Military Review

Edward Crawley: "The first mission of the space industry of the entire planet is an expedition to Mars"

Last week, a member of the NASA manned flights commission Edward Crowley visited Moscow. The main event of this visit was a lecture given by an American specialist at Moscow State University. Crowley devoted the main part of his lecture to the issues of manned space flight prospects and the problem of going beyond the Earth orbit.

According to Crowley, the expedition to Mars is currently the top priority for the space industry of the entire planet. Every year, the flight that people have dreamed of over the centuries is becoming more and more real. Moreover, Crowley believes that the expedition to Mars should not be the same as the flights to the moon. Humanity should not limit itself to several flights and the subsequent abandonment of them. People should not only visit the Red Planet, but also begin to master it. Naturally, the experience of flying to the moon will be useful in the implementation of the Martian program. In particular, it would not hurt to start a series of flights to the Moon, during which some systems and techniques will be worked out.

Crowley does not exclude the next landing on a natural satellite of the Earth. However, during this flight, in his opinion, it is necessary to fly not only near the Moon, but also to try to get closer to Mars. Among the remarkable goals for this flight, E. Crowley considers the Lagrange points located near our planet. Recall, Lagrange points (L-points) are such regions of space in which only gravity from two other relatively large objects acts on a certain object of small mass. The main feature of L-points lies in the fact that the object of small mass can be in them for an unlimited time and not move anywhere. Now there are five such points located in the Sun-Earth and Earth-Moon systems. The phenomenon observed in L-points is already being used by scientists. For example, the satellite of the WMAP research program is located at the L1 point since 2001, and the SOHO orbital observatory has been operating at L2 for more than 15 years. Features of Lagrange points allow you to spend less energy and fuel for additional orientation of the spacecraft and, consequently, to extend its service life. According to NASA experts, a large space station can be located at L-points of the Earth-Moon system, which will be used as a transshipment base for flights to the planet’s natural satellite. It is noteworthy that, in addition to the economic benefits of such a base from such a project, there will be a research return. For example, it will be possible to work out the protection of the crew of a spacecraft from solar radiation. In the light of the planned flight to Mars, these studies will be especially useful - cosmonauts on the ISS are protected from harmful radiation by the magnetic field of their home planet. In the interplanetary space, of course, there will be no such protection.

Despite all the economic crises and the like, earthlings, according to Crowley, should go beyond the orbits of the Earth. The NASA employee quite reasonably believes that after all the achievements of the 60's and 70's, the termination of relatively long-distance manned flights was not the most reasonable step. In favor of his opinion E. Crowley gave an interesting argument: almost 700 kilometers from Moscow to St. Petersburg. And from the surface of our home planet to the International Space Station almost two times less - 350-400 km. Could it be worth finally returning to where we haven't been with 40 and over?

This return is unlikely to be easy and this fact is clear now. In addition to financial, etc. questions for the designers of the tools to ensure these expeditions face other challenges. One of the main concerns the power plant of the future ships. Existing chemical rocket engines have good thrust performance and weight and size parameters. At the same time, they have simply indecent fuel consumption for long-distance flights. According to Crowley, the future of cosmonautics is behind nuclear rocket engines. Projects of such power plants began to appear in the 50-s of the last century. Nevertheless, both superpowers could not even bring their nuclear rocket engines to full-fledged tests. In 2010, the relevant decree of the then President of Russia D. Medvedev to the Research and Design Institute of Power Engineering (NIKIET) them. ON. Dollezhal was instructed to resume research on the topic of nuclear rocket engines. It will be a nuclear rocket engine with a high-temperature, gas-cooled fast neutron reactor. Edward Crowley and his colleagues believe that it is this development of Russian scientists and engineers that will be able to give a solid impetus to all earthly cosmonautics.

In general, during the lecture, Crowley repeatedly mentioned the need for cooperation in many countries. Without this, the efficiency of the work will be much lower than desired, and the pace of development of world space exploration will not live up to expectations. The main thing in this business is to act together. That's just for this you need to "check the clock." For example, according to the document "Strategy for the development of space activities up to 2030 of the year", in the coming years, Russia does not intend to prepare a Martian project. So far, the domestic astronautics will develop the orbital grouping of spacecraft, and then prepare the flight to the moon. Just by that time the nuclear rocket engine should be ready. It is possible that after 2030, the largest countries of the world will unite their efforts and together begin to prepare expeditions for the nearest celestial bodies. Although we can not exclude the possibility that the proposals of E. Crowley and many of his colleagues in the industry will be heard by the responsible persons much earlier.

