Military Review

Directional nuclear weapons: US projects

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Currently nuclear weapon It is used as a payload of various bombs and missiles designed to destroy important enemy targets. However, in the past, the development of the nuclear industry and the search for new ideas led to the emergence of a number of proposals that envisaged a different use of such warheads. Thus, the concept of nuclear weapons of directional action suggested abandoning a simple undermining of a target in favor of remote exposure to it at the expense of some damaging factors.


The first proposals in the field of nuclear weapons of directional action, according to known data, refer to the end of the fifties. Later on, at the theory level, several variants of such weapons were developed. In this case, the original concept quickly became interested in the military, which led to special consequences. All work on this topic was classified. As a result, by now only a few American projects have become famous. There is no reliable information about the creation of similar systems by other countries, including the USSR and Russia.


Orion-type atomic-pulse spacecraft. NASA / nasa.gov picture


It should be noted that not much is known about American projects. In open sources, there is only a limited amount of information, mostly of a very general nature. At the same time, there are many estimates and assumptions of various kinds. However, in such a situation, you can create an acceptable picture, even without special technical details.

From engine to gun

According to known data, the idea of ​​directional nuclear weapons appeared during the development of the Orion project. During the 1950s, NASA and a number of related organizations were looking for promising rocket and space technology architectures. Realizing that existing systems may have limited potential, American scientists came up with the most ambitious proposals. One of them envisaged the rejection of the "chemical" rocket engine in favor of a special power plant based on nuclear charges - the so-called. atomic pulse engine.

The project with the working title "Orion" provided for the construction of a special spacecraft, without the main engines of traditional design. The head compartment of such a device was allocated for the crew accommodation and payload. Central and tail belonged to the power plant and accommodate its various components. Instead of traditional fuels, the Orion ship was supposed to use low-power compact nuclear charges.

According to the basic idea of ​​the project, during acceleration, the Orion atomic-pulse engine was supposed to alternately throw charges over a solid tail plate. A nuclear explosion of limited power was supposed to push the plate, and with it the whole ship. According to the calculations, the substance of the decaying charge was supposed to scatter at a speed of up to 25-30 km / s, which allowed for a very high thrust. At the same time, shocks from explosions could be too strong and dangerous for the crew, as a result of which the ship was equipped with a depreciation system.

In the proposed form, the Orion ship engine was not distinguished by energy perfection and efficiency. In fact, only a small part of the nuclear charge energy transmitted to the tail plate of the ship was used. The rest of the energy was dissipated into the surrounding space. To improve the efficiency required processing engine. At the same time there was a need for a radical change in the existing design.

According to calculations, a more economical atomic-pulse engine in its design should have resemble existing systems. Undermining nuclear charges should be inside a solid housing with a nozzle for the release of matter and energy. Thus, the products of the explosion in the form of a plasma had to exit the engine in only one direction and create the necessary thrust. The efficiency of such an engine could be tens of percent.

Nuclear howitzer

In the late fifties or early sixties, the new engine concept received an unexpected development. Continuing the theoretical study of such a system, scientists have found the possibility of its use as a fundamentally new weapon. Later, such weapons will be called directional nuclear weapons.

Directional nuclear weapons: US projects
Nuclear rocket engine with internal charge detonation. NASA / nasa.gov picture


It was obvious that a stream of light and X-rays should come from the nozzle of the engine along with the plasma. Such an “exhaust” posed a particular danger to various objects, including living organisms, which led to the emergence of a new idea in the field of nuclear weapons. Produced plasma and radiation could be sent to the target for its destruction. Such a concept could not fail to interest the military, and soon began its study.

According to known data, the project of a nuclear weapon of directional action received the working name Casaba Howitzer - “Howitzer“ Kasaba ”. An interesting fact is that such a name did not reveal the essence of the project and even made confusion. The special nuclear system had nothing to do with howitzer artillery.

A promising project is expected to be classified. Moreover, the information remains closed until now. Unfortunately, very little is known about the real features of this project, and the few available information in the bulk do not have official confirmation. However, this did not prevent the emergence of a number of plausible estimates and assumptions.

According to one of the common versions, the "Kasaba" howitzer should be built on the basis of a heavy-duty case capable of withstanding the detonation of a nuclear charge and not transmitting x-rays. In particular, it can be made from uranium or some other metals. In such a housing should provide a hole that performs the functions of the barrel. It should be blocked with metal plates - beryllium or tungsten. Inside the case is placed nuclear charge of the required power. Also, the "gun" needed means of transportation, guidance and control.

The detonation of a nuclear charge should lead to the formation of a cloud of plasma and X-rays. The total effect of high temperature, pressure and radiation should instantly evaporate the body caps, after which the plasma and the rays are able to go towards the target. The configuration of the "barrel" and the material of its cover influenced the angle of divergence of the plasma and radiation. In this case, it was possible to obtain efficiency up to 80-90%. The rest of the energy went to the destruction of the body and dissipated in space.

According to some reports, the plasma flow could reach speeds of up to 900-1000 km / s; X-rays are able to move at the speed of light. Thus, the radiation should first have been affected by this target, after which it was ensured that it was hit by a stream of ionized gas.


One of the alleged variants of the Casaba Howitzer system. Figure Toughsf.blogspot.com


The Kasaba product, depending on the components used and the technical specifications, could show a firing range of at least several tens of kilometers. In airless space, this parameter has increased significantly. A nuclear weapon of directional action could be mounted on a variety of platforms: land, sea and space, which in theory allowed to solve a wide range of tasks.

However, the promising "howitzer" had a number of serious technical and combat flaws, drastically reducing its practical value. First of all, such a weapon turned out to be overly complex and expensive. Moreover, some design problems could not be solved with the technologies of the middle of the last century. The second problem affected the fighting qualities of the system. The release of plasma did not occur simultaneously, and it stretched into a rather long stream. As a result, the limited mass of the ionized substance should have affected the target for a relatively long time, which reduced the actual power. X-ray radiation, too, was not an ideal damaging factor.

Apparently, the development of the project Casaba Howitzer lasted no more than a few years and stopped in connection with the determination of the real prospects of such weapons. It was based on fundamentally new ideas and had quite remarkable combat capabilities. At the same time, the nuclear weapon turned out to be extremely difficult to manufacture and operate, and also did not guarantee the defeat of any assigned target. It is unlikely that such a product could be used in the army. The works were stopped, but did not declassify the project documentation.

Cumulative nuclear charge

Back in the thirties, a so-called was proposed. shaped charge: ammunition in which the explosive had a particular shape. A concave funnel on the front of the charge ensured the creation of a high-speed cumulative jet collecting a significant part of the explosion energy. A similar principle soon found application in new anti-tank ammunition.

According to different sources, in the fifties or sixties, it was proposed to create a thermonuclear ammunition operating on a cumulative principle. The essence of this proposal was to manufacture a standard thermonuclear product, in which the charge of tritium and deuterium had to have a special shape with a funnel in the front. As a fuse, it was necessary to use a "normal" nuclear charge.

Calculations showed that, while maintaining acceptable dimensions, the shaped thermonuclear charge can have very high characteristics. Using technologies of the time, the cumulative plasma jet could reach speeds of up to 8-10 thousand km / s. It was also determined that in the absence of technological limitations of the nature of the jet is able to pick up three times greater speed. Unlike Kasaba, X-rays turned out to be only an additional damaging factor.


Cumulative thermonuclear charge scheme. Figure Toughsf.blogspot.com


How exactly it was proposed to use the potential of such a charge is unknown. It can be assumed that compact and light bombs of this kind could be a real breakthrough in the fight against buried protected structures. In addition, the cumulative charge could become some kind of super-powerful artillery guns - on land and other platforms.

Nevertheless, as far as is known, the project of a cumulative thermonuclear bomb did not go further than theoretical research. Probably, the potential customer did not find the point in this proposal and chose to use thermonuclear weapons in the “traditional” way - as a payload of bombs and missiles.

"Prometheus" with shrapnel

At a certain point, the Kasaba project was closed due to the lack of real prospects. However, later returned to his ideas. In the eighties, the United States conducted work on the Strategic Defense Initiative ("Strategic Defense Initiative") and tried to create fundamentally new anti-missile systems. In this context, they recalled some offers from previous years.

The ideas of Casaba Howitzer were reworked and refined as part of a project with the code name Prometheus. Some features of this project led to the nickname “Nuclear shotgun”. As in the case with the predecessor, the bulk of information on this project has not yet been published, but some of the information is already known. On their basis, you can make an approximate picture and understand the differences between "Prometheus" and "Kasaba".

In terms of overall architecture, the Prometheus product almost completely echoed the older Howitzer. At the same time, another “dula” cover was proposed, due to which it was possible to obtain new combat capabilities. The opening in the casing was again planned to be closed with a solid tungsten lid, but this time it should be covered with a special heat-insulating composition based on graphite. Due to mechanical resistance or ablation, such a coating was supposed to reduce the effects of a nuclear explosion on the lid, although complete protection was not provided.

The nuclear explosion in the hull should not evaporate the tungsten lid, as it was in the previous project, but only crush it into a huge number of small fragments. The explosion could also disperse the fragments to the highest speeds - up to 80-100 km / s. A cloud of small tungsten shrapnel, which has a sufficiently large kinetic energy, could fly several tens of kilometers and collide with a target that was in its path. Since the Prometheus product was created within the framework of the PIO, intercontinental ballistic missiles of a potential enemy were considered as its main objectives.


"Orion" in flight. Probably, the shot of Kasaba could look similar. Drawing Lifeboat.com


However, the energy of small fragments was insufficient to ensure the defeat of the ICBM or its head part. In this connection, Prometheus should be used as a means of selecting false targets. The warhead and the false target differ in their basic parameters, and it was possible to identify a priority target in terms of the features of their interaction with tungsten fragments. Her destruction was assigned to other means.

As you know, the Strategic Defense Initiative program led to the emergence of new technologies and ideas, but a number of projects did not produce the expected results. Like a number of other developments, the Prometheus system was not even brought to the bench tests. Such an outcome of the project was associated both with its excessive complexity and limited capacity, and with the political consequences of the deployment of nuclear systems in space.

Too daring projects

The fifties of the last century, when the idea of ​​directional nuclear weapons appeared, was a rather interesting period. At this time, scientists and designers boldly offered new ideas and concepts that could most seriously influence the development of armies. However, they had to face technical, technological and economic constraints, which did not allow them to fully implement all the proposals.

It was such a fate that awaited all known nuclear-powered nuclear weapon projects. A promising idea turned out to be too difficult to implement, and this situation seems to persist to this day. However, having studied the situation with old projects, an interesting conclusion can be made.

It seems that the US military is still showing interest in concepts like Casaba Howitzer or Prometheus. Work on these projects stopped long ago, but the responsible persons are still not in a hurry to disclose all the information. It is possible that such a regime of secrecy is associated with the desire to master a promising direction in the future - after the appearance of the required technologies and materials.

It turns out that the projects created since the late fifties, for many decades ahead of their time in terms of technology. Moreover, they still do not look too realistic due to known limitations. Will you be able to cope with current problems in the future? It remains only to guess. Until then, nuclear weapons of directional action will maintain the ambiguous status of a most interesting concept without real prospects.

