We will continue the consideration of events in the air defense units on the eve of the war.
RCB of the 1 Air Defense Corps: "22 June 1941 of the year. 0-10. The corps commander, Major General of Artillery, was summoned to the commander of the Moscow air defense zone, Major General Gromadin.
1-40. On the basis of the instructions received in the Military Council, the corps commander, Major General of Artillery, T. Zhuravlev, ordered expand on alert 80% of all parts.
4-30. Upon receipt of data on the violation of the border by German aircraft and the bombing of Brest-Litovsk parts of the 1 air defense corps alarm is declared.
5-00. The corps commander ordered the deployment 100% parts to full combat readiness and occupy FOR [anti-aircraft artillery], ZPL and ZPR OP according to plans.
5-20. The commander of the 24 air division reported that parts of the division are ready to repel the enemy's raid.
8-20. Parts of the corps, on the orders of the corps commander, emerged from the 251 and 329 zap each from Kosterovo camp with three batteries of their own.
9-30. Out of camp Kosterovo from 193 zap - three batteries and two searchlight companies; from 176 zap - seven batteries; from 745 zap - two batteries - the order of the corps commander is carried out.
10-05. Fulfilling an order from the corps commander of the 1, the machine gun regiment marched to Moscow.
17-00. Two battalions of the 1 regiment were informed of their arrival in Moscow.
19-00. According to the reports of the parts on the OP steel: 176 zap - 4 batteries and 1 live battalion; 193 zap - 4 [battery]; 251 zap - 11 [batteries] and 1 [live battalion]; 250 zap - 5 [batteries] and 3 companies of searchlights; 329 zap - 6 batteries and 1 live bat; 745 zap - 3 battery.
Total stands at OP 102 battery and 18 searchlight mouth artillery regiments. The ammunition in the batteries is of medium caliber = 25795 and small caliber = 7000. VNOS posts from 596 according to the deployment plan, 565 = 93% was deployed.
23th of June 1941 Parts of the corps continue to carry out the order to enter the OP.
18-00. Anti-aircraft artillery took, on the basis of the order No. 008 OP 58 batteries 76 / m and 72 batteries 85 m / m, and the total 120 batteries. On the way from the camp Kosterevo there are two batteries. MZA has become on OP completely ...
The 1 th anti-aircraft machine-gun regiment with two battalions — 2 and 3 — began at the OP in Moscow with the 54 OP, and 1 had become on the approaches to Rublevo. Cartridges are provided on 100%.
Searchlight shelves 1 and 14 and also searchlights zap steel on OP.
Balloon barriers have become on the OP: 1-th regiment AZ along the line: Tushino, Arkhangelsk, V. Romashkovo. The 9 th regiment of the AZ in the reduced composition is replenished with hydrogen at the plant No. XXUMX and the finished AZ occupies the following positions: Tushino, Axmolino, Vorobyevsky settlement. VNOS posts turned around completely... »
The first entry in the OBD concerns an order to deploy 80% of the body parts. The indicated number of air defense units being lifted is close to the number given in Tyulenev’s memoirs (75%), which Stalin allegedly called him. However, Stalin had more than an hour left from the Kremlin. The author does not believe in such a sluggishness of transmitting Stalin's orders ... Yes, and Tyulenev is resting at home at this time ... At the same time, the battle alarm of the corps not announcedtimeline not exhibited, documentation in part not sent. Everything is somehow sluggish ... Perhaps the indication of the withdrawal of 80% parts is an indication from an unknown person, as echoes of Directive No. 1. War at that time not waiting yet...
But as soon as information was received about the bombing of cities, then immediately comes the order to declare a combat alarm to parts of the corps. As in the saying: until the rooster pecked, the leadership of NGOs and the General Staff do not believe in the beginning of the 22 war of June ...
We see that in the headquarters of the Air Defense Corps, they are quite leisurely planning to nominate their units to the OP (including the defense of the Kremlin). The first indication of the lifting of the 80% of parts of the 1 Air Defense Corps is received only in 1-40, but the alarm is announced only in 4-30.
The 24th Air Defense Division is ready to repel enemy attacks by 5–20. Even after the announcement of the alarm, the first anti-aircraft batteries begin to advance to the OP only in the morning - at 8-20, and they took up their positions in the evening on 22.6.41. In accordance with the RM, the Germans had a fairly good long-range aviation and therefore it is impossible to say that German planes could not fly to Moscow on June 22, but on the 23rd they could ...
RCB 1 anti-aircraft machine gun regiment (1 Air Defense Corps): "22.6.41 in 6-30 The commander of the regiment, Major Comrade Nakashidze, was summoned to the headquarters of the Noginsk camp, where he received the order: "Air raid".
В 7-00 22.6.41 years alarm alert was announced the regiment, the regiment left the camp. The release of combat vehicles began in 9-40, the last car came out in 10-00. Part of the combat vehicles, 60%, was mothballed in Khimki.
The regiment was assigned a combat task: 2 battalions defend the Kremlin and one battalion - the Rublevsky and Cherepkovsky pumping stations ... The regiment occupied the OP and was completely ready to open fire in 23-00 22 June 1941 year... "
Even for the defense of a particularly important object (the Kremlin), the machine gun units and the MPA left the camp after 7-00 22.6.41. They do not expect an air attack on Moscow, they do not wait ... And this is strange, because Directive No. 1 has already been sent to Western HE. But everything falls into place if only a few provocations are waiting, not war. Even if the war begins, it is not dangerous, because at the initial stage of the war, the fighting will take place slowly ...
RCB 1 anti-aircraft searchlight shelf (1 Air Defense Corps): "22.6.41 V 5-15 regiment declared 1 command of the air defense corps combat alarm. The gathering of the command and commanding staff to the regiment headquarters was organized. In 6-08, basically the entire command and commanding composition was assembled.