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  1. marline
    marline 23 May 2012 08: 21 New
    MARS will not be allowed, do not hope
    1. vostok-47
      vostok-47 23 May 2012 08: 40 New
      Who will not let ?? Aliens ???
      1. Manager
        Manager 23 May 2012 10: 24 New
        Quote: vostok-47
        Who will not let ?? Aliens ???

        It is foolish to deny the existence of other civilizations.
        1. snek
          snek 23 May 2012 13: 01 New
          Quote: Manager
          It is foolish to deny the existence of other civilizations.

          Do I believe in the existence among many billions of stars of other civilizations - yes. Do I believe that they are now actively acting in the solar system, deciding whom to fly to? No.
          1. Manager
            Manager 23 May 2012 14: 56 New
            Quote: snek
            Do I believe that they are now actively acting in the solar system, deciding whom to fly to? No.

            Maybe they don’t decide. But they don’t allow much!
          2. smile
            smile 23 May 2012 19: 20 New
            Karauuuuul! You, aliens, seem to be minus, actively acting! :))))) +
            1. snek
              snek 23 May 2012 20: 30 New
     has become a stronghold of agents of extraterrestrial civilizations + drinks
              1. smile
                smile 23 May 2012 21: 05 New
                Damn, and here the lodgers leaked ... arctic fox! ..And I always suspected. that some here work for extraterrestrial intelligence services ... do not allow us much here .... I dare to suggest that their intelligence network in our psychiatry is especially ramified ... they are insidious, probably our fighters with alien agents of influence (I almost wrote - infusions) spread rot in a terrible way in psychiatric hospitals .... I’ll go eat something, otherwise I’m afraid of something ... :))))
                1. snek
                  snek 23 May 2012 21: 47 New
                  Quote: smile
                  I’ll go and eat something, otherwise I’m afraid of something ... :)))))

                  Don’t be afraid, comrade! Despite all the efforts of punitive medicine, the resistance of earthlings is strong and its representatives are already preparing plans for how to counter threats from outer space:
                  Quote: Volkhov
                  This year on Mars, a colony of several thousand people, such as an expanded embassy, ​​would make sense to use the effect of the temporary surge of the Ripples 2013, when the Earth disappears by 200 years, and the mission on Mars could observe our interests, prepare equipment and rescue parties by the time Earth's appearance in a new orbit. They will have time for this, but the locals may really not let go because of fear of parasites - we have plenty of them, but it’s kind of clean there, they just bomb, it seems ...
                  1. smile
                    smile 24 May 2012 12: 27 New
                    You reassured me ... now I won’t go ... and after your quote, I obviously don’t eat anything Volkhov at all .... I don’t know - laugh or cry ... meticulously studied his statements on this subject and did not understand - whether I had a sense of humor stolen by evil aliens, or he himself ... alien .... oh, to look at him with just one eye ....
                    1. Volkhov
                      Volkhov 25 May 2012 00: 47 New
                      You know, they look like this ... they often interfere with each other. Would look better for logic.
                      1. smile
                        smile 26 May 2012 19: 20 New
                        Oh, sir .... with logic, you are still not good ..... I personally treat you much better than liberals .... but too much !!!!!!!
    2. wk
      wk 25 May 2012 04: 52 New
      Quote: merlin
      MARS will not be allowed, do not hope

      and in the Middle Ages the Catholic Church did not let people into the sky .... how did it end?
  2. Volkhov
    Volkhov 23 May 2012 08: 43 New
    Does anyone understand why he came?
    Maybe agree on the text of the letter?
    1. 916-th
      916-th 23 May 2012 11: 32 New
      Recently I read Sergei Tarmashev’s novel “Invasion” from the “Ancient” series (a fantastic action movie). It describes a whole galactic civilization-parasite, which, under the slogan of peace, equality and cooperation, was rubbed into confidence in other naive and open civilizations and stole their advanced technologies. Having accumulated the sum of technologies of hundreds of civilizations, they, in the end, enslaved them all.

      This Crowley looks very much like a representative of a parasite civilization, however, like all Anglo-Saxons.

      To whom it is interesting, I give the link:
      1. Volkhov
        Volkhov 23 May 2012 19: 10 New
        This year on Mars, a colony of several thousand people, such as an expanded embassy, ​​would make sense to use the effect of the temporary surge of the Ripples 2013, when the Earth disappears by 200 years, and the mission on Mars could observe our interests, prepare equipment and rescue parties by the time Earth's appearance in a new orbit. They will have time for this, but the locals may really not let go because of fear of parasites - we have plenty of them, but it’s kind of clean there, they just bomb, it seems ...
        1. Passing
          Passing 23 May 2012 20: 18 New
          Quote: Volkhov
          when the earth disappears for 200 years

          How to disappear, where to disappear ?! Is this the official warning of the Galactic Government? You this, that, stop bullying! I'll call the police right now! And anyway, I'm not going anywhere in the next two hundred years, so tell them!
          1. Volkhov
            Volkhov 23 May 2012 21: 35 New
            Do not worry, being on Earth you will not notice this - only strange darkness for no more than 3 days. This is part of the natural process, it has been repeated many times, no one does it on purpose.
            On the contrary, if you were a German at the Lunar Base, you would have problems with supplies during this period - the Earth is gone, how to get beer from the lunar soil?
            But you can live on Mars, warmth, civilization ...
    ANTURAG 23 May 2012 08: 51 New
    Quote: Volkhov
    Does anyone understand why he came?

    nuclear rocket engine smile
    1. Volkhov
      Volkhov 23 May 2012 19: 13 New
      This is a local donkey type Nasruddin donkey - NASA has a bigger budget and no nonsense.
  4. Justme
    Justme 23 May 2012 09: 30 New
    In their nuclear engines, the Americans turned back work in the early 60s, and the solution they used at a homogeneous reactor was recognized by all as unpromising.
    Our bet on heterogeneous reactors and without any noise they were engaged in all the 60s, 70s, 80s. The fact that they were not worked out - this is not true - a lot of poster launches were made.
    According to the stories of those who were in the tests, the kilometer stream of burning hydrogen is quite impressive.
    1. 916-th
      916-th 23 May 2012 11: 11 New
      JustYou, and what did the kilometer-long stream of burning hydrogen in a nuclear reactor do there? request
      1. Justme
        Justme 23 May 2012 15: 12 New
        One of the initial problems was the choice of a suitable working fluid to be thrown out of the engine at maximum speed due to simple high-temperature heating (and then this whole idea would make sense).
        According to physical laws - it must be something that is extremely low molecular weight. Alcohols were considered as such (they did not pass - they decomposed into low molecular weight fractions, but carbon was released, which clogged everything up), Another option was liquid ammonia (some later regretted that this option was refused) Just hydrogen - of course - he and there is the lowest molecular weight and focused on it.
        1. 916-th
          916-th 24 May 2012 06: 20 New
          JustMe: One of the initial problems was the choice of a suitable working fluid to throw it out of the engine at maximum speed due to simple high-temperature heating

          It turns out that the working fluid, hydrogen, was used in the last open loop heating circuit?

          What then should be the reserves of the working fluid and its consumption? How comparable are they with the reserves and consumption of fuel and oxidizer in chemical engines? Not the same eggs, only in profile?

          And the radiation safety of hydrogen combustion products? In space, the question is no longer there. And for example, at the training ground?
          1. Volkhov
            Volkhov 24 May 2012 09: 21 New
            Hydrogen is not activated, but with a jet it removes dust particles from the design of the engine itself - it is quite harmful. In space, the question does not completely disappear - there is a crew in the ship, and a meter-thick casing made of steel and lead, as on a submarine in spacecraft, is impossible by weight. The removal of the reactor on a long rod - half measure. Only the weight of the working fluid is saved in exchange for a bunch of other problems.
            They believed in this nonsense in the 50s, and now it is clear that there is a dead end.
            Reactor power of the order of GW with a volume of 1 cubic meter., I.e. there are highly enriched materials, like in a bomb. If the reactor accelerates to Mars, then what, live next to it for 3 months? How do the Martians themselves know that a radioactive barrel is flying toward them? How long will it fall?
            In general, an obvious feeder for their own without any prospects.
            Normal people - Germans and Martians have normal non-rocket engines, if atomic - then synthesis, without neutron radiation, and our crocodiles from the Academy are 50 years old in tokamak ...
            1. 916-th
              916-th 25 May 2012 06: 51 New
              Volkhov: Normal people - Germans and Martians have normal non-rocket engines, if atomic - then synthesis,

              I don’t know about the Martians - I haven’t contacted them for a long time, about 300 years ago ... And did the Germans succeed in the parallel world? Be there, say hello!
  5. Ascetic
    Ascetic 23 May 2012 10: 45 New
    The USSR had as many as two “Mars” projects, both of which were highly prepared.
    The first carrier for the Martian expedition was proposed by Chelomei. The second, third, and fourth steps of the Martian UR-900 was to become the existing UR-500 Proton. At the first stage, it was planned to install as many as 700 engines instead of six, as in the UR-15, which would make it possible to put a mass of up to 240 tons into the supporting near-earth orbit, sufficient for a Martian ship
    The second Martian carrier was proposed 20 years after the UR-900. NPO Energia has developed a project for the Vulkan super-heavy launch vehicle capable of launching 200 tons of payload into low orbits. The “Volcano” was based on the already flying Energia rocket, in which instead of four side blocks of the first stage (each of which had an RD-170 engine), it was planned to install eight similar blocks slightly increased in length. All the main modules and blocks for the "Volcano" were developed and produced in series.
    In general, all Soviet programs of superheavy launch vehicles could, to one degree or another, be used for flying to Mars if such a task was posed. For example, the Saturn program and the Saturn-5 LV of Chelomey and Glushko
    The rocket was assembled in an upright position right in the Space Center at Cape Canaveral. For this, a huge skyscraper with a height of 160 m was built. The transportation of the assembled rocket to the launch pad was also carried out in an upright position by a special tracked conveyor. At the first stage of Saturn 5, five American F-1 engines were installed, each with a thrust of 695 tons, operating on oxygen and kerosene. Oxygen-hydrogen engines J-2, with a thrust of 92104 600 tons each, stood at the second and third stages (five and one engine, respectively). Note that neither oxygen-kerosene engines for traction over 5 tons, nor powerful oxygen-hydrogen engines at that time were even developed in the USSR. For the first time, Saturn 9 was launched on November 1967, 1969, and in July 5, Saturn XNUMX delivered the first expedition to the moon. In total, several dozen launches of Saturns of various modifications were made, and not one launch ended in disaster.

    The lunar carrier UR-700, which allows to put into payload a payload of 140 tons, was an already completed UR-500, to which was added a new first stage - nine blocks, with one RD-270 engine in each. This unique engine with a thrust of 630 tons was specially developed for the UR-700 by Valentin Glushko. Actually, this is the only complex element that was required to be developed for a new medium. All other components had unified dimensions with the UR-500, which allowed them to be manufactured on existing equipment. There was no reason to doubt that Glushko would have created such an engine: after the cessation of work on the UR-700 he created for Energia the world's most powerful RD170 rocket engine with a thrust of 740 tons!
    “If we had accepted my version ten or twelve years ago,” said Chelomei subsequently, “we would have a medium not inferior to Saturn-5, but with the advantage that the three upper steps are always in serial production, regardless of the lunar program ". Nobody objected to him
    And American engines on our heavy missiles are gone.

    Superheavy rockets could exist only for solving super-tasks, such as manned expeditions to the Moon or Mars. They are unsuitable for solving everyday tasks of mankind. Like mammoths, these rockets became extinct. And now, even with a great desire to establish the production of Saturn-5, N-1 or Energia, it is unrealistic: neither full documentation, nor assembly plants, nor specialists have been preserved. Ironically the only giant carrier that can be reanimated in case of emergency is the UR-700, and remaining on paper. Almost all components for it are still mass-produced at the Plant named after Khrunicheva.
    1. 916-th
      916-th 24 May 2012 06: 44 New
      1) For example, the Saturn program and the Saturn-5 LV Chelomeya and Glushko
      2) And the American engines on our heavy missiles are gone.

      Something you, namesake, here are a little too sophisticated or described. What relation did Chelomei and Glushko have to American carriers? And the American engines on our heavy launch vehicles? Reverse examples are:
      The Energomash Research and Production Association (Khimki), Interfax said, is preparing to sign an agreement in September to supply the United States with a second batch of RD-180 rocket engines. The contract provides for the delivery of 53 such “engines” followed by an option for another 16. And the first batch of 41 engines from the contract fifty to the United States has already been sent. They are used across the ocean on Atlas-3 and Atlas-5 launch vehicles to launch spacecraft into the Earth’s orbits. The first launch of an American rocket with a Russian engine took place in 2002 ...

