Artillery. Large caliber. BR-17, gun 210-mm sample 1939 of the year


In our publications we wrote a lot about the artillery systems that covered themselves with glory on the fields of the Great Patriotic. Systems that some of our readers remember, see, or work with. But there are in our archives copies of such systems, about which few people have heard, and even less of those who saw them "alive."

Today our heroine is the X-NUMX-mm cannon of special power Br-210. The gun, which really did a lot in the defense of Leningrad. The gun, which helped our units break through the fortifications of the Germans in Königsberg.

Few people can boast of "close acquaintance" with this system. This is really a piece of equipment. In total, the Red Army had 9 such systems. Suffice it to say that in the special capacity artillery regiment there were only 2 such guns! Complemented their 6 pieces 152-mm guns Br-2. Total four special power regiment for the whole army!

Thus, the artillery system Br-17 is designed to fight the long-term field and fortifications of the enemy. The importance of developing such tools for the USSR can be expressed in two words - the Stalinist order!

This means that the gun was created in a complete carte blanche for designers and engineers. The general designer could invite any designer from other design bureaus, use the power of any plants, use landfills and test benches of any organizations. KB worked in two shifts. Almost non-stop.

But it meant both. Failure to comply with the Stalinist order meant acquaintance not only with the investigators of the NKVD, but also, quite possibly, with the executioners. This applied not only to the General Designer, but also to the entire team of design offices.

Let's start from afar. We have said more than once that in the middle of the 30s, the command of the Red Army concluded that the weapons that were in service were outdated. Required retooling on modern designs. During the discussion of the issue, it was decided to use foreign experience in designing such systems.

In the summer of 1937, a commission of representatives of the Red Army and military engineers was sent to the Skoda factory in Czechoslovakia to negotiate a new duplex, 210-mm cannon and 305-mm howitzer. The commission also included Professor Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov, who led a whole group of designers of the plant No. XXUMX. It was this plant that was entrusted with organizing the production of duplexes in the Soviet Union.

Ilya Ivanov, Lieutenant-General of Engineering and Technical Services, an outstanding designer of artillery systems. One of the founders of the Soviet artillery large and special power.

Artillery. Large caliber. BR-17, gun 210-mm sample 1939 of the year

Born in 1899 in Bryansk, in the family of a shoemaker. In 1918, he entered the Petrograd military-technical artillery school. During his studies, he went twice to the front. In 1922, he entered the St. Petersburg Artillery Academy. In 1928, a young military engineer was sent to plant number XXUMX. In 7-m is transferred to the plant "Bolshevik" (Obukhov plant).

Since 1932, the head of the department of design of artillery systems in the Artillery Academy named. Dzerzhinsky. At the same time, he heads the same department at the Leningrad Military Mechanical Institute.

In 1937, he was appointed General Designer of the Bolshevik plant. The next two years of life I.I. Ivanova marked the first Order of Lenin. For a significant contribution to the equipment of ground forces and naval forces with new types of weapons. Military engineer Ivanov was engaged in high power systems!

19 March 1939, military engineer of the 1 rank, Professor Ivanov, was appointed Chief Designer of the OKB-221 (special design bureau) of the Stalingrad Barricades factory (Plant No. XXUMX).

But back in our heroine.

The Soviet Commission did not agree with the proposed duplex options for Skoda. The company has refined the design to meet the requirements of the customer. Barrels of guns and howitzers got free liners. The wedge valves were changed to piston ones, the loading became cap type.

According to the X / NUMX D / 7782 contract of April 6 entered into by the People's Commissariat of Foreign Trade with Škoda, the latter undertook to produce for the USSR a 1938-mm cannon and an 210-mm howitzer with a set of ammunition and accessories for the USSR. The date of delivery of the test samples was set 305 December 1.

In addition to prototypes, sets of working drawings and other documentation for the manufacture of these artillery systems were to be transferred. The total cost of the order was 2 375 000 dollars (about 68 million crowns).

In addition, Škoda supplied (according to another contract with the industry) three sets of barrel and forgings for 305-mm howitzers in the first quarter of 1939 and six sets of barrels and forgings for 210-mm guns in the first half of 1939 (according to one set monthly), as well as ready-made tools a month after its introduction into production at the Skoda plant.