В 5-40 an order was received to mobilize the regiment according to the state of wartime with the call of the entire conscription on the agenda of the BEAD using the material part, weapons, fuel and other property NZ.
In 5-05, at a meeting of the commanding and commanding personnel, military order No. 001 from 22.6.41 was given. “... The corps command issued a military order. The units of the regiment of the state of wartime to take order in the area behind the zone according to the previously developed operational scheme. The combat readiness of all 21-00 means, the time of departure for the occupation of the combat order from the winter apartments 14-00 ... In the 19-30, the battalion commanders received combat reports on the engagement of order... »
We can say that the air defense in the center is managed quickly: already in 5-40, an order to raise the conscript composition comes to the air defense regiment.
F.I. Meshchanov: "I got into the 1-th searchlight regiment. When the war began, I went to the regimental headquarters, they gave me an envelope, it says everything - position number, location. They gave people a searchlight and we took up fighting positions in the south of Moscow. I was the head of the floodlight station... "
M.A. Popov (1 searchlight regiment): "On the night of June 22, the alarm regiment was ordered to go to combat positions in the defense and defense of the capital ... I was called to the regimental headquarters, ordered to notify the projectors of the projectors to come to the service regiment... "
Postcards 9 airborne balloons (1 Air Defense Corps): "22.6.41. Moving the regiment from the camp near Zvenigorod to winter apartments in Krylatskoe. Start mobilization.
23 June. The 9 regiment AZ turned around and organized cash barriers in the area: ... 2) 1 Division (Art. Kutepov) - zone No. XXUMX, over the Kremlin... »
Of stories 176 Zenap (1 Air Defense Corps): "By the beginning of hostilities, the regiment as part of 13 medium-caliber batteries, the MPA division and the regimental school was in camps. The 12 batteries and the floodlight battalion were in the security sector ...
22.6.41 in the 5-00 regiment was declared a combat alarm. Subunits of the regiment were tasked: immediately concentrate in Moscow, take order in their sector and begin to perform the combat task of defending the capital - Moscow... »
From the history 1 Division 176 Zenap: "Combat alarm for divisions of the 176-th Zenap was given in 4-50 22.6.41. In the 1-division, by this time they were on their OP 2-i and 3-i batteries. The 1-i, 4-i and 5-i batteries were in lag. Kosterovo and should have arrived in the shortest possible time and occupied the OP air defense system in the city of Moscow. 18-00 22.6.41 1-I, 4-I and 5-I batteries, which arrived marching order, turned according to the order of battle and occupied the OP... »
RCB 3 Division 193 zenap: "22.6.41. In 5. The division's order was given to the division in the mornings and to be prepared for opening fire to 10-00. All batteries of the division in 10-00 were ready to open fire with the exception of the 13 battery, which by then was in camp. On the same day, the assigned structure began to arrive, and in the evening 80% of the assigned composition arrived... »
RCB 4 Division 251 zenap: "22.6.41. 4-47 The combat alert of the division has been announced. Do not pass through the sector division of enemy aircraft... "
From the history 745 Zenap: "By the beginning of the war, the regiment was in the Kosterev camp, after a mobilization was announced, it was redeployed to the southeastern air defense sector of the capital ... In the first days of the war 745 zenap turned to wartime states and, according to the organizational deployment scheme, selected 160 from its structure... »
In 176, Zenap slightly less than half of the funds were on OP. We remember that 12 battery personnel could not sit for weeks with their guns around the clock, i.e. the battery on duty alternated with each other. For the rest of the divisions and regiments there is no clarity: how many of them were on the OP and in the camps. According to the author, they were on the OP about 1 / 3.
RCB 6 IAK Air Defense: "22.6.41. Parts of the 6 AK Air Defense of Moscow on the combat alarm occupied their original position on the field hospital. Aerodromes for combat duty on the distant approaches of the Moscow air defense zone to cover the city of Moscow and the objects of its zone... "
Fighter aircraft to cover the sky of the capital began to occupy the starting position only 22 June.
RCB 732 zenap (MWO): "17 June, 1941, the first division as part of 2's batteries, went to the camp in Kosterovo to organize the organization of firing. 22 June 1941 of the year in 3-00 the first division was alerted and ordered to leave the camp. At the loading station Kosterovo, the division learns that German fascism attacked our homeland... »
RCB 14 st (MBO): "22.6.41. After the speech of the People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs of t.Molotov and receiving a telegram on mobilization, the division commander Colonel Vasilyev ordered the division to be concentrated in the area of winter apartments (Narofominsk). From 16-00, units began to move from camps to winter apartments to areas according to mobilization plans.... »
FSD 133 air defense batteries (ORVO): "From the outbreak of hostilities (22.6.41) to 27.6.41, the battery occupied the OP at Karachev station with the task of protecting the 29 warehouse... »
The presented materials do not contradict the VBD of the 1 air defense corps. The raising of the alarm and the withdrawal of air defense units from the camps began only after the start of the war. On June 21 no one in the Moscow air defense zone prepares for war. The amount of anti-aircraft weapons on the OD was on average about 1 / 3, which corresponded to OG No. 3.
Consider which areas in the 1 air defense corps were considered threatened: “Extract from the combat order No. XXUMX, the air defense 008 Moscow 1.
Entered into force by special order on the deployment of air defense systems or by announcing the mobilization of spacecraft.
«1. The Moscow air defense corps is threatened with an air attack from western and northwest state borders...
3. The corps with the operational subordinate 24 and 78 and air defense must be defended from the area of attack: Pereslavl Zaleski - Kashin (claim) Torzhok (claim) Sychevka - Borodino - Maloyaroslavets - Serpukhov (claim) Lukhovtsy - Yuryev - Polish Pereslavl-Zaleski. The main task of the district's air defense is to defend Moscow. ... The combat formations of the artillery units should be deployed according to the scheme - Appendix No. XXUMX, the searchlight means - according to the scheme of Annex No. XXUMX, machine-gun means - according to the schemes - Annex No. XXUMX.
8. The interaction of air defense systems according to the plan (Annex No. XXUMX). The boundary height for the validity of the AI and FOR 8 meters.
9. Terms of readiness, according to the table - Appendix №9 ... Commander of the 1 Air Defense Corps, Major General of Artillery Zhuravlev NSH 1 Air Defense Corps, Lieutenant Colonel Girshovich... ”On June 18, the direction from the northwest state border, from the LVO, is a threatened direction.
Only after a declaration of war from the headquarters of the 1 Air Defense Corps documents are sent to subordinate units, which should be followed in wartime:
«745 Commander Zenap. An extract from the Shtakor Battle Order No. 008 on 2 sheets is transmitted. Instructions to the commander of the battery on 12 sheets. Instructions to the division commander on 15 sheets. The reference planning table is the interaction of IA and FOR at nighttime on 1 sheets. Instructions for floodlight units and units to ensure nighttime operations FOR 2 Foxes. Scheme of obstructed. Corps commander ordered: to obtain the listed documents put them into action immediately... "
The presented document is an analogue of the “Plans ...” within the air defense corps. The fact that he has the date 18.6.41 has nothing to do with the fact that the CA leadership was waiting for the 22.6.41 war. You, of course, know that the developed “Cover Plans ...” of individual districts on the eve of the war were sent to Moscow for approval.
On the first day of the war, an order was declared deputy. the chairman of the executive committee - the head of the Moscow anti-aircraft defense department S.F. Frolov, who said: “In connection with the threat of an air attack on the city, I declare in Moscow and the Moscow Region 13 hour 22 June 1941 Mr. threatened position". Thus, 21 June and on the night of June 22 events in accordance with the "Instruction on the interaction and the relationship between the bodies ..." not conducted.
The offices of the NKGB and the NKVD in Moscow and the Moscow region to 7 In the morning of 22, June 1941 was developed a “Plan of agent-operational activities ...”, which identified measures to ensure the state security of the capital and the region, including through the MUP. To 18 watches 22.6.41 all the headquarters of the mvmo cities received instructions on the introduction of "Threatened position", Blackout and on the transfer of local teams MUPO to the barracks position.
From the presented materials it can be concluded that at dawn 22.6.41 the party-military leadership of the country did not fear the raids of German aircraft on the capital and other cities.
But what about the situation in the city of Leningrad? After all, near the German-Finnish troops, which have aircraft and there are also waiting for provocative actions (or alleged war) 22 June. Only for 20-00 22.6.41 RU GSH specifies that the mobilization of the Finnish troops has not yet happened. The LVO is the first in the list of HEs to whom Directive No. XXUMX is addressed. We have seen above that, within the framework of the capital’s air defense, the direction from Leningrad is threatened by an air attack.
Leningrad covered the 2 th air defense corps. The OBD of the 2 Air Defense Corps is maintained from the 1939 of the year. The last journal entry before 22.6.41 has a date of 10.4.40.
RCB 2 Air Defense Corps: "22.6.41. 2-10. Pom.combat troops LVO Major General Artillery Kryukov ordered: Everyone to be in the field. Act on alarm number XXUMX.
2-10 - 2-50. Parts of the body alarm # XXNX has been declared.
3-15 - 6-05. Enemy aircraft in small groups 1-5 itself. made reconnaissance flights from the direction of Vyborg. Battery 115 zap fired 1. I.A. [fighter aircraft] patrolling over a point in established zones ...
14-00. The corps commander informed the Gorkom VKP (b) about the need to increase the production and supply of hydrogen to the corps from the plant.... [for filling barrage balloons].
24.6.41 A.Z. [barrage balloons] went up from 24-00 23.6 to 8-00 24.6 H = 2000 m ...»
RCB 65 OZAD: "22.6.41. Division as part of 3-x batteries in connection with the German attack, by order of the 2 air defense corps of the Military Military District turned into battle order and became an air cover... »
OBD 73 about VNOS: "22.6.41 AT 7-00 a telegram was received about the rise of the battalion VNOS posts ... The companies went out ... to places of deployment... »
We see that the NP VNOS, air defense units are not deployed in the LVO. Consequently, they were in readiness levels №3 or №4. Barrier balloons are prepared for lifting only to 24.6.41. In the CCD there is a single shot of an anti-aircraft artillery battery of the 115-zenap against enemy planes. 115 zenap was stationed in the area of Lisiy Nos and its batteries on duty were at the OP and could quickly open fire on enemy aircraft.
RCB 30 OZAD: "22.06.41 to 4-00. Germany, without declaring war, treacherously attacked the Soviet Union ... 17-15. Mobilization telegram received from local liaison office... »
В at three in the morning A.A. Kuznetsov, who replaced the 1-th secretary of the Leningrad city committee A.A. Zhdanova, gathered workers of the city committee and district committees and read them the Directive. By 6 in the morning (only after the beginning of the war) self-defense groups, teams of enterprises and part of the formations of the MUP. are on alert.
G.A. Veshchesky: "In the tenth of June, the district troops began to be brought into immediate combat readiness. I ... was instructed, within three days, to return the anti-aircraft, machine-gun and artillery units to the division, which had special shooting on the shore of Lake Ladoga. The anti-aircraft artillery division was hastily withdrawn from the district assembly and began to take up its positions near Leningrad. Artillery, concentrated for firing on the Strugirsky and Luga ranges, also returned to their divisions.... "
In the memoirs of the veteran it is said that in some units the LVO in the tenth of June began to withdraw anti-aircraft artillery from the camps. Earlier than this was done in PribOVO. However, the following two documents indicate that the district’s air defense units as of 22 June did exist in the camps.