On the materials of the sites:
http://princeton.edu/
http://nv.doe.gov/
https://nationalinterest.org/
https://nextbigfuture.com/
http://atomic-skies.blogspot.com/
http://toughsf.blogspot.com/
https://secretprojects.co.uk/
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  1. gridasov
    gridasov 9 September 2018 08: 41
    +1
    All these projects, as well as many others, are based on how scientists are able to analyze the source data in the form of existing technologies and adequately respond to them, in the form that they can design and even more so create in real form. It has already been repeatedly noted that the basis of the so-called. Prospective projects is taken from technology from which nothing more can be squeezed out than is already known and possible. And in order to make a breakthrough into the future in all areas of energy reproduction, a process of immersion in the depth of knowledge of the fundamental principles of building the world is necessary. Therefore, no matter how someone boasted of their achievements, but they are all built on the same architecture and level of knowledge, which determine the technology of their creation. All projects remain variations of what is taken as the fundamental basis of the so-called new and promising projects.
  2. Ros 56
    Ros 56 9 September 2018 09: 28
    +2
    What kind of people are stupid, how much effort and money they spend on creating systems of their destruction, instead of creating, if not paradise, then at least acceptable living conditions on the planet. And the reason for everything is pride and greed.
    1. merkava-2bet
      merkava-2bet 9 September 2018 09: 57
      -1
      It is the passion for power and greed that drives humanity, and no matter how wildly it sounds, this is progress and evolution, because science is driven by the military, everything is based on military technology.
      1. Ros 56
        Ros 56 9 September 2018 10: 05
        +1
        Do not flog the fuck. The wheel was probably invented for the military, which at that time was not even mentioned. Mendeleev’s table was also created for the warrior, but what about without it. And writing was created only for the transmission of military information. You can still list a lot. The fact of the creation of Israel with the help of weapons does not mean that everything on earth was created in a similar way. I’m just saying that people are such rams.
        1. merkava-2bet
          merkava-2bet 9 September 2018 14: 04
          -1
          The fact of the creation of Israel with the help of weapons does not mean that everything on earth was created in a similar way.
          Israel is so annoying you, well, this is my homeland, whether you like it or not. Now tell me at least one country where, differently, without weapons, think well, not instincts and anger.
          1. Ros 56
            Ros 56 9 September 2018 14: 12
            +3
            Absolutely not annoying, just a very clear example of the fact that you have one-sided thinking, that's all. I argue that people should be people, not goats, and you say that they are all like that. That’s the whole difference.
            1. merkava-2bet
              merkava-2bet 9 September 2018 14: 19
              -2
              And where have I ever called humanity rams and goats? But you are not shy in epithets.
              I argue that people should be people, not goats, and you say that they are all like that.
              I’m just saying that people are such rams.
              You said that.
              And where did you get the idea that I have one-sided thinking? Facts in the studio.
              1. Ros 56
                Ros 56 9 September 2018 14: 22
                +1
                Here it is: It is precisely the passion for power and greed that drives humanity, and no matter how wild it sounds, this is progress and evolution, because science is driven by the military, everything is based on military technology.
                1. merkava-2bet
                  merkava-2bet 9 September 2018 14: 43
                  -2
                  Maybe it’s your one-sided view of the world, maybe it’s time for you to look at the world without illusions.
                  1. Lawyer
                    Lawyer 10 September 2018 01: 00
                    +1
                    Evil is not defeated by evil.
        2. The comment was deleted.
    2. NG inform
      NG inform 9 September 2018 20: 03
      +1
      Paradise cannot be created in principle. There are many people, only a few: a bloody struggle is inevitable.
      You will improve conditions a little - people will breed and again they will be brought to the limits of survival.
  3. gridasov
    gridasov 9 September 2018 09: 36
    +1
    A key problem in the practical use of radioactive materials is that radial radiation or potential must be converted from diffuse energy to linear and concentrated.
    1. Fedor egoist
      Fedor egoist 9 September 2018 11: 57
      0
      Quote: gridasov
      radial radiation or potential must be converted from scattered energy to linear and concentrated

      For this, nuclear-pumped X-ray lasers were invented)
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 9 September 2018 12: 03
        +1
        Yes, but there is no direct power effect. I’m talking about the direct use of nuclear material in the form of fuel to create force interactions with the medium, which create an impulse of movement in any space and the density of the medium and its radial direction vector relative to gravitational forces
        1. Fedor egoist
          Fedor egoist 9 September 2018 12: 22
          0
          Quote: gridasov
          I’m talking about the direct use of nuclear material in the form of fuel to create force interactions with the medium, which create an impulse of movement in any space and density of the medium

          That is, without energy conversion, in which efficiency inevitably decreases? In the case of nuclear reactions (especially explosive ones), it is an extremely dubious undertaking. From this point of view, annihilation engines are much more interesting and promising.
          1. gridasov
            gridasov 9 September 2018 12: 37
            +1
            As such, the concept of efficiency is leveled if there are transitions to various energy levels. For example, in hydro-gas-dynamic processes where the boundary or transitional level from dominant kinetic interactions to the level of potential atomic-molecular? Therefore, the methodology and analysis of such processes is important. Computational mathematics is not so maneuverable to take into account too many inputs for analysis. Therefore, annihilation engines are also problematic if you do not see where and at what stage the transitional level occurs. It is necessary to use methods of analysis of all process levels, not just quantitative ones. Therefore, new knowledge in ionization theory is very appropriate.
  4. gridasov
    gridasov 9 September 2018 09: 55
    0
    The global confrontation between countries is caused by the struggle for technological superiority in energy reproduction. Now there are no technologies that provide the whole totality of types and levels of energy and the scale of its centralized reproduction that would not rely on fossil energy sources, which means war is inevitable. Wars are not only for the sources of energy, but for the time that is necessary for the emergence of new knowledge and new technologies.
  5. merkava-2bet
    merkava-2bet 9 September 2018 10: 01
    -1
    I’m wondering if these experiments were carried out, that is, with nuclear undermining.
    1. Grim Reaper
      Grim Reaper 9 September 2018 10: 28
      +1
      Quote: merkava-2bet
      I’m wondering if these experiments were carried out, that is, with nuclear undermining.

      I think no. Well, why? Maybe in a fevered thought they were, and how to fly to the alpha centauri, but they were extinguished at the stage of "give money" that we have what they have.
  6. Bormanxnumx
    Bormanxnumx 9 September 2018 10: 09
    0
    The principle of movement of the project "Orion" resembles the Strugatskys' story "The Land of Crimson Clouds" (1959) and in Tolstov's "Aelita" you can also find something in common)
    1. gridasov
      gridasov 9 September 2018 10: 28
      0
      It is very interesting to observe how fantasy evolves. It also develops according to regularities.
    2. Narak-zempo
      Narak-zempo 9 September 2018 11: 22
      0
      Quote: BORMAN82
      in "Aelita" Tolstov

      "Aelita" was written not by Tolstov, but by Alexei Tolstoy.
      1. Bormanxnumx
        Bormanxnumx 9 September 2018 16: 44
        +2
        Of course, there must be Tolstoy's "Aelita"))) - an annoying typo
  7. Grim Reaper
    Grim Reaper 9 September 2018 10: 18
    0
    I understand. Sunday, there is something to read.
    And, yes, Gridasov, my question is still valid.
    1. gridasov
      gridasov 9 September 2018 10: 24
      0
      I am very sorry, but I do not have access to material that interests you
      1. Grim Reaper
        Grim Reaper 9 September 2018 10: 32
        0
        Alas, no, there is no trial. But, perhaps in the light of this article, you misunderstood. The material that interests me belongs to the field of hydrodynamics, but not to YAO.
        From SW. Alexey.
        1. gridasov
          gridasov 9 September 2018 11: 52
          0
          It is obvious that each of us is in our space of goals and objectives. Which at this stage of the development of science can be more important as a new technique for the analysis of physical processes in a hydro-gas-dynamic environment. It is not just a mathematical analysis technique, but a boiler technique can be incorporated into a machine and its potential is not expanded with binary logic, but expanded. And already these possibilities give a person to see the processes by which it is possible to create fundamental devices for the reproduction of various energy urls. At the same time, I note that processes in solid radioactive materials are easily reproduced in mobile flows of gases and liquids. They can be harmonized, enhancing or weakening the radioactive physical processes in solid materials. This is a completely new space of opportunities.
          1. Grim Reaper
            Grim Reaper 9 September 2018 11: 59
            +1
            You know, Gridasov, it’s very difficult for me to understand you. When I ask a specific question, you are 16 year old as a student and you seem to feel like it and your mother doesn’t. And develop demagoguery. Well, okay, it didn’t grow together ....
          2. Grim Reaper
            Grim Reaper 9 September 2018 12: 10
            +1
            And, by the way, that the processes occurring in a mobile medium can be repeated in a solid is no longer a secret. But you are all trying to hang the veil of mystery. Alas, Gridasov, it seems to me that you are not a scientist, and so, chat.
            1. gridasov
              gridasov 9 September 2018 12: 25
              +1
              I talked the other day with scientists from a European university. They argued the same way. In the end, I ask them: Do you have a clue about such processes? You know what the term is or something else один There was one answer for everything that we don’t know. There is no system knowledge to solve a specific problem. Therefore, no matter what you call me. It is important how a specific task is solved. I admit that I don’t know how to explain to people the methodology of complexity or the methodology of integer spatial mathematical constructions on the basis of which one can analyze the whole variability of events. Anyway, we really just chat, each about his own
              1. Grim Reaper
                Grim Reaper 9 September 2018 12: 31
                +1
                Yes, Gridasov, you are right, we simply chat about each other. I apologize for the harsh comment addressed to you. In any case, I am interested in your perception of the world. And if at a meeting of a beard we will tear each other, then this is a matter of life .;)
                From SW. Alexey.
                1. gridasov
                  gridasov 9 September 2018 12: 49
                  0
                  We can’t grab it! The inner world of human perception is more important to me, and personal parameters are secondary. If the power of knowing the new dominates, then I will learn no less than what I will teach others. Therefore, such correspondence and dialogues are an extremely important step in preparing for more substantive discussions.
                  1. Grim Reaper
                    Grim Reaper 9 September 2018 13: 02
                    +1
                    Yes, about beards from Pratchet, baths, towels, beards, eureka! ... Have you not read it? I highly recommend it. The whole "flat world" cycle. Take time, his books make you think.
                    What is surprising in translation is perhaps better than the original. Zhikarentsov needs to erect a monument.
                    1. gridasov
                      gridasov 9 September 2018 13: 28
                      0
                      I will be frank that at this stage of my life I am interested in people with abnormal perceptions. In addition, I need direct communication with reality, and not with information that has passed through the filter of the mechanism of the brain. I always reserve the right to make a personal conclusion about what is happening. Once, when I studied the works of outstanding scientists, I explored the ways in which certain ideas and discoveries appeared. Therefore, it is imperative to find and hear the true discoverer of knowledge, not the follower and transformer.
                      1. Grim Reaper
                        Grim Reaper 9 September 2018 14: 01
                        0
                        It's still hard for me to understand you. It seems to be easy you said, but when you start to wade through all sorts of "if", "if", "if", and what did he mean .... The head begins to fog up. Therefore, I will not multiply. But you know, your opinion is interesting to me, maybe we will meet more than once, well, we pull out beards.;)
                      2. Grim Reaper
                        Grim Reaper 9 September 2018 14: 03
                        0
                        And as for the discoverers, I think I need to look among children, well, up to a maximum of 20, not blinkered.
  8. zxc15682
    zxc15682 9 September 2018 10: 36
    +1
    Bach and the ship evaporated !! Here is the action of an atomic explosion in space .. laughing
    1. Shahno
      Shahno 9 September 2018 10: 39
      +2
      It is more like the action of a "black hole" ... Have you been on an alien ship?
      1. Grim Reaper
        Grim Reaper 9 September 2018 10: 45
        +1
        Quote: Shahno
        It is more like the action of a "black hole" ... Have you been on an alien ship?

        Yeah, after a week of drinking I went there three times. :)
        Come on, I know, well, just do not make fun of my strength .;)
      2. gridasov
        gridasov 9 September 2018 11: 57
        0
        The question is in the mechanism of processes, and not in stating only a separate stage. An explosion is only part of the stage of energy transformation. The winner will be someone who builds algorithms with a transition to only positive and controlled process extremes.
  9. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 9 September 2018 10: 52
    +2
    The author is great! He took up a very interesting, but little "voiced" topic! In general, all the "hypostases" of the projects of "directed" nuclear weapons are described in the article ... unless one could refer to these projects (albeit with a certain "stretch" ...) an X-ray laser from the same SDI. .. A number of closed "nuclear" projects can "revive" in the event of the appearance of nuclear weapons of the 4th generation - "clean" thermonuclear ammunition ...
  10. Narak-zempo
    Narak-zempo 9 September 2018 11: 20
    +2
    So many interesting projects.
    It remains only to regret that the Earth is too small for their implementation.
    1. san4es
      san4es 10 September 2018 10: 38
      0
      Quote: Narak-zempo
      So many interesting projects.
      It remains only to regret that the Earth is too small for their implementation.

      winked - Is it time to advance into the sea? .... laughing
  11. gridasov
    gridasov 9 September 2018 12: 11
    0
    I ask myself this question how to discuss complex highly dynamic processes in a simple human language and at the level of our laminar consciousness. Indeed, each debater will consider his own aspect in such a process or imply it. How to harmonize such dialogs in order to precisely coordinate discussion issues. To maintain levels of particularity or generalization of conclusions
  12. merkava-2bet
    merkava-2bet 9 September 2018 14: 44
    -1
    Quote: Ros 56
    Here it is: It is precisely the passion for power and greed that drives humanity, and no matter how wild it sounds, this is progress and evolution, because science is driven by the military, everything is based on military technology.

    This is a statement of facts, venerable.
  13. Old26
    Old26 9 September 2018 14: 56
    0
    Quote: Ecilop
    Quote: merkava-2bet
    I’m wondering if these experiments were carried out, that is, with nuclear undermining.

    I think no. Well, why? Maybe in a fevered thought they were, and how to fly to the alpha centauri, but they were extinguished at the stage of "give money" that we have what they have.

    Fortunately, no. These are all "paper" projects generated by the euphoria of mastering nuclear energy.
  14. gridasov
    gridasov 9 September 2018 16: 07
    0
    Eccilop,
    You are absolutely right that young people are more adapted to understanding complexity and diversity. However, you need to understand what specific qualities can be reformatted into scientific concepts from mathematics, physics, etc. It is not for nothing that Americans use DARPA precisely people with developed figurative perception. But! They do not know how to use it objectively. First they need to be given exactly the key foundations of the method of systemic education based on mathematics. Why mathematicians? Because there are such basic concepts that cannot be expressed in words, but they can be understood in the language of the Number. More precisely, the depth of the process that is obvious in the movement of numerical flows. For example, try to express the magnetic field, or better the flux of magnetic field lines in words. It is unlikely that one-time complex processes can be described in words, and with Numbers this can be
    1. Grim Reaper
      Grim Reaper 9 September 2018 22: 21
      0
      Gridasov. I understand you, as far as I can. Yes, I agree that the magic of numbers is fundamental. And then ... Oh, to argue with you not on the site, but in real life.
  15. NN52
    NN52 9 September 2018 22: 22
    0
    Eccilop,

    About Gridasov ... He is young for a beard ...
    And look at the internet name Schauberger (I think you know), your opponent is an ardent admirer of him ... And today he took up a new direction, atom .. Only the thoughts of great people betray why for his ...
    1. Grim Reaper
      Grim Reaper 9 September 2018 22: 38
      +1
      I'm interested in chatting with him. Still born in a dispute? Or not?
      1. NN52
        NN52 9 September 2018 22: 45
        0
        Alexey

        Until a certain point, I was also interested in chatting with him ... on aviation topics, about engines, etc. ... Until I mentioned the name Schauberger ... And immediately he was offended, for some reason ...
        Argue ... but the argument is one-sided ... he is young ...
        1. Grim Reaper
          Grim Reaper 9 September 2018 22: 55
          +1
          I don’t even know how to contact you. After updating the site, I was just confused. Starper, EPT.
          Schauberger, yes, he is still a human being, like the Tesla, as well as the topping-up volunteer. It was necessary to live in those days .....
          1. NN52
            NN52 9 September 2018 23: 23
            +1
            Alexey

            Mom and Dad called me Dmitry ...
            This character, Gridasov, is fully copying the thoughts of not only great people (just mention of his struggle with scientists, which is worth ...).
            Why does he need this? I think for self-affirmation, well, I have read fiction ...
            1. san4es
              san4es 9 September 2018 23: 44
              +2
              Quote: NN52
              .... Why does he need it? I think for self-affirmation, well, I have read fiction ...

              yes ... 100% Dim ... Here, I found a picture of it in I-Nete .... bully

              1. NN52
                NN52 9 September 2018 23: 47
                0
                San

                There are not enough flash drives for a couple of terabytes in the photo ....
                1. san4es
                  san4es 9 September 2018 23: 54
                  0
                  There are not enough flash drives for a couple of terabytes ..

                  laughing - Welcome to the matrix bully
                  1. Grim Reaper
                    Grim Reaper 10 September 2018 04: 59
                    +1
                    And in my memory the phrase 90s: I saw the GP batteries - buy. ;)
            2. Grim Reaper
              Grim Reaper 10 September 2018 05: 00
              +1
              Dmitry, with respect!
              Alex.
  16. PavelT
    PavelT 10 September 2018 01: 52
    0
    Sorry, but the phrase "" Kasaba howitzer should be built on the basis of a heavy-duty hull capable of withstanding the detonation of a nuclear charge "is very, very dubious.
    Such a case, even for an ultra-small nuclear charge (1-2 kt), will weigh a lot (inconvenient for transportation and camouflage, difficult to tip and use), will cost a lot of money and will still be disposable (it will bend in any case, strength will be broken, it will become radioactive), moreover, it will have to be somehow disposed of if its application was on its side of the front or it will be on its own "fonit". The only option is to use it in space and without the requirement of "capable of withstanding the explosion of nuclear weapons." So, in general, they wanted to use nuclear-pumped X-ray lasers in the SDI Reagan program: this thing explodes, the body into dust, but they hoped that from several (more than one!) Tungsten holes / waveguides they would beat X-rays and shoot down enemy warheads in space. But it is unlikely that it will be possible to accurately direct several such beams at once at several spaced targets, and it is simply impossible to re-reflect, redirect, focus the X-ray beams. Therefore, there are few prospects for such a weapon. Only as a directional mine will fit. Something like a nuclear stationary high-explosive flamethrower - there were such in WWII: http://warfor.me/ognemetyi-fog/ FOG-1 and FOG-2.
  17. PavelT
    PavelT 10 September 2018 03: 20
    +1
    But there is something in the idea of ​​a nuclear / thermonuclear shaped charge. I have never seen any serious articles on the topic "Is it possible to make a directed nuclear charge?" and it surprised me: the idea seems to be logical, and no one unsubscribed on this topic. Maybe they are still trying and therefore it is still secret? In general, there is basically nothing more to add to nuclear / thermonuclear weapons: only a directed action or an initiating seed from antimatter (so that it would be stronger and more% use of fissile matter was used).
    The idea given in the article about: "the manufacture of a standard thermonuclear product, in which a charge of tritium and deuterium had to have a special shape with a funnel in the front" is somewhat primitive: there the fusion reaction wave may simply not have time to reach the outer edges of the funnel, and meanwhile in the center of the funnel, it has already taken place. Then the jet will not be cumulative. Alas.
    Perhaps the problem is solved by placing 5-7-9 initiating nuclear charges, also in the form of a funnel, behind this funnel-shaped charge of tritium / deuterium. In a simpler version, you can simply simulate / test what will happen if just the initiating charges in the form of a funnel explode 10-20-30-40 ... μs before one large charge in the focus of such a funnel? Will at least 60-70% of the energy of the last "lagging" charge be directed at least into a wide cone with an opening angle of at least 50-60 degrees? Such directional nuclear / thermonuclear charges would be very useful for the destruction / crushing of asteroids.
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 10 September 2018 08: 07
      +1
      I am sympathetic to your opinion, comrade! "It was smooth on paper, but there were hills and ravines!" When they "felt" the cumulative effect, the designers imagined that many problems that were insoluble hitherto ... could be solved due to this effect! But it turned out not so simple! For example, we decided to "make" cartridges for the "shooter" on the "cumulative effect"! The preliminary calculations seemed very encouraging! But "figs you" turned out! So it is with "nuclear-cumulative" "cases"!
  18. acetophenone
    acetophenone 13 October 2018 16: 21
    0
    Quote: Jurist
    Evil is not defeated by evil.

    No, not defeated. It is only defeated b0the greatest evil. For example, America was going to crush Russia with massive shelling of "Tomahawks" in order to destroy the industrial infrastructure and military facilities, and Russia blasted several "Sakharov torpedoes" along the US coast, and - that's it, Russia is no longer interested in America.