312 th military sanitary. Legend of military medicine. Part of 1

4 December 1876 of the year during the reign of Alexander II issued an imperial decree on the formation of the 14 sanitary trains for wartime. The war did not make itself wait. Already in May of the next 1877, the first sanitary train departed from St. Petersburg's Nikolayevsky Station from St. Petersburg. He was in a hurry for the 77-78 Russian-Turkish war that was in full swing. 16 months hospital train №1 will save the lives of soldiers of the Russian Imperial Army. What is later one of the residents of this saving echelon - the doctor, journalist and geographer Franz Friedrichovich Shperk write a whole essay. So began story the angels who flew along the railway line, however pathetic it may sound.

Since then, much has been experienced by the medical teams of the military-sanitary trains. But, probably, nobody experienced anything that fell to the lot of physicians from the railway during the Great Patriotic War.

On the third day of the 24 War of June, the People’s Commissariat of Communications ordered the formation of 288 military-sanitary trains (permanent 150 and temporary 138). However, the first "fight" military train of the USSR gave another 23 June. It was a temporary VSP №1078, formed on the basis of the Military Medical School under the command of the military doctor S.I. Tikhonov and Commissioner DF Butyaeva in Kiev. On the second day of the war, early in the morning, when loading the wounded, when any pilot without a second word would understand what the target was under him, the "brave" Luftwaffe pilots attacked the sanitary train. 18 bombers swept through a fiery hurricane over wounded soldiers and young nurses. It is possible, of course, to hoarsely argue about international treaties, fire cover for such compositions and so on, but from the point of view of any adult person, such barbaric attack aircraft do not add either military glory or honor.

By the way, a memorial plaque dedicated to the formation of VSP №1078, installed in Kiev on the house 14 on Melnikova Street, in which the medical attendant-obstetric school was located in 1941, and now there is Kiev Medical College. At least the board hung in 2015 year. Whether the house was subjected to a mass de-communization is unknown.

But one of the most famous military trains, of course, is VSP №312. And it’s not only the heroic service of the medical team of this composition, because heroism cannot be measured quantitatively and other VSP brigades were no less selfless, but that talented journalist Vera Panova made December 1944 on VSP №4 in December 312 . She was supposed to compile a brochure on the work of military physicians of this composition, since he was rightly considered the command of "exemplary". The brochure in the series did not go. But…

Firstly, for Comrade Panova herself, those flights became fateful - according to her, she chose the work of a lifetime: “... the main thing is that being in the VSP team No.312 meant that I finally understood: I will be a writer, because I don’t I can not be; I can not tell you about the life feat of these people. This will be my own contribution to literature and to life. ”

Secondly, immediately after the war, Vera will write the story “Satellites”, which in 1947 will even be marked by the USSR State Stalin Prize and will bring her all-Union fame and recognition. Much later in 1964, first Iskander Khamrayev filmed a story in his film “The Train of Mercy” (Valentin Zubkov and Zhanna Prokhorenko in the main roles). And already year 1975, Peter Fomenko will remove on the basis of "Sputnik" a mini-series "For the rest of your life" (Ernst Romanov, Alexey Eybozhenko in the main roles). Both of these paintings will be one of the courage of all who served on the military-sanitary trains. The author recommends for viewing.

But back in the great and terrible 1941 year. The industry began to move in a hurry on a war footing, sometimes in the truest sense of the word. The Vologda steam locomotive repair plant was no exception, as it was called 1935 of the year, and it still exists as a simple car repair wagon. Vologda workers gave their response to the instructions of the commissariat of communications very quickly even for wartime. Already 26 June 41, the first and subsequently legendary VSP №312, came out of the gates of the Vologda plant. The train had specially equipped places for the wounded, the so-called Krieger cars, also included a pharmacy car, an operating car, a laundry car, and so on.

Without exaggeration, it was the pride of the Vologda plant. To the honor of the latter, it is worth adding that simultaneously with the formation of military-sanitary trains and the repair work of already functioning trains, the workers were able to master the production of purely military products - mortars and ammunition. In total, the plant during the war prepared for the front over 10 VSP.

312 th military sanitary. Legend of military medicine. Part of 1

Valentina Belkina

By this time, the formation of the VSP team was almost complete. Almost the entire team of the saving train was recruited from Vologda. Only the head of the train and the deputy of the medical unit sent from Leningrad. In total, the staff served according to various data from 40 to 75 people of various specialties: doctors, nurses, orderlies, cooks and, of course, railway workers.

After the war, the train head Nikolai Prokopievich Danichev, who ended the war as a medical service major, and then a recent Leningrad therapist, recalled: “I am the attending doctor and the head of the sanitary train, before loading, was obliged to check every link in the work - from the isolator to the kitchen, from the dressing room to the power station, from the disinfection chamber to the sound station. And only if the whole complex of work was completed, I and the resident physician could firmly and confidently proceed to my main work. ”

Catherine Kaplina

VSP No. 312 will be baptized in early July. After the war, Ivan Alekseevich Porokhin, the commander of the commandant service recalled: “On June 26, 1941, the train left the wounded west. July 4, we arrived in Pskov and ended up in the combat zone. German aviation and artillery hit the city. The houses were crumbling, the oil depot and food depots were burning. The roads were clogged with our troops, with battles retreating to the East. The enemy hit the troops and civilians. German planes fired machine-gun fire even at children fleeing the fields. We stood under the bombing for three days. There were no other ambulance trains there. Wounded soldiers who arrived from the battlefield without primary (medical) treatment were received. Our orderlies and sisters took off their bloody gymnasts and trousers, cut boots full of blood on their wounded legs and healed wounds. Three surgeons in the carriage performed emergency operations. During these days, 150 operations were performed. Under shelling and bombing, over nine hundred wounded were loaded into the train ... "

Claudia Moseeva

Who were the railroad angels who were carrying on their hefty men, and even under enemy fire? Very young girls, such as 20-year-old Katya, and in those days, the foreman of the medical service, Ekaterina Panteleimonovna Kaplina, later awarded the medal "For Military Merit." There were many of them - girls turned out to be stronger than many men - junior sergeants of the medical service (they are officially marked in the documents) Klavdiya Moseeva, Valentina Belkina and Chaschina Maria, lieutenants of the medical service Avgust Shestiperov, Alexander Evstigneev and Faina Kiseleva and many others.

Augustus Shestiperova

In such a team in the war, the relationship began to have a special, sometimes family nature. Vera Panova, for example, recalled that the girl team treated the aforementioned Porokhina as her father. What is no wonder. First of all, he turned 43 in 40. And, secondly, Ivan Alekseevich, unusually active, being a native of one of the villages of the Arkhangelsk region, took up work with the fatherly peasant in a certain sense of economic nature. So, he organized ... a wagon farm.

Alexandra Evstigneeva and Faina Kiselyov

The lack of vitamins after monstrous loads (if such a thing can be called loads at all) further weakened both the fighters and the personal medical staff of the train, who sometimes worked all day long. The weak hands of the surgeon and the weakened nurses - the combination can not be worse. Therefore, Porokhin noticed that the kitchen gives a decent amount of waste, and therefore got hold of chickens and a few pigs, placing them in the last trailer car. Soon fresh testes, chicken broth, and sometimes pork appeared in the ration of fighters and medical staff.

At first, having learned about such innovation of the captain of the commissary service, the authorities arranged for him a thorough separation. Approximately the following phrases were used - “here you are not a peasant barn or a collective farm, but a military sanitary train”. Ivan Alekseevich calmly proposed to compare the percentage of the saved and their physical condition before he hitched a “collective farm” to the train, and after. Statistics convinced the authorities to leave everything as is.

In general, the train was constantly developing with the work of the hands of its team, but this is in the second part.

To be continued ...
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  1. +3
    23 August 2018 07: 29
    A very interesting and important topic. Soviet military medicine. Russian Military Medicine. He proposed articles and wanted to know more. I hope for a series of articles, as often happens with the author ...... Until the evening.
  2. +2
    23 August 2018 07: 54
    Interesting article, thanks
  3. +4
    23 August 2018 11: 26
    Thank you.
    It is important to remember, it is important to know.

    What a fellow Porokhin.
    And a wise decision to use the waste on the farm, increasing food supplies. And no less life-affirming decision - life should go on, in all its manifestations - when you get an economy, albeit at the front, albeit on rails - this is hope!
  4. +3
    23 August 2018 12: 26
    I hope for new articles, a very interesting topic. What the military Doctors and Nurses saw is simply horror, a solid forward and great feat. The surgeon who passed the war is already a hero.
    1. +3
      23 August 2018 17: 46
      Somehow there was an article where it was mentioned that Soviet doctors, operating on captured Germans shocked them with their professionalism and that Soviet doctors tried to make amputations only in the most hopeless state, tried to maintain the possibility of movement.
  5. +4
    23 August 2018 14: 16
    It remains to remember that the soldiers tried to protect their wounded. Including ambulance trains.
    In the movie, this is also reflected.
    Suffice it to recall an episode from the film "Officers", when the Germans who broke through were restrained by the wounded, who could hold weapons, in order to load the non-walking wounded on a medical train and he would have left (from the 65th minute of the film)
    [media = https: //ok.ru/video/8312128899]

    1. +2
      23 August 2018 14: 29
      "Officers" is a good movie.
      Many episodes are remembered.
      1. 0
        23 August 2018 17: 52
        And also the song: "From the heroes of the old days"
    2. +1
      23 August 2018 18: 13
      I did not watch the films mentioned. But when it was 70 years since the Victory Day in the Second World War, I watched the documentary ---- RECIPE OF VICTORY. There are simply no words. Heroic people ---- doctors, nurses, orderