subsonic), it turned out to be a good submachine gun for the Ministry of Internal Affairs, and ordinary cartridges could be used on it, but in the army. Unification under the 5,45 cartridge unfortunately is recognized by all as not true.
    1. tracer
      tracer 20 September 2018 18: 02
      What tomatoes? Persistence and speed with breaking higher. In AKSU, THE BULLETS WILL RICOCHET AND A FAN WILL SCATTER FROM WHAT ANYTHING. A long line overheats the trunk on the hello. But compared to pistols, even Stechkin and even Glock, these weapons are an order of magnitude higher. So AKSU thing It is for those who have small arms is not the main. Somehow they planted a clip from the RPKS with one fool in one queue .... As bullets flew out of a hose with water. I wanted to check whether it could withstand ... We checked it and then they raked it from the commander.
      1. Cat
        Cat 20 September 2018 18: 29
        The problem with the AKS-74U is that a 5.45mm bullet is prone to ricochet. Which happens even from tin or tractor wheels. So 7.62mm for the Ministry of Internal Affairs would probably be the topic. Even better, with a 9 × 39 or 9 × 21 cartridge, the rest is redundant, like bursting. But this is Wishlist, alas, our brother is equipped with a residual principle.
        Instead of Ksenia, I consider the ideal weapon to be PP Bison under 9 × 19.
        1. Horse, people and soul
          Horse, people and soul 20 September 2018 19: 25
          The ideal PP under 9x19 is the Heckler MP5 worldwide and only on 1/6 of the land ...

          An ideal weapon for 9x19 ... I think PP Bison

          1. Tank hard
            Tank hard 20 September 2018 20: 43
            Quote: Horse, lyudovѣd and soulѣlyub
            The ideal PP under 9x19 is the Heckler MP5 worldwide and only on 1/6 of the land ...

            An ideal weapon for 9x19 ... I think PP Bison

            IMHO. There is no perfect weapon. The same MP5 is not the easiest assembly - disassembly, many parts, small ... request
          2. LastPS
            LastPS 20 September 2018 21: 08
            If you need software and it can be made of AK, having received almost complete unification in production, any other options are simply meaningless for the Russian defense industry. You can also buy / develop something else - more expensive, but more convenient, more efficient, and what about a cop or a supply fighter / tanker / artilleryman / driver? The same MP-5 by special forces, as well as by local riot police, is used in the West, except for the homeland of weapons.
          3. SASHA OLD
            SASHA OLD 21 September 2018 03: 37
            that's not necessary about "the whole world", now I will begin to list the countries where there is no MP-5 in service - at least half the world will turn out to be, plus 1/6 of the land to this ... and look: already the MP-5 is not so and perfect ...
            1. Horse, people and soul
              Horse, people and soul 21 September 2018 22: 07
              Ideal. For specialists.

              But, s-u-k-a, dear, African and other Papuans from the "rest" of the world cannot be bought. For some reason, the Germans do not want to give away for nothing. It was only the USSR that was given away for a promise to build communism.

              Since that time, a huge number of AK, PPSh and PPS have been walking around the "remaining" world and are still shooting.

              And Hacklers buy where special equipment (such as OMON) need precision in work. In Russia, he most likely also exists. But not with OMON, but with more serious offices.

              Dear Oh, because ...
        2. hohol95
          hohol95 20 September 2018 20: 45
          "Torn Sky" Alexey Sviridov
          Yes, on time. The light infantry sergeant, barely waking up, almost without thinking of pain, managed to rise to one knee and fumbled with his hand across his belt in search of a holster with a fifteen-armed army "beret". There was no doubt that he knew how to handle her, although the movements of his fingers were convulsive - the effects of the shock affected. Butt “bison" - one of the simplest and most durable folding stocks in the world - broke him with a dozen white wholly American teeth. The sergeant's blood ran down his chin densely, and his fingers were about to catch the nylon valve.
          As soon as the first shots rang out, the Corsair threw himself on the floor, rolled onto his back, the machine shook in his hands. Andrei hadn’t figured out anything yet properly, and the “bison” had already spat out the half-store, feeling for the gray figure gleaming with a red-hot jet, gleaming with a cockade on his beret and silver squares on uniform, which outside the window frantically poured the bar with Kalashnikov fire. Suddenly it was all over. It seems that he still got it out of time at the time of the recovered sentinel. Sure, got it. He remembered the dull crunch with which lead entered the human body. Silence fell.