      Here is the link:
      I would be grateful for the response link clarifying my questions
  6. DavidLinch2012
    DavidLinch2012 23 May 2012 11: 24 New
    Now we are still marking the "telluric" stage of our development.
    We are trying to switch to “solar” - i.e. to master the solar system.
    And we dream about “sideral” - i.e. space exploration.
    The solution of these issues is impossible without the participation of all mankind.
    The participation of all mankind is impossible without changing the "nature of man"
    I recommend that you familiarize yourself with the philosophy of "Russian cosmism" (Fedorov, Berdyaev, Soloviev).
    Can anyone answer why the closer to the end of the 20th century, the less people of such scales of thought as Vernadsky, Roerich, Tsialkovsky, Novitsky and many others were born?
    Where did the writers go, taking with their fantasies many thousands of boys there, to the "black depths of space".
    A. and B. STRUGATSKY !!!!!
    There will be no "reification" without ideas
    1. kefip
      kefip 23 May 2012 23: 33 New
      Good comment
  7. Van
    Van 23 May 2012 11: 53 New
    Quote: ANTURAG
    nuclear rocket engine

    Most likely to tear off some kind of know-how from these Russian savages so that later they would give out as their fellow
  8. skullcap
    skullcap 23 May 2012 12: 07 New
    Something the idea of ​​a joint project with the Americans inspires me with certain fears: it would not have happened, as in the 2 World War, when the Soviet Union brought the main burdens of the war, and the United States received the main benefit from its completion.
  9. Freez
    Freez 23 May 2012 12: 07 New
    Only Americans on Mars were not enough !!!
    1. datur
      datur 23 May 2012 12: 25 New
      Freezdon't be afraid the Chinese there laughing ut earlier !!!! wink
  10. 11Goor11
    11Goor11 23 May 2012 13: 26 New
    They will seriously engage in interplanetary flights when extraterrestrial resource extraction becomes approximately equal in value to terrestrial resources.
    That is, in the near future, if the crisis does not crush everyone.
  11. Grin
    Grin 23 May 2012 14: 25 New
    I have always been pleased with the prices of space flights, here on the news they say, they made a super satellite price of $ 20 million Hurray!
    Built 10 years due to lack of funding.
    Now it turns out that the flight to Mars will cost $ 10 billion and will look for them for 30 years. I don’t understand this. Some Abramovich can build one rocket for himself and fly to Mars, and the whole world will look for 10 billion 30 years, spending 1000 times more on the defense industry per year.
  12. Russian sniper
    Russian sniper 23 May 2012 14: 56 New
    Russia will be the first on Mars! I believe that smile
  13. PabloMsk
    PabloMsk 23 May 2012 15: 02 New
    Quote: Grin
    Now it turns out that the flight to Mars will cost $ 10 billion and will look for them for 30 years. I don’t understand this. Some Abramovich can build one rocket for himself and fly to Mars, and the whole world will look for 10 billion 30 years, spending 1000 times more on the defense industry per year.

    For this, he and Abramovich, so that without looking at anyone else, they would independently spend their personal money.
    And states provide services to the population - they have a completely different task.
    But I have a question - what is really to be done on Mars ?!
    I see no reason in a manned flight there.
    We fly off, land, flags and a couple of some research figulins leave -that's the whole point of the mission.
    No real benefit .....

    It seems to me that if you think about it, you can come up with a more interesting and practical project to come up with.
    1. Manager
      Manager 23 May 2012 15: 20 New
      Quote: PabloMsk
      I see no reason in a manned flight there.

      It will give a lot. for example, technology will greatly advance and you can already think about longer flights. Which will definitely be able to give a lot.
      The question is different. Who will allow us this?
      1. Eugene
        Eugene 23 May 2012 20: 05 New
        What technologies? What are the benefits?
        As far as I know, no valuable resources have been found on Mars.
        1. Cap.Morgan
          Cap.Morgan 8 February 2016 22: 37 New
          It is unlikely that anyone will share such information.
  14. Deniska999
    Deniska999 23 May 2012 17: 25 New
    It seems to me. that you should not spend money on this garbage. No one needs an expedition to Mars. It’s better to spend money on nature protection.
    1. Passing
      Passing 23 May 2012 20: 27 New
      You do not need, but I, and many more, need it. Or vice versa, for example, a talk show like “let them talk” is not something I don’t need, they just infuriate me to brain cramps, decrease it!, But to someone they are instead of the meaning of life. So we will be more tolerant of other people's desires. To each his own!
  15. carver
    carver 23 May 2012 21: 34 New
    Well, they said they flew to the moon! And then it turns out hard solar radiation from which it is still necessary to work out protection methods without which flight is not possible.
  16. Yan005
    Yan005 24 May 2012 02: 30 New
    I read, read, read (article), but it didn’t even come to why the manned flight to Mars is the “Priority task for the space industry” all planet "
    Generally speaking, a speech at Moscow State University was about something else:
    He shared US plans for space exploration and noted that to date, not one of the countries has the strength to independently carry out a manned flight to Mars. Crowley believes that in such projects, the efforts of space agencies in the United States, Russia, Europe and China should be combined.
    “Russian experience in the development of nuclear engines and the creation of rocket engines may be in demand. You can also use the experience of adapting a person to outer space conditions, since only Russian cosmonauts made long flights, ”Crowley said in a speech.
  17. Vanek
    Vanek 24 May 2012 06: 46 New
    We (Earthlings) will not get to another planet (Mars) in the first half of the 21st century. Yes, and the second is unlikely. They will not create such movers. Such a motor should be without "working" parts and mechanisms. The minimum distance from Mars to Earth is 60 million km. the maximum is about 400 million km. An engine with “working” units will not withstand such loads. Piston - immediately recline. Reactive - the blades will not be taken out to work for such a long time. I don’t know others yet. If anyone knows, tell us the principles of his work.