The first batch of drawings of barrels with closures and forgings was received from the company Skoda in August 1938.

In principle, the further actions of the USSR are clear. There is documentation, there are samples, there is a license. It remains to begin the release of guns. However, it was not so easy.

At that time, the USSR already had its own way, including in production. We went with this, our own way. The whole world, in a similar situation, changes the production process for a new product. We are changing the product under the existing production process.

The protocol of 15 September 1939, approved by the People's Commissar of Armaments and the head of the AU Red Army, it was decided to make some changes to the company's drawings, including simplifying parts, replace some forgings with casting, reduce bronze consumption, switch to OST and so on.

The main changes of the plant number XXUMX:

1.Starv Skoda consisted of a monoblock, coupling, support ring and liner. The barrel of the plant number 221 consisted of a monoblock barrel, a breech with a sleeve and a liner.

The Skoda liner is cylindrical, and Plant No. 221 is conical with protrusions at the government end. The diametral gap between the liner and the monoblock with the 0,1-0,2 mm is brought to the 0,25 mm (constant). Liner elastic limit increased to 80 kg / mm2.

2. The Škoda firm-trigger mechanism was replaced by the B-4 howitzer trigger mechanism. In addition, the frame was simplified shutter.

3. Made a number of changes in carts. The gun was put on domestic wheels.

By the decree of KO No. 142 dated June 1, 1939, plant No. 221 was supposed to hand over three 1-mm guns and three 1940-mm howitzers to 210 on April 305. Despite the seizure of Czechoslovakia by Germany, deliveries to the USSR continued, albeit with a slight delay on schedule.

Factory tests were conducted in Slovakia in the presence of a Soviet selection committee chaired by I. I. Ivanov. Factory tests of the 210-mm guns were completed on November 20 1939, and 305-mm howitzers - December 22 1939.

Factory test results for the 210-mm gun:

a) The gun is unstable when firing a full charge at elevation angles up to + 20 °.
b) Armament time - 1 hour 45 minutes, and disarmament - 1 hour 20 minutes.
c) The transition time from traveling to combat and back is about two hours.

Plant "Barricades" continued to upgrade the gun. Modernization was carried out even not at the request of manufacturers. Simply replacing one part led to problems with another. Thus, we can talk about a complete modernization of the system. The management of "Barricades" strongly risked independently changing the design of the system. But the winners are not judged. The Stalinist order was executed, it means they won.

The prototype 210 cannon of the Br-17 was presented to the ground testing in August 1940, that is, through the 2 (!) Year after receiving the Czech documentation. The gun had a barrel length 49,60 gauges, the length of the rifled part of the barrel was 37,29 gauges. In the barrel bore 64 were executed, cutting a constant slope. The shutter was a piston with a obturator.

The mass of the barrel with the bolt was 12 640 kg. The barrel is installed in the cradle of the ram type. When fired, he rolled away in the cradle along with the cylinders of the recoil devices - located reconciling the trunk of the hydropneumatic tensioner and mounted on the rollback hydraulic brake shaft.

Machine gun riveted, connected to the rotary part of the base by bolts. Pointing guns in a vertical plane was carried out manually using a lifting mechanism, equipped with two toothed sectors. The guidance was carried out in the range of angles from 0 ° to + 50 °. The system remained stable when firing with elevation angles above 20 °.

The rotary part of the base of the gun Br-17 to facilitate horizontal guidance rested on the balls. Under the action of a rotary mechanism mounted on a machine with a rotary part of the base, the latter rotated on a ball bearing due to the adhesion of the main gear wheel of the rotary mechanism with a gear ring mounted on a fixed part of the base.

A hand-operated rotary mechanism guided the implement in a horizontal plane in the ± 45 ° sector. When transferring the support feet and coulter supports, you can get a circular fire.

The role of the combat pin was performed by the lower support ring attached to the fixed part and covered around the circumference by a shoulder of the upper support ring riveted to the turning part of the base. The fixed part of the base is lowered in the fighting position into the pit in the ground, and the pit is pre-faced with special squares and bars. Both rotary and fixed parts of the base are riveted.

The fixed part of the base had divorcing support beds at all four corners. The ends of the ball screws with ball heels rested on the coulter supports, which are connected to the ground by the driving openers, and on the support heels.

