History the appearance of the third Soviet aircraft carrier cruiser is not quite common. At first, its construction was not envisaged at all. Moreover, in parallel with the development of the 1143 RCC project in the USSR, research was carried out on the creation of classic aircraft carriers with aircraft ejection start and landing on airliners (R & D “Order”). But with the appointment in the year 1976 of the post of Minister of Defense D.F. Ustinov, a well-known supporter of the vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft, the main efforts were still decided to be directed “to further improve the ships-carriers of VTOL aircraft”. By decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers from 1 in February 1977, the construction of the third (deadline - 1979) was approved, as well as the fourth RCC (deadline - 1982) with some changes (increase in the number of LAC to 30, rejection of armament) and maximum use of the head ship documentation (project 1143М).
When developing the abbreviated project 1143M, it was assumed that the promising VTOL Yak-38P (fighter jets) would be based on the third anti-ship missile system, hydroacoustics would be replaced and, for the first time in the domestic navyIt will be envisaged to deploy landing on board in simplified conditions (for a period of 10-15 days), as well as the possibility of receiving heavy transport helicopters on the upper deck and temporarily based on the upper deck.
The ship was planned to be called "Baku", according to the tradition to give the name of the aircraft carrier ships, inherited from the leaders of the destroyers - in honor of the capitals of the Union republics. But at the suggestion of the Minister of Defense of the USSR A.A. Grechko the cruiser received the name "Novorossiysk". 24 June 1975, he was enrolled in the lists of ships of the Soviet Navy. In this case, there was officially no continuity in the name of the cruiser with the Black Sea battleship Novorossiysk (formerly Julio Chezare). Apparently, the Main Political Department and other “instances” were guided by the geographical “linking” of the ship’s name to the “Lesser Land” - the title of the book of the then General Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU, widely propagandized in those years.
The abbreviated 1143M technical project (chief designer - AV Marinich) was developed in January and approved by the Navy and SMEs in July 1975. On September 30 a ship was laid down (С-103) on the stocks of «0» CSZ.
The cruiser provided for the basing of the Yak-28М (Yak-36) 38 and / or Ka-252PL helicopters and two Ka-252PS rescue helicopters. GAS "Orion" was replaced with an automated sonar complex (AGAK) "Polynom", and torpedo armament was abolished. By reducing the gaps between the aircraft in the hangar, their number was increased to 24-x. Another six cars were on the technical position of the flight deck (starboard), the bypass bridge in the starboard area was performed on the 1,2 m lower in height than on the 1143 TAKR. If necessary, in the hangar with some restrictions placed all 30 LAC.
Given the replacement of hydroacoustics and the elimination of torpedo weapons, the ship was equipped with a new anti-submarine control system weapons "Blizzard". The Salgir navigation complex was replaced with a more modern, modernized model - the Salgir-V. In addition, the project provided for the possibility of installing on board, already during the construction of the ship, a backup radar for general detection and target designation “Topaz-IV” (upon completion of its testing and development at the “Bedovy” DBK). The volume of the premises on the 5-th deck, obtained as a result of the abandonment of torpedo armament, was used to equip additional three-tier cabrioks of personnel and troops on the 90 man with weapons and supplies.
The ship was equipped with a CCE “Alley-2K” (collecting, processing, storing and displaying information as part of providing flagship functions of the compound consisting of nine surface ships), as well as a prototype of the Podkat radar complex — for detecting small-sized cruise missile targets with low ESR, following at low altitudes (up to 100 m) at a distance of up to 33,7 km (with the possibility of automatic tracking of targets, determining motion parameters, generating and issuing target designation data on 15 air defense systems of the TAKR itself and ships from togetherness). This was supposed to increase the capabilities of the air defense missile defense of the cruiser in the new conditions. Finally, the previous active pitching dampeners 89-1 were replaced with more advanced 89-3 with an increased area of onboard steering wheels.