Telephone message №2 8-00 22.6.41: "By order of pom. com the troops all means of anti-aircraft defense which are in the camps immediately call and upon arrival put in their places. About the readiness to inform the chief of Kotlas to 12-00 22 23 and June s / g Transmitted by the district brigade commander... »
RCB 213 OZAD RGC: "22.6.41. On the day when the Soviet government declared martial law in the country, due to the fact that German aviation in 4-00 bombed our cities and airfields. On this day, the 1-i and 3-i battalion batteries were in the camp Upper Nikulasy on the performance of live firing. The division expects the arrival of materiel and transport to travel to the state border to engage in defense ...
23.6.41. preparing vehicles for the trip. 4-00 1-i and 3-i batteries arrived in the division... »
I.A. Shalov: "23.2.41 ... we took the military oath ... And a few days after that, the life of our battery ... changed: it received the task to change the standby battery, which was at the OP in 2-3 kilometers from the border with Finland ... By OP in the area of the village of Bolshaya Polyana, we continued to be on duty until the end of May 1941-th. And then went to combat training shooting ...
21 June, we had a park day: we cleaned the equipment, washed the gun barrels ... 22 June 1941 of the year ... Usual sunny Sunday! After breakfast, a sports festival began in our unit ... In the middle of the game, Lieutenant Kucher approached the site and immediately called our battery commander ... "Volodya! - for all seriously spoke Kucher. - I just got off the station. The fascists attacked us. This is a war! ”Frankly speaking, we did not attach serious meaning to the word“ war ”... "
RCB 21 OZAD (21 td 10 mk): "22-26.06.41. Formation of the division. Preparation of one of the batteries of the division to be sent to the front with 21 td... »
I.P. Shamyakin: "They called me to the SV in the fall of 1940 of the year ... We got into 33 back. It consisted of three batteries 76-mm guns, machine-gun and searchlight mouth ... Headquarters located in Kohl. There was also one of the batteries - the second. The first battery took up positions in Murmashi, covering the airfield and the Tuloma hydroelectric station. My third battery was stationed in Murmansk, guarding the port. In the neighborhood was one of the anti-aircraft batteries SF ...
The service on the training battery was heavy. Almost every night combat alarms: after the signal, it was required to run out of the dugouts in two minutes and bring the instruments and equipment to alert. And in the afternoon on 12 hours of occupation: the theory of firing, device PUAZO, range finder, guns, personal weapons, physical and drill. We were engaged a lot, but with all this, given the subsequent experience of the war, I think that they taught us badly ... During the 8 months of study, they only fired sausage with live shells and, by the way, did not get ...
The second time we shot 18 June 1941 of the year - on the plane of the Soviet design and with our identification marks. Within two days, this plane appeared several times over Murmansk and Murmashi, without giving the signal “I am my own”. Apparently, it was not easy for our commanders to decide that a disguised enemy was above us, a German or Finnish intelligence agent. And, nevertheless, they decided to open fire. The plane, unfortunately, we did not shoot down, but more he did not appear. All calmed down: with Germany, the nonaggression pact! ..
I never cease to wonder why our division, which covered such important objects, June 22 morning was not alarmed. On this tragic Sunday, the anti-aircraft gunners slept after breakfast, put themselves in order, wrote letters. On the beginning of the war with Germany, we, like the entire population of the country, learned from the speech of V.M. Molotov on the radio ... The batterymen had to clean the uncovered devices and tools for a long time. By strict statutory rules, rust even on the “paws” of the guns was considered an emergency ...
The fascists launched the first raid on the airfield in Murmash on the night of June 24. The word "night" must be understood relatively, for the sun was shining. The raid was massive, attacked at least a dozen two "Junkers-88", "Heinkel-111" and "Messerschmitt-109". They bombed the airfield mercilessly, with many visits. Quite a few of our fighters burned down on the ground, a warehouse of fuel exploded. The helplessness of our aircraft in air combat, as well as our inability to fire... made an oppressive impression... "
I.G. Foreigners: "On the night of June 22 1941, the Military Council of the Leningrad Military District received a telegram from the Commissar of Defense ... with a warning about a possible attack by the German fascist troops on our country. The People's Commissar demanded to bring the troops into full combat readiness and not to succumb to provocations that could cause major complications. The air force ordered before dawn on 22 June to disperse all aircraft, including military airplanes, into field airfields, to disguise it carefully. [Before the arrival of Directive No. XXUMX, LVO aviation was not distributed.]
The Commander of the Air Force of the Military District of Latvia, Major General of Aviation A.A. Novikov, who was summoned to the district headquarters at night, ordered the commanders of air formations and units to declare alarm and prepare for military actions. Sirens screamed in the aviation garrisons and camps. Everything has come into motion. Pilots and technicians rushed to the airfields. In IAP, one squadron was assigned for duty, bomber bombers were prepared for striking the enemy. After 1-2 hours, the commanders of the air regiments and divisions reported on their readiness for combat sortie. Few knew what caused the alarm. I wanted to think that this is a common teaching, which in the summer of 1941 was quite a lot. But the general international situation involuntarily suggested a war. “Has it really begun?” Everyone thought. And the war was on... »
RCB 2 of the regiment VNOS: "20-00 24.6.41. The regiment is mobilized, it has: RP - 16, NP - 263, H-19 deployed according to the scheme approved by the Military Council of the LVO... "
From the submissions it follows that the air defense units in the LVO began preparing for war only after it began. In accordance with the presented materials, it can be said that the air defense units of the military air defense system could only be located in the gas station No. XXUMX or No. XXUMX. The exceptions were the air defense units of the Federation Council.