Screws (jacks) at the ends of the support beds of the Br-17 cannon were used to create additional pressure of the cannon on the support feet and the coulter supports with the aim of partially unloading the lower part of the base. Shooting from a cannon was carried out using a sight with an independent line of aiming.

When firing a full charge, the initial velocity of the F-643 projectile was 800 m / s. The firing range reached 30 360 m. 210-mm high-explosive projectile on sandy ground made a funnel 1,5 — 2 m deep and 5-5,5 m in diameter. 210-mm concrete-breaking projectile punched 555-meter, according to standards, with an initial speed of 2,5 m / s, using 358-meter, an meter-breaking concrete projectile, with an initial speed of 60 m / s, penetrated 2-meter, according to standards, with an initial speed of XNUMX m / s, penetrated XNUMX-meter, according to standards, with an initial speed of XNUMX m / s, the XNUMX-meter, 12 meters, was punched by an XHUMX meter with an initial speed of XNUMX m / s. and at the initial speed of XNUMX m / s at an angle XNUMX ° punched a concrete wall with a thickness of XNUMX m.

The loading of the instrument was performed using a special device consisting of the following devices:
a) an inclined rail track, fixed on the swiveling suit of the system;
b) the feed carriage moved along the track by means of a cable and a winch;
c) carts for shells.

The loading process itself was performed as follows. The shell manually dipped on a special shell cart. Then the cart rolls to the top of the track and the projectile is loaded onto the shell carriage. Pulling up the carriage with the projectile up to the breech of the gun is done using a hand winch mounted on a farm carriage.

After the swinging part was brought to the loading position (angle + 8 °) manually by force of 6 — 8 numbers, a projectile was sent using a punch. The charges were brought by hand and also sent by the punch.

The mass of the gun in the combat position was 44 000 kg. When translating the gun from the combat position to the traveling one, it was disassembled into three main parts:

1. The base together with the supporting coulters (wagon No. 1).
2. Machine with a cradle, yoke and wheel chocks (wagon No. XXUMX).
3. Barrel with bolt (wagon No. XXUMX).

For transportation on a hike, the standard volumetric parts of the system (except transported on 3-x vehicles), as well as spare parts, for each gun were attached one three-ton vehicle for transporting the lining of the pit and the demining tool, and four three-ton trailers for transporting the rest of the property. Carriages with parts of the guns and trailers were towed by the Voroshilovets and Komintern tracked tractors, the maximum speed of the carriage was 30 km / h.

It remains to combine the TTX systems in the table:

Caliber, mm - 210
Barrel length, gauges - 49.6
Maximum angle of elevation, degrees - 50
Declination angle, degrees - 0
Angle of horizontal fire, hail - 90
Weight in combat position, kg - 44 000
Mass of high-explosive projectile, kg - 135
Projectile initial velocity, m / s - 800
The longest firing range, m - 30 360
Rate of Fire - 1 shot in 2 minutes
Calculation persons - 20-26

According to the recollections of the soldiers who saw the combat work of these artillery systems, not a single weapon caused such admiration and respect. Power and beauty. There are memories that during the storming of Königsberg such a weapon was installed in 800 (!) Meters from the contact line!

However, in 1945 story This artillery system is not over. Suffice it to say that in 1952, all 210-mm guns of the Br-17 were overhauled at the Barricades factory. 9 guns that went through the war again rose in military service in the Soviet Army.

After the war, the Škoda company developed high-explosive shells of a new generation for guns. But the widespread emergence of rocket technology still sent a cannon to the deserved rest. And in the 60s, they were withdrawn from the military. Part sent to storage, part disposed.

To date, 3 guns, which are on display at museums, have remained in stock:

Br-17 No. 1 - Verkhnyaya Pyshma (UMMC Museum of Military Equipment. Up to 2012, it was located on the territory of the 39 arsenal of the Main Agrarian University in Perm.
Br-17 No. 4 - St. Petersburg (Museum of Artillery).
Br-17 No. 2 - Moscow (Central Museum of the Russian Army).
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  1. -13
    7 September 2018 15: 39
    The most important thing in this text is not the gun itself - but the meeting with the Stalinist executioners. The author of Stalin forgot - cadres decide everything! He appreciated the staff, but not those sitting in the classrooms.
    1. +9
      7 September 2018 15: 52
      You think badly of Stalin! If everything was as you write, the offices in the USSR would be empty! Stalin knew how to understand people, for he, too, was not strange, an ordinary person, with all the features and problems that allowed people to go! And for the article, the authors, as always, are from me +++, and Thank you! !! hi
      1. +7
        7 September 2018 21: 17
        Well, how else can people of a "democratic" orientation think of Stalin?
    2. +7
      8 September 2018 04: 20
      Quote: zenion
      The most important thing in this text is not the gun itself - but the meeting with the Stalinist executioners.

      Nonsense! Speech in the article about the tool! The rest is your speculation from the "organ"! fool
    3. 0
      14 November 2018 11: 04
      You are probably glad that now the cabinets are full and none of the cabinet sitters are doing anything except increasing their own well-being. There were terrible times, under Stalin, officials were forced to work !!!!!!!!
  2. +10
    7 September 2018 15: 43
    Br-17 No. 4 - St. Petersburg (Museum of Artillery).
    Here, in fact, they are:
  3. +6
    7 September 2018 16: 02
    800 meters from the front line? To give a ride, collect, bang .... direct fire? If so - a low bow to the calculation for hellish labor.
    1. +7
      7 September 2018 19: 19
      Quote: kov123
      800 meters from the front line? To give a ride, collect, bang .... direct fire?

      It's not about the tip. The fact is that this gun is stationary, and it cannot accompany the advancing infantry with "wheels". Accordingly, it is necessary to initially provide the maximum "coverage" of the enemy - for which the weapon was put forward almost to the battalion battle formations. Fortunately, by that time everything was already bad with the means of counter-battery warfare.
      As far as I understand, from this position the BR-17 with its 30 km firing range covered the whole of Koenigsberg with its environs (and all forts).
      1. +1
        26 October 2018 17: 37
        To give a ride, collect, bang .... direct fire?

        It's not about the tip. The fact is that this gun is stationary, and it cannot accompany the advancing infantry with "wheels".
        In addition, it could not fire direct fire. The article directly on this indicates that stability is maintained when shooting with an elevation of 20 degrees and above.
  4. -4
    7 September 2018 16: 11
    I never understood the meaning of the construction of such clumsy and super-expensive monsters. It’s easier and cheaper to bomb from an airplane.
    1. +5
      7 September 2018 16: 48
      And what if the facility has reliable air defense? How many bombers will have to be sent to guarantee the destruction of the target? And how many of them are you willing to lose? Will it be cheaper for sure?
      1. -1
        8 September 2018 01: 27
        Air defense systems are always inferior to aviation. Here in Berlin and Hamburg there was a powerful air defense, but this did not stop the Amers from turning Hamburg into ruins, and Soviet aircraft flew quite freely over Berlin.
        1. +4
          8 September 2018 04: 30
          Quote: Kot_Kuzya
          Air defense systems are always inferior to aviation.

          A well-known story with a certain Hanoi bridge ... For a very decent time, American aviation tried to bomb this "strategic" bridge, but the bridge remained intact and the Vietnamese showed the Americans a "jade rod" from it ... Until the Americans used the latest weapon of that time - guided aerial bombs.
        2. +1
          10 September 2018 10: 04
          Yeah, great. During the assault, it is necessary to suppress a powerful bunker, we ask for support, and only after hell knows how many hours (and maybe days), the Pe-8 armada (the USSR had just thousands of these machines) equates this fortification with the ground (if of course they see it from a height of 8-10 thousand meters). Our own losses from this bombardment (and they will be, since our assault troops are in close proximity to the target) are carried out under the article "women are still giving birth."
          Well, we will also turn our own cities with civilians into ruins.
          1. -1
            31 October 2018 12: 58
            SentDo. These are SEPARATORY weapons not for small field purposes, like a bunker, for fortresses with powerful underground structures. For field defensive fortifications there is field artillery even of that 210 mm caliber ... In the article, it is desirable to more describe the facts of the use of these guns, their work ...
    2. +5
      7 September 2018 19: 00
      Königsberg fortresses were famous for the fact that you can’t distinguish them from the air on the roofs of the forest, the pilots could not bomb, it was not visible where to drop the bombs. And bombs Brest Fortress 1000kg bombing bomb did not help much.
    3. +12
      7 September 2018 19: 04
      Quote: Kot_Kuzya
      I never understood the meaning of the construction of such clumsy and super-expensive monsters. It’s easier and cheaper to bomb from an airplane.

      If you have experienced diving crews, concrete bombs with accelerators, a contrasting target and ideal weather conditions - no doubt. smile
      The problem is that the USSR with dive bombers was very bad - the same Pe-2 for the most part were used as high-speed, not dive bombers. Crew training ... suffice it to recall that in the first raid on the Niobe, the dive bombers of the Rakov regiment achieved exactly 0 (zero) hits.
      As for weather conditions and contrasting targets ... in the conditions of the same Berlin, it’s easier to work with OM and BM artillery from stationary positions (their coordinates are known, the coordinates of the target are taken from the map) than to look for a house from a height in smoke from fires, having the navigator has a tablet with a photo card of the whole of Berlin, and before his eyes there are ruins and ruins.
      1. -6
        8 September 2018 01: 26
        You just need to learn from the experience of Amers and carry out carpet bombing followed by a fiery tornado. Then it makes no sense to storm the city and fortress.
        1. 0
          10 September 2018 10: 14
          Quote: Kot_Kuzya
          You just need to learn from the experience of Amers and carry out carpet bombing followed by a fiery tornado.

          Isaev described an attempt to use "fortresses" to ensure the breakthrough of the front. Not only were they covered, but also the "lunar landscape" greatly impeded the actions of its troops.
          Quote: Kot_Kuzya
          Then it makes no sense to storm the city and fortress.

          Bombers will not be able to take the city. A fire storm is not always possible and not everywhere. And just the outskirts of the city with the positions of the troops almost never get into it.
          According to the experience of Stalingrad, destroyed buildings are as good a position as whole buildings.
        2. 0
          14 November 2018 11: 11
          Americans have always sought to genocide any nation, and besides, they never bombed objects with good air defense. Very scared of them. And unprotected, with pleasure. Especially if there are only hospitals and no combat units.
  5. +10
    7 September 2018 16: 33
    At that time, the USSR already had its own way, including in production. We went with this, our own way. The whole world, in a similar situation, changes the production process for a new product. We are changing the product under the existing production process.

    Tell us about this "own way" of the USA. Specifically, the Chrysler company, which, having received license documentation from Bofors in 1941, spent two years trying to adjust the design of the Swedish MZA to the capabilities of American industry. Yes, yes, yes, the most industrialized country changed the product, not the production process, as a result, only the 40 mm caliber remained from the original Swedish gun.
    By the way, the same parsley came out with the American "Oerlikons". smile
    1. +3
      7 September 2018 21: 21
      Was it the same with the German Oerlikons? My interest is not idle: in the fall of 1944 my father received a series of fragments from the German "Oerlikon", not all of them got it, so I buried him in 2004 with this memory of the war.
  6. +12
    8 September 2018 00: 08
    The authors once again copied and pasted material from the Internet, written in the style of "a la Shirokorad" by some sort of "specialist" far from artillery and teeming with all sorts of pearls.
    For example.
    "The Skoda barrel consisted of a monoblock, a coupling, a support ring and a liner. The barrel of plant # 221 consisted of a monoblock barrel, a breech with a sleeve and a liner. "
    He clearly wrote a man who is very far from the idea of ​​the arrangement of artillery barrels. Barrel - a monoblock and a lined barrel - these are different designs of trunks. The monoblock trunk does not have a liner, and the lined trunk does not have any monoblocks. Therefore, full of nonsense is written.
    In fact, any gun with a free liner has four components - the liner itself, the shell, the breech and the bolt. Differences can only be in the details that ensure the fastening of the liner in the shell and the fastening of the shutter to the breech.
    In a word, one can also make an article out of mistakes.
    1. +2
      8 September 2018 18: 12
      I completely agree with you. The level of presentation of a very interesting topic is replete with flaws.
  7. +1
    8 September 2018 14: 20
    The wagons with parts of the gun and trailers were towed by Voroshilovets and Komintern tracked tractors, the maximum transport speed was 30 km / h.

    ... in practice there were nuances,
    ,, from the report on the military activities of 2 popes OM RGC ,,

    2 dads OM RGK led the fighting in the storming of Konigsberg.
  8. The comment was deleted.

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