Another difference of Novorossiysk was the shape of the leading edge of the so-called small sponson, located in the nose from the corner deck - there was no double ledge characteristic of "Kiev" and "Minsk", causing strong splashing and formation of vortex air currents above the flight deck. On the upper deck of the ship they installed (albeit already in Sevastopol) leveling devices (VU) - three vertical screens for straightening the air flow.
Complexes of electronic, artillery and rocket weapons, as well as the GEM were initially supposed to be kept the same as in the 1143 project. However, during the construction of the ship decided to make a number of improvements. Thus, in connection with the adoption of the US Navy in the summer of 1977, a new low-altitude harpoon anti-ship missile, the Nevskoye PKB, on behalf of the leadership of the SMEs and naval command, urgently prepared proposals for upgrading the 1143 and 1143М ships to increase their combat stability. It turned out that in order to successfully accomplish the task, it is necessary first of all to increase the depth of the air defense zone of the naval formations with the enhancement of the naval anti-aircraft and electronic weapons. Possible volumes of work on the third and fourth “krechetah”, taking into account the time for the creation of new types of weapons and the deadlines for the delivery of the ships themselves, were discussed at a special meeting of the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy. To enhance the air defense of the third TAKR, it was supposed to equip it with two newer modules of the newest Dagger SAM system (instead of the Osa-M DBMS) and the Kortik missile-artillery systems (instead of AK-630М), and Podkat radar (instead of "Topaz-IV"), It was necessary to modify both the electronic weapons and the communications equipment of the ship, mainly due to the change in the composition of its aviation and missile-artillery weapons. Volumes for the implementation of these measures were obtained due to the exclusion of the cellar of the spare Basalt rum. With the adjustment of those. the project on the adopted changes, the descent of "Novorossiysk" was transferred to 1978 year.
But the project changes affected not only air defense systems. Along the way, it was decided to base 36 aircraft * on the ship, including the development of the Yak-41 vertical take-off and landing fighters, the Yak-38 attack aircraft and the Ka-252 helicopters of three modifications (PLO, PS and RLD), and equip on the runway there are three vapor-removing devices (GOU) - to protect the flight deck cover from hot gas jets to 1200 ° with a vertical launch of the Yak-41.
In addition, it was required to increase aviation fuel supplies by 50%. The GOU mines, which were closed at the top by heat-resistant gas-dynamic grids, were provided under the starting positions No. 3, 4 and 5, had a variable diameter 3 - 5 m and passed from the flight deck down and further under the corner deck (sponson) overboard. There were difficulties with the development of a constructive solution and the choice of material for these grids, as well as the heat-resistant coating of the flight deck. These alterations entailed the postponement of the ship’s delivery date from the 1979 to the 1982 year.
Except for a number of differences in the composition and placement of radar antenna posts and EW facilities, the appearance of the 1143M TAKR project changed slightly, although the redevelopment of the overall location was very significant and covered about 1000 (up to 40% of the total number) of premises in which, based on the re-adjustment of the project it was necessary to carry out demolition and installation work “on the living”.
The technical project 11433 (originally 1143.3; chief designer VF Anikiev) was developed in December 1977 and approved in May 1978, when the formation of the Novorossiysk building on the stocks had already been completed - even all GOU mines were assembled, closing them with gratings. 26 December 1978 of the year TAKR was solemnly launched and put on completion
Shooting SAM "Storm" TAKR "Novorossiysk"
In the meantime, the attitude towards GOU continued to remain ambiguous. The experiments carried out in Zhukovsky did not give grounds for particular optimism about their use. In the end, according to a joint decision of the MAP, SMEs, Navy and Air Force of the USSR from 10 in October 1979, the mines and gratings of the GOU, "as not justified their purpose by test results," were dismantled, and the premises through which they passed were restored by original project, which also entailed a lot of additional rework.