    We (Earthlings) will not get to another planet (Mars) in the first half of the 21st century. Yes, and the second is unlikely.

    If we (earthlings) do not help. But this is a different story.
    1. Volkhov
      Volkhov 24 May 2012 11: 41 New
      USE already been?

      Education works hard not to hit ...
      1. Vanek
        Vanek 24 May 2012 17: 47 New
        Quote: Volkhov
        USE already been?

        I have two educations and I still don’t know the current engine which would work so much time.

        ONE SIDE AT THE MINIMUM DISTANCE AND (even if) THE REVERSE WAY WILL BE AT THE MINIMUM DISTANCE THIS 120 000 000 KM. One Hundred and Twenty MILLION Kilometers! Show me an engine that can cover such a distance. Then ask for the exam. "Mars 500" was an experiment on the relationship of crew members. Show me an engine that, even in the atmosphere of the earth, will work out such a period of time, at such a constant speed, to make a distance of 120 km. without breakage.

        USE already been?
        1. Volkhov
          Volkhov 25 May 2012 00: 35 New
          Seriously, there is practically no friction between Mars and the Earth, and when flying to Mars, the engine (rocket) runs for about 10 minutes (when starting from near-Earth orbit), acceleration occurs, speed picks up and then the spacecraft flies off the engine in a transitional orbit (touching the orbits of the Earth and Mars) of the order of 3 ... 6 months, while the distance covered is several times greater than the straight line (shortest distance), i.e. about 200 million km, but nothing works except radio and SU.
          That is, all types of engines overcome this distance, but not like a bus, but in sleep mode.
          There are other types of propulsors with their own characteristics - ionic, sail, whirlwind, field, but constant work is an exception.

          Previously (in a certain USSR), these basics were known in the 7th ... 8th grade of the secondary school, but perhaps the struggle for the correction of the history and the crowd of "Terminators" intensified something ...
          1. Vanek
            Vanek 25 May 2012 04: 44 New
            I’m not very involved in disputes, I will not argue about this. 7..8 class I had in 96. If you are still sure that it will be possible to overcome such a distance, well, for God's sake. In turn, I'm not sure if foreseeable in the future we (earthlings) will succeed. That's all. I perfectly understand that there is no friction, that there is a vacuum, that acceleration must be given for acceleration, etc. But I’m not sure of the reliability of the means by which We get there.

            I do not like to swear, and let's end our argument with the words of Andrei Makarevich.

            And both came down somewhere
            Under the Taganrog
            Among the endless fields.
            And everyone went
            My dear
            And the train went on its own.

            Regards, Ivan.
            1. carbofo
              carbofo 25 May 2012 12: 20 New
              People are you talking about? Why discuss things for which you have minimal technical knowledge.
              With current technology, the probability of flying one way (to Mars) is too high.
              In order to work out some moments, you need time and resources, and there are difficulties with this.
              If it’s being prepared for about 10 years, then it’s quite possible to fly off, there are technologies in principle, the technology allows you to carry out such even now, but as I said, the risks are too high.
              Ionic engines are already in working prototypes, it remains to be brought to mind and the engine is there, although so far their characteristics are not enough even for distant unmanned vehicles, and for a manned flight they are not yet suitable.
              And then this is a minimum flight for a year, which means that it will be necessary to send there not a close Apollo, but quite a spaceship, more like the Mir in size.
              And as always, everything depends on financing, but even if there is a lot of money, it’s not a fact that this will greatly accelerate the process.
  18. Gonoriy
    Gonoriy 12 March 2015 23: 17 New
    Finally, they broke away from the moon and took up Mars.