          The only work in my memory where the PP "Bison" is mentioned!
        3. Maki Avellevich
          Maki Avellevich 3 November 2018 12: 55
          Quote: Kotischa
          The problem with the AKS-74U is that a 5.45mm bullet is prone to ricochet. Which happens even from a tin or tractor wheels

          Well, you compared - tin and tractor wheel!
      2. gross kaput
        gross kaput 20 September 2018 20: 25
        Quote: tracer
        with a fool clip from RPKS

        There are two mistakes in one sentence, and how much information at once - not when a person who is close enough familiar with army weapons will not call a machine gun magazine. Well and how interesting it was that the store managed to be added from the RPKS to the AKS74U - the caliber does not bother? Yes, and somehow, when initially developing the 5,45mm AK line, it was not the possibility of an erroneous connection of the store from 5,54 to 7,62 and vice versa.
        Quote: tracer
        As bullets flew from a hose with water

        Well, this maxim immediately suggests that you never shot from the AKS74U - critical heating for the AKS74U occurs either after two stores in a row in long bursts, or three short ones, but even after such heating it will not be watered - for this, you need to throw on top around the store.
        1. tracer
          tracer 3 November 2018 13: 51
          Doesn't bother at all. Your remark. Not shkolota read my posts and not shkolota they are addressed. I really apologize for the mistakes. I almost always write on the run, I'm a busy person. And I didn't even care about the correct spelling of RPK 74, Writing the letter C at the end meaning (folding). I thought that those who are in the subject do not need to explain what fits where and where not. They really don't need to explain. From this it is clear that you are clearly not in the subject, or so to speak, not in your subject. And "yes, yes" the store can be called a clip, and in general, it does not change the essence of this. Since the situation was different. And no need to fill in ... how many stores you can release from AKSU without loss of accuracy. You in your life didn’t really hold him except for the shooting range, and if this alienated you during the shooting, you would be very "abused". So do not pretend to be a pseudo expert. As for the poor acquaintance with weapons ... I will say this. My brigade was taking out the remnants of the broken Maikop brigade. So for all your comments. . past. And I apologize for the spelling.
          1. gross kaput
            gross kaput 3 November 2018 22: 55
            Quote: tracer
            Oy brigade deduced the remains of the defeated Maykop brigade. So for all your comments.

            Maybe "your" brigade - but obviously not you - 99% that you either did not serve in the army, or no further than a clerk / cook - the name of the store is hammered into the KMB, and even out of steam the subconscious will not allow writing a clip laughing
            Quote: tracer
            You in your life didn’t really hold him except for the shooting range, and if this alienated you during the shooting, you would be strongly "scolded"

            A freak and nothing, so I did the shooting myself - and it’s very difficult to blame myself laughing

            Quote: tracer
            Regarding a weak acquaintance with weapons ... I will say this.