KOVO. Report on the combat activities of the VNOS of the Ostersky air defense brigade area: “22 VNOS [located in the zone of responsibility of the 5 Army]. At the time of the outbreak of hostilities the whole system of the battalion was raised and served in a reduced calculation. Private and ml.nachsostav was quite prepared for service. The registration of the 45 passed daily fees. All RP and NP were provided with material and weapons in peacetime states. From the first day of the war, the entire battalion system went over to the service of full combat crews ... Radio communication was used between the RP and the BP in the event of a telephone failure...
[NP 22 on rises after the start of the war, i.e. he was not in exhaust number xnumx.]
29 about VNOS. Before the outbreak of hostilities, the whole system of the battalion was raised, 4 people were collected at each NP. of the subscription, which were called 20.6.41g. and the head of the NP of the frame.
Of the recruited conscription, for combat service there were 50% trained and 50% not trained. The staff was prepared to perform the combat mission.... "
29-th in accordance with the document was deployed before the start of the war and provided with a subscription composition. Within one air defense brigade area, one battalion is raised, and the other is not. There is no uniformity: it cannot be said that this region raised a part of the SPEC in order to prepare for the war on the morning of June 22. It could have been planned exercises or someone’s initiative, but not a team from Moscow or from the district to bring the air defense units to combat readiness.
618-th separate communication battalion (4-Air Defense Division, Lviv) was alerted at five o'clock in the morning 22.6.41, and began to perform combat missions.
4-th regiment VNOS (3-Air Defense Division, Kiev) began the deployment of 22.6.41 after receiving an order from the commander-in-chief for air defense, Major General A.I. Danilov.
RCB 286 OZAD: "June 22 1941 of the year. In 4-30, a telephone message was received from the main post of VNOS 29 on VNOS: "German aircraft violated the Soviet border." In 2 minutes, the 2 telephone message was received from the same post: "Vladimir-Volyn is being shelled by artillery from Germany."
The 3 telephone message in 4-37 was received from the same post: “A group of German U-88 aircraft is heading to Lutsk” “Lutsk is burning”, etc.
В 4-40 division given combat alarm. TO 5-30 Division firepower was are on alert... »
In the area of responsibility of 29 about the VNOS, fully deployed before the outbreak of war, 286 is located, which, after declaring an alarm only to 5-30, brings the firepower of the division to combat readiness: through 50 minutes after receiving an order for combat alarm. With such standards, 286 Ambush could not be located in OG No. 2 ...
From the history Xnumzad: "The 22.6.41 division followed to the city of Chernivtsi from the Lviv special camp and along the route (Stanislav) learned about the treacherous attack of Hitler's Germany on our homeland. Upon arrival in the city of Chernovtsy, the dr received the task of air defense of the city and the railway station... »
RCB 57 OZAD RGC: "22.6.41, the Division was assigned the task of defending the military warehouse №63 and railway. station Nezhin Occupied battle order - 1-I battery and machine gun company in 7-30 22.6.41. The 2-I battery arrived from the camps of Oster, occupied the OP in +19(45)24.6.41...
RCB 141 OZAD: "22.6.41 6-00.The division being in the 3 division of the air defense covers the railway and highway bridge across the Dnieper River and the city of Cherkasy, took combat order according to the combat order for division No. XXUMX and the attached order of battle order... »
BJD 79 OSAD (81 md 4 micron): "The division took the order of battle 21.6.41g. in 23-00 on the protection of the Yanovsky camps ...
The battle path of the battery is 76-mm. 22.6.41 covering the air from the camp, the location of the 81 units md from the air, opened fire on enemy aircraft... "
81 md on the night of 21.06.41 left its summer camp and 79 was also called from the Yanovsky camps. Conclusion 81 md from the camps on the eve of the war, we considered in the previous parts and again we will not discuss this issue.
Excerpt from the RCB 126 ozad RGC: "22.6.41 The division with one battery was fired at the Yavorsky camps in the Lviv region, and one battery was in the city of Tarnopol. After the treacherous attack of the Nazi Germany on the Soviet Union battery and the whole camp, a combat alarm was declared ... By the end of the 18-00 battery with other divisions of the division, it was ordered to return to the winter apartments in the city of Tarnopol to cover the city and military facilities... "
In Yanovsky camps is 126 Ozad, as well as 79 Ozad. However, 126 Ambush before the start of the war on alert is not given.
IN AND. Yanovsky: "My father, the senior battalion commissioner I.A. Yanovsky, Commissioner 183 zenap. The regiment was part of the 3 division of the air defense division and, together with other units, provided Kiev air defense ... 21 June 1941, the regiment ended with an inspection check of military and political training, and the father was about to go on holiday to the Crimea. However, on the night of June 22 we were woken up by a phone call - the father was immediately called into the unit. He quickly got ready, and on the car that arrived behind him, he left for the regiment's command post, who was in the suburb of Svyatoshino ... After my father left the house, we barely slept, waited for the call. Finally, he called and told us to be ready for the worst. Already by three o'clock in the night of 22 June, all parts of the Kiev air defense were brought on alert. 183 Zenap entered the battle at dawn 22 June 1941... ”In the 183 th zenap of the 3 air defense division, by the end of the day of 21 June, the war is not expected, and bringing it to combat readiness is an echo of Directive No. XXUMX.
Xnumzad (39 td 16 mk) 22.6.41 marched from Chernivtsi to Voloka, Lukovitsa and did not expect a war.
19 VNOS (Lviv Air Defense Division) raises an alarm on the night of June 22 1941.
I.E. Baryshpolts (commander of the battery 509 zenap, 4 air defense division, Lviv): "In my commanding 3-30 ... In the nearest hawthorn bushes under camouflage nets our anti-aircraft guns are in combat positions - 85-mm guns. We have just received a new PUAZO-3 anti-aircraft gun fire control device and are very proud that our battery was one of the first in the regiment that successfully mastered it.
“Stop! Who is coming? .. ”- the call of the sentry comes to me. Having called the password, I pass to the position. “Comrade Lieutenant! The first gun in readiness number one. Calculation in the shelter ", - the commander of the weapon sergeant Kuznetsov reports on the whole form... [One weapon in readiness №1 from the whole battery.]
“Raise Lieutenant Bocharov! Tell me that the battalion commander is alarming! ”“ I obey - call the platoon commander, Lieutenant Bocharov! ”- the sergeant rushed into the trench, to the phone ...
The battle crew silently took their places when they heard the arrival of the senior commander. For the fifth day, as the anti-aircraft gunners are on duty for the protection of the object - the city of Lviv, replacing the battery Lieutenant Mironenko in positions ...
Arrived Lt. Bocharov. He reported on the form, but came closer and barely audibly added: "Comrade Lieutenant, the 4 battery has been declared a combat alarm by order of the regiment commander." He looked at his watch: four in the morning, five minutes to five. I did not have time to respond to him, as the howler gave a harsh voice. Quickly I jumped into the trench to the telephone operator, who was already pushing me the phone, and immediately heard the baritone of Major Kozhevnikov - the division commander: “Battle alarm! A battery to open fire on German aircraft - violators of the border! .. "
Ran on battery gearbox ... Everything is already in place on a combat schedule. Loudly, at the top of my voice, I give the command: “Battery, to battle!” In response, I hear reports from the commanders of the firing platoons - and then I give target designation. Everything is like on the test site last week, and everything is not so. Together with the approaching aircraft, with the roar of the shots of the already firing batteries of our regiment, the voltage increases. I do not remember how quickly, when, at which moment I ordered: “Fire! ..”
And the German planes go and go. Their height is more than two thousand meters. Around them - above and below - a continuous cloud of explosions of our shells. But the formation of the aircraft slowly turns into a steep dive. The roar of explosions shook the earth. Some people are confusedly looking in the direction of goals and, probably, do not see anything except smoke and fiery flashes ...
And the long-barreled eighty-fives beat and beat the fascist vultures ...
Taking advantage of the respite, everything, from the commanders of platoons and guns to loaders and carriers, jumped out of hiding places, battle posts, observation points. Together with them, I run to the shot down German plane ... At six o'clock in the morning... »
From the above fragment of the memoirs it is impossible to conclude that the 509 zenap is located in the FG No. 2. In the battery one duty weapon. Unknown number of duty batteries in the regiment.
From the history 122 ot Zen bullets company: "With 22.6 on 25.7.41, the company covered the railway. bridge h / z river. South Bug s.Gubnik... »
Special message 3 of the 1.7.41 NGO Management: "Despite the signals about the real possibility of an enemy attack, individual commanders of units of the South-Western Front failed to quickly repel the enemy attack ... the air defense was poorly organized. Anti-aircraft artillery of five air defense brigades of the front and rear, consisting of 37-mm and 85-mm anti-aircraft guns, did not have shells for them ... Anti-aircraft artillery 18 zenap of the 12 army, guarding the city of Stanislav from enemy air raids, did not have 37 -mm shells... "
The author failed to find any mention of the introduction of blackout or blackout in cities or garrisons in Ukraine. We see that there are no materials confirming the transfer of KOVO air defense units to FG No. 2 as of 21 June 1941. From the presented materials it can be concluded that they could only be in the FG No. XXUMX or No. XXUMX.
SOBOVO. RCB 622 OZAD: "22.6.41 The division took the OP on the defense of the military 40 Voenbazy. The composition of the division is two four-gun batteries, 8 stan. Machine guns ..., two searchlights... »
TS Burov: "With 23.6.41, I got another vacation, and I wanted to leave on Sunday, 22-th ... Exactly at four in the morning I, the battery commander, was alarmed and summoned to 36 headquarters ... with an order to urgently arrive in the Brest region. When he arrived at headquarters, almost all the commanders had already gathered there. My commander, Captain Puito, announced that fascist Germany had treacherously violated the USSR border. This is a war ... The battery had almost no projectiles. In order to successfully fight, we needed to have 2,5 BK, and we only had 0,5... "
A.U. Bekirov: "I came to Belarus in the direction of Vitebsk, where I began serving in 313 district of subordination ... After a few months, we had to go to Belarusian forests for an exercise ... But suddenly we are told that we will not go to the exercises, because must occupy the defense of Vitebsk. We ordered us to take the OP near military airfields, make pits for vehicles, install searchlights, dig trenches for ourselves, and we prepared several such positions: near the airfield, at the railway station, at the military unit ... Early in the morning of June 22 in 4-00 they built us in alarm and declare that fascist Germany attacked our country ... We went to the position to protect the airfield... "
N.N. Osintsev (NSH of the 188 division, zenap of the 7 of the air defense brigade): “From the 3 of the first number I began to be engaged in the formation of this division: to receive personnel, materiel, ammunition ... We did not have time ... to finish this formation, as the 22 of June began the war. The war, of course, did not come as a complete surprise to us. After all, we all, while we served until that time, were in semi-combat such readiness... In the summer of the 1941 of the year, at its very beginning, we stood at the OP around Minsk and partially went to the firing range. It happens, we will go, we will carry out the shooting, then we will arrive in Minsk and there we will again take up the position. So at the barracks at that time, we almost did not live: so it was spinning all the time.
By the time it was in May 1941, our 188 zenap ... was considered such a solid part. After all, it consisted of five divisions, and this - 60 pieces of guns. The guns, as I said, were originally 37 and 76-mm. But then, just before the war, we began to receive new guns - 85-mm. In addition, each battery, which already had its four guns, then began to receive an additional four guns. Meanwhile, the transport for the movement of the material part was not enough even to transport the main part of it to the right place. We should have received it only in the case of mobilization. 20 of the first ... all of us who remained in the town were alarmed. We then occupied the OP around Minsk. And on the 22 of the first day of the morning, 4 heard the sounds: boom-boom-boom-boom. It turned out that this German aviation unexpectedly flew into our airfields.... "
The 20 number went to the OP - this is two days later the anti-aircraft artillery units of PribOVO. Borrowing an OP is not the introduction of Regulation No. XXUMX. This may be Position No. 2.
History of 7 Dep. Air Defense Brigade: "NGOs by order of Minsk Brigadier District Air Defense was established in April 1941 years with paragraphs Minsk, Molodechno, Bobruisk, Borisov, the Berezina, Svisloch, columns, which included parts: Minsk - 188 zenap (1, 2, 3, 5 divisions), 5 VNOS regiment, 191 separate battalion battalion, 30 omzad, 17 odoz, 5 ORS; Molodechno - 209; Bobruisk - 174; Borisov - 4 division 188 zenap, 85; Berezina - 108; Svisloch - 51; Columns - 111 vozr.
Before 22.6.41, units were engaged in combat training, repeatedly firing in camps. All military training in the camps took place in accordance with the instructions of the People's Commissar of Defense ...
21.6.41 air defense point Minsk began exercises. 22.6.41 in 4-15 posts of the 5 regiment VNOS reported that the planes of Nazi Germany began to bomb the peaceful cities of our Motherland: Grodno, Bialystok, Brest-Litovsk, etc ...
Parts of the Minsk garrison brigade involved in the exercise were ordered to have warheads at all the firing points and turn around on the second positionIe in the frame of peacetime. The units located in the Krupki camp, take order of battle, according to the operational plans for air defense points... "
In accordance with the document, in the Minsk region of the air defense, under the guise of exercises, OG No. 2 was introduced. At the same time, there is a mention that the air defense of Minsk 22 June was carried out by eight anti-aircraft batteries of two-guns. It turns out that at the OP of the 7 Brigade of the Air Defense Forces there were only 16 anti-aircraft guns out of the 60 available - this is less than 30% of anti-aircraft weapons. The remaining funds were at the site. If there were these eight two-gun batteries in exhaust number xnumx (according to temporary standards for opening fire), this does not mean that the whole brigade was located in output number xnumx. Most of the brigade was in the camps. In total, over the entire 2 Brigade of Air Defense, operational readiness could not be higher than No. 2.
The Bialystok brigade area was covered by the 4 th air defense brigade. The actions of the brigade to repel the first raids of fascist aviation were shackled by the order of the commander of the Western air defense zone, General S.S. Sazonov, according to which, in order to avoid provocations, it was forbidden to open fire on enemy aircraft until a special order. Only after 8 in the morning of June 22 was this order canceled by the commander of the 10 army, Lieutenant-General KD Golubev.
The Baranovichi air defense brigade covered the 518 and 751 zenap. The 518 regiment was located in Baranavichy and was armed with two divisions of 85-mm guns. However, on the first day of the war, shells began to run out at the regiment's anti-aircraft guns and German bombers began to bomb our troops with impunity. 28 On June, the 13 Army Headquarters reported that “its 518 Zenap, which has a new hardware, but not a single projectile, passed through its battle formations”.
Grodno defended 64 anti-aircraft 751 zenap air defense. Shells they only lasted for two hours. Already from 6 in the morning German planes flew over the city with impunity.
12 346 guns 85 szad station stood on the outskirts of Grodno. During 22 June, Ambush spent around 600 shells, knocking down 5 aircraft.
Despite the fact that 188 zenap of this brigade only received new 85-mm guns and mastered them in the course of the battle, 22.6.41 anti-aircraft gunners shot down six enemy aircraft over Minsk.
In the fortress fortification south of Berezina station was located 174 air defense missile defense complex. 15 May 1941, he arrived from Polotsk. Immediately took combat order. Three battalion batteries of the division, each armed with four 85-mm guns, and a searchlight company stood on duty. Being on combat duty, the personnel made engineering equipment for the positions, at the same time engaged in combat training, preparing to conduct combat shooting in mid-June landfill.
393 Xenum 42 sd in the morning of June 22 under enemy fire brought three cannons without shells out of burning Brest, after which it was sent to Bereza-Kartuzskaya for ammunition. Having received shells, the division already on the first day of the war shot down up to four enemy aircraft.
86 Xenum 2 ck 24 June hit one enemy plane and hit five, using the entire 317 76-mm anti-aircraft shot.
The air defense of the city of Polotsk was assigned to 324 air defense missile defense, 2's 8 company on VNOS, which were part of the Vitebsk air defense brigade region, and 182 IAP (59 air defense defense).
324 Ozad consisted of three fire batteries, anti-aircraft guns and searchlight companies, as well as combat and rear support units. On each weapon of the fire batteries were 4 76-mm anti-aircraft guns obr.1931g. Firepower supplemented 12 7,62-mm quadruple anti-aircraft machine gun installations "Maxim" sample 1931g. and 3 12,7-mm machine gun DShK. At night, 16 of the searchlight stations of the searchlight company provided a search for an air enemy at the maximum range of 12000 meters. The selection of the battalion's OP batteries ensured a triple overlap of the shelling zones over the center of Polotsk, which should primarily provide reliable cover for the bridges across the Western Dvina river.
Numerous warehouses of the Polotsk garrison were either covered by air defense missiles, or they had their own air defense weapons, of which very little is known. For example, the artillery depot No.324 (Polot railway station) was defended by the 69 individual battery of a battalion of local rifle troops.