But the problems did not end there. Due to the backlog in the development and manufacture of head samples provided for by the Dagger air defense system and Kortik air defense missile system, Novorossiysk did not receive this weapon. Instead, they mounted the proven 30-mm AK-630M assault rifles, while deciding not to return to the standard for its predecessors, the Osa-M SAM systems - as a result, the ship was left without any near-range air defense systems!
Due to problems with the creation of new aircraft, the third TAKR air group had to be completed from the Yak-38 (later replaced by the Yak-38М). In part, this was offset by the presence of more advanced second-generation helicopters, the Ka-27. In addition, promising LAC and helicopters up to 15 tons could be based on Novorossiysk, taken on deck (without being placed in the hangar) for efficient delivery of cargo or landing Mi-8, Mi-14 and even Mi-6 helicopters up to 37 t It was also possible to start the engines from the ship's power supply system. The total stock of jet fuel was 1500 t, the largest — to 1650 t.
The mooring tests of the Novorossiysk TAKR (board number 137) took place from September 1 to December 27 of the year 1981. November 24 took place the settlement of the crew, formed on the basis of the 7-th OPESK in Severomorsk. 5 January 1982 year ship
went to Sevastopol, where up to 25-th number, docking took place for cleaning and painting the underwater part and equipment alignment. From January 29 to April 12, Novorossiysk successfully passed factory running tests (chief responsible deliverer G. I. Zhurenko, commander - captain 1 of rank B. P. Chernykh). At the very beginning of the tests on the ship, the TNA-3 turbo-blower unit of one of the main boilers failed, which threatened the timely delivery of the cruiser. Typically, the replacement of this unit requires several months, but in this case, the factory workers didn’t meet several days. The emergency THA was moved through temporary cuts to the hangar, and from there to the upper deck. The unique operation was completed when a similar TNA-3 was delivered in reverse order from the “Baku” TAKR that was in the process of completion.
State tests of Novorossiysk were held at the combat training grounds of the Black Sea Fleet from 12 in April to 28 in May, with a break for participation in the parade of ships dedicated to Victory Day. May 12 TAKR went to the landfill - was tested by firing a single rocket and a two-barreled salvo attack complex "Basalt-11433" (PU number 1,2 and 6). In both cases, the targets — BKSch (69x13 m) and the target of the 1784 Ave. were hit by direct hits at the 88 km range. The Commission noted cases of damage to lightweight structures on the deck of the ship due to the impact of the torches of the launch rocket boosters.
Launch of the Basalt cruise missile with the Novorossiysk spacecraft launch vehicle
The AK-726 and AK-630М art complexes were tested by firing at the MSC, the PM-15 target, the floating mine models and simulated airborne targets, and the RBU-6000 installations at the target guidance angles of the 53-56 practical torpedo. They successfully passed firing tests and were also accepted by the 140-mm Commission, the PC-2 set of false targets and the RPK-1 antisubmarine complex.
20 - 27 May 11 fired UZRK "Storm" on parachute targets M-6, the sea target (BKSCH) and radio-controlled target La-17М. True, in three cases, the facts of leaving from a given trajectory and falling into the water of the missiles released from the nasal projectile launcher were noted as a consequence of the general constructive deficiency. The Commission recommended to increase the sectors of shooting, especially in the “low-flying target” mode, for which the launch angle of the missiles in the vertical plane was increased. Repeated shooting after the execution of these works was credited.
During the state tests of the VTOL Yak-38 and Yak-38U performed from the ship 112, helicopters Ka-27 - 108, Ka-25 - 51, Mi-6 - 10 and Mi-8 — 139 flights, including those provided to ensure the tests. Unfortunately, it was not without accident - in April, the Ka-27 helicopter fell to the deck, one sailor was killed by a debris screw.
May 28 "Novorossiysk" arrived in Nikolaev and was put to the embankment of the Big CSV bucket for revision and painting. At the conclusion of the commission, the program of state trials was fully implemented; as a supplement it was only recommended to determine the possibility of taking off and landing at night conditions of a group of four helicopters
with airspeed up to 20 m / s, rolling to 10 ° and keel — to 3 °.
In addition, the commission did not accept the AGAH Polynom (its acceptance was expected only in December 1982 of the year on the 1144 Kirov nuclear-powered missile cruiser built by the Baltic GCC). The ship also did not install a factory landing complex for the Privod-SV aircraft (later it was completely abandoned to install it on the Novorossiysk). The Commission noted that with the draft of the ship aft less than 8,8 and the lifting and lowering device POU-3 does not provide a reliable selection of the “towed body” (lowered antenna) of the HAS. Even in the absence of excitement at sea, this operation took a long time. It was also noted that such factors as shading of visibility areas by TAKR add-ons, interference due to signal re-reflection and distortion of radiation patterns of both antenna superstructures located on the side walls adversely affect the work of the Podkat radar.
Among the less significant, but rather curious and curious remarks were such as, for example, installation of shut-off valves on fresh-water tanks, because of which there were cases of flooding with water (to avoid this, it was recommended to install self-closing valves later, by the way , and was done on previous ships).
On August 12, the elimination of the comments was completed, and two days later the acceptance certificate was signed. 6 years, 10 months and 14 days have passed from the moment of laying up the ship.
August 15 The 1982 of the year at the Novorossiysk TAKR triumphantly raised the naval flag, and the ship moved to Sevastopol. November 24 TAKR was enrolled in the Pacific Fleet and began preparations for the transition to the Pacific Ocean (with a preliminary call in Severomorsk to participate in the celebrations on the occasion of the Northern Fleet's 50 anniversary). One autumn day, while being parked at the Coal Wall, a strong squall suddenly struck the Novorossiysk - the ship was only kept in place by the help of a tug that had approached. Later it turned out that the tow had damaged the titanium fairing GAS Polynom, and the TAKR had to be put on the dock for repairs. By December 24, the crew passed all coursework tasks, and the Novorossiysk was assigned to the permanent readiness ships.
Here it is important to note that during the test of the cruiser, the Anglo-Argentine war began, and its first lessons confirmed the correctness of specialists about the need to strengthen the air defense missile defense of the ships. “Novorossiysk” in this respect was even inferior to “Kiev” and “Minsk”. Despite the possibility of detecting aerial targets, especially attacking cruise missiles, with the help of the Podkat radar, the cruiser did not have fire weapons for their defeat — all that remained was to broadcast the data to escort ships.
"Minsk" and "Novorossiysk" were based on the Pacific Ocean. In 1991, Minsk began to prepare for the transfer to the shipyard in Nikolaev for repairs (the 50% of the cruiser propulsion system did not work). 31 August 1992 on the "Minsk" lowered the flag of the Navy and in October the cruiser arrived at the conservation site (in the sludge) in the Postovaya Bay in Sovetskaya Gavan. 20 October 1995 "Minsk" towed to South Korea for cutting into metal. And in 1998, the TAKR Minsk was oversold by a Chinese company and after carrying out a complex of works from 27.09.2000, it is used as a museum and entertainment center in the port of Shenzhen (Hong Kong region). The Second Chinese Museum of the Navy of the USSR! Remember the replica of one of the leading in the "Day of Radio", facing the corridor?
On "Novorossiysk" 1990 passed two-year repair;
28 January 1991 - passed tests after repair, having done some tasks, but failed to fully return the ship to service after repair ...
May 1991 - the ship was put to sludge by the decision of the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy of the USSR. Point.
January 1993 - when there was a fire in the engine room in the sludge on the ship.
30 June 1993 - TAKR Novorossiysk disarmed and expelled from the Russian Navy.
January 1996 - TAKR Novorossiysk was sold to a South Korean company for scrap, taken to the port of Busan, and subsequently dismantled for metal ...
The last of the Mohicans:
On the left - "RIGA" (in the future "VARYAG", sold to China), on the right "TBILISI" (in the future "ADMIRAL KUZNETSOV")