            On this occasion, you are noted in almost every post - so it’s good to flood the commandos of the three armies, you are our homegrown laughing
    2. aws4
      aws4 21 September 2018 01: 58
      all by whom specifically? can be more detailed please))))))))))))))
  8. pogis
    pogis 20 September 2018 19: 25
    My favorite machine! Assigned to me since 2003, No. 3 ..... 2 of the 1991 release, the last batch (the release was discontinued), and yes, I did not see polyamide not when, but I saw disposable boxes for 100 cartridges for AK-74, maybe someone Before that I was AK-74, 10 years old, functional duties over the years remained the same, but what a huge difference in everything when you start working or routine, when you just patrol, go to the shooting range 3 km and back or try to penetrate into some "point" the paddle always interferes with doing this. But "Ksyusha" only reminds you of itself with its weight between the shoulder blades, on two belts, if in biathlon, and does not hit anywhere with fast movements. But I prefer one- regular belt. Next, let's take a look at firepower training. I shot her, like everyone else in 2015, from 100 m lying with a support single, knocked out 89 out of 100 from 10 rounds. took 2nd place out of 16 AKS-74U., and that having astigmatism on board, the difference between the places was 1-4 points! And here is the shooting training of shooting. this is a separate song, there are only queues, I don’t know why. And yes, since 2003, units of 100 m hit target No. 7 (waist) in bursts, but at 8a (height) 90% 200 m. Well, the disadvantages, it shoots very loudly, and shoots well (and it hits very accurately) only at single mode of firing, when firing in bursts, the barrel heats up very much. and minnows! The weapon is wonderful, in its segment, for which it was created.
    1. SASHA OLD
      SASHA OLD 21 September 2018 03: 44
      I shot with Ksenia only once, single and short for 2-3 shots, per 100 meters, single normally and short due to a shift in the center of gravity the barrel still jumps harder. in general, if you think about it, you can shoot at 250-300 meters approximately the same if you adjust to a shorter sighting line, but, I repeat: I have too little experience shooting with Ksenia
  9. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 20 September 2018 22: 39
    An armed man at the VU told us that this development received the right to life after one of the gangs seized a workable sawn-off shotgun from the kadash. For what I bought, as they say)))
  10. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 21 September 2018 10: 35
    I think a short-barrel weapon under 5,45 is not quite what you need. 7,62x39, and even better 9x39. And for the police, an automatic rifle cartridge is not needed at all. 9x21 - above the roof. Here under it, and you need to make software based on AKSU. There is a hero under the cartridge 9x19.
  11. Catfish
    Catfish 21 September 2018 11: 32
    Quote: Blue Fox
    somewhere in Russia :)

    Thank you, Colleague, I understand ... wink
  12. Cannonball
    Cannonball 30 October 2018 22: 49
    Incorrect about the gunners. The artillery crews were armed with conventional AK-74s. Only a few officers of the artillery battalion had shortened Kalashs, in addition to the regular Makarovs.
  13. Cannonball
    Cannonball 30 October 2018 22: 55
    Around 1991, on this model, as on other representatives of the AK-74 family of assault rifles, all wooden elements were replaced by impact-resistant glass-filled polyamide.
    Bullshit! In our Termez training school, in 1983, all AK-74s were already "plastic". Only the plastic was not black, but chocolate-colored. And "beyond the river" were the entrance "wooden" "Kalash".
  14. Spike Javelin Touvich
    Spike Javelin Touvich 16 November 2018 18: 33
    Here she is darling, I do not know why he was created for the crew of the type of short, but who is purely nonsense. The strap has not been canceled, it clings to something as well as a full-fledged AK.
  15. jurijsv
    jurijsv 16 November 2018 18: 42
    How to whom. Used and not one year. Convenient. Failsafe. True, with us it was equipped with a collimator sight. Great machine.
  16. serge siberian
    serge siberian 16 November 2018 19: 26
    "Ubrez" from October 85 to December 87, on the urgent it is fine with him all the shooting is a clear battle at the target and in single and bursts of 2 rounds, so they taught me, so did I. The machine was created for specialists, first of all, and this is a battle in the city and in the building. Do not forget friends, this is not a machine gun. Yes, they were supposed to arm even flyers, not only tankers and led them. "It's hard in training, easy in battle," so Generalisimus Suvorov said. Yes, and Lenin said, "Learn military science real way ". good soldier