324 Ozad was located on the district test site under Krupkami of the Borisov region. To cover the facilities of the city of Polotsk from him was left 3-I battery. 22 June in 4-13 to the commander of the Vitebsk air defense brigade region received a telegram signed by the commander of the ZAPOVO air defense commander, Major General S.S. Germans during 2 – 22 June 23. All commanders of subordinate units and subunits, including the commander of 1941, were notified of the VNOS and 8 of the air defense command post by the operational duty officer of the main air defense post.
Photos about the combat path 324 air defense: "At the time of the predatory invasion of the German fascist invaders within our homeland, the division with the exception of one battery, was in the camps m. Krupki on the performance of combat shooting.
24.6.41 all combat units arrived at the winter apartments of the city of Polotsk and occupied the former OP to repel enemy air raids... »
RCB 86 OZAD: "5.5.41-21.6.41. The division is engaged in combat and political training.
22.6.41. The perfidious attack of fascist Germany on the USSR. By order of the head of the Air Defense Forces 2, the sk division is sent to the city of Minsk to receive a combat mission.
23.6.41. The division arrived in Minsk. a combat mission is received - to cover the railway station. Not burned. recruited mobilization personnel... »
V.F. Parshin (Deputy Commander of the 2 Company VNOS): "At the beginning of the war, I was on the road from Vitebsk to Polotsk. The report I received from the platoon commander mln.-lieutenant M.S. Balitsky about the deployment of the company on alert, the arrival of the assigned composition ... 7-00 part of the posts already worked. 11-00 - 12-00 75% TMs were deployed and started up. To 18-00, the deployment of a company with the delivery of property and personnel ended.
The absence of the first persons of the garrison - the commander of 17 SD, Major General TK Batsanov, the commander of 324, Air Defense Forces, and the commander of the 2 Company VNOS, led to a violation of the warning scheme that existed in case of war. The failure in the notification led to the fact that most parts and institutions of the city learned about the perfidious invasion of the German army from the speech of V.M. Molotov on radio in 12-15... "
Summary of air defense 22.6.41: "The operation of the VNOS service is bad - they notify when they are unable to recognize aircraft types over the object;... "
If there is only RP and BP, it is impossible to control the airspace under which the NP VNOS is not deployed, but it is only possible to detect enemy planes in some objects. Again, we see that the positions of VNOS have not been deployed, a lot of anti-aircraft artillery is located in the camps, which cannot indicate the introduction of OG number 2 on the territory of ZOVOVO as of 21.6.41 ...
OdVO. A brief history of 15 VNOS: "Battalion dislocation: 1. The battalion headquarters is Pervomaisk, Odessa region. 2. 1 company - m. Kodymo, Odessa region. 3. 2 company - Kotovsk, Odessa region. 4. 3 company - Voznesensk, Odessa region. 5. 4 company - Kirovograd, Kirovograd region ...
According to staff No. 050 / 26, the battalion is assigned 846 people, and in peacetime 248 people, thus 596 people. are registered composition. The registration structure is mostly untrained, which was strongly reflected in the first days of the war, on the performance of the surveillance service. All posts battalion area June 22 were raised, i.e. on the first day of the war. The first was raised posts company, where the commander, Lieutenant comrade. Solovyov. The second, where the commander is Captain T. Remeshevky. The posts of these companies were located in the responsible area along the Dniester River. In total, there were 77 VNOS posts in the battalion.... "
16 VNOS also begins deployment on the night of June 22.
RCB 162 Dep. battalion: "Before the 21.6.41, the Battalion occupies the OP with the task: defense ... of oil storage facilities No.1, No.2, No.3 and Zastava-1 station.
22.6.41. The Germans did not declare war treacherously attacked our homeland. The battalion received combat orders and took the OP according to the previously prepared scheme. He began to mobilize the replenishment of wartime states... »
Some anti-aircraft defense units of the Odessa region from 7 in May to 5 in June 1941 worked combat firing at the Akkerman artillery range, but the rest were to be shot in the period from July 10 to September 5
RCB 18 OZAD: "22.6.41 20-00. The division was raised in 5-45 on alert and in 8-00 spoke in the area of the OP 2 km Yu.Z. Akkerman st. The 19-00 2 b [battery] under m.Feldchiu opened the first shooting at the fascist reconnaissance, not allowing him to reconnaissance... »
RCB Ozad (there is no sheet with the name of the ass): "Camp Akkerman. 22.6.41. 5-00 declared a combat alarm camp. The whole camp is curtailed. Dn [division] under its own power goes to Chisinau ... 23.6.41. By the end of the day, steel on the point of protection of Chisinau ...»
History fighting Xnumzad: "The next shooting day was appointed 22 June c / g, but with the declaration of war, the division was immediately summoned to the city of Akkerman ... From 22.6.41 to 3.7.41 the division was at the OP in the city of Akkerman... »
In the Crimea, air defense units subordinate to 9 Dep. body, also not previously displayed on the OP. There is information that 317 Zenap 22.6.41 moved to the OP in the city of Evpatoria.
From the few materials it can be seen that parts of VNOS were not deployed before 21 June, and part of the anti-aircraft weapons were in camps. NS OdVO Zakharov does not indicate in his memoirs about the transfer of air defense and air force units to June 21 in OG No. XXUMX. Therefore, it is impossible to conclude that the air defense system OdVO was transferred to FG No. XXUMX, just like the air defense system PribOVO.
Thus, from the submissions that are currently publicly available, it is impossible to conclude that the air defense units of the border districts were located in FG No. XXUMX, with the exception of the PribOVO units. Therefore, the documented fact of the transfer of anti-aircraft defense systems in PribOVO to FG No. XXUMX and the recall of all anti-aircraft units from the camps can be considered a personal initiative of the district command.
The article used materials from the book “Belarus. Memorable summer 1944 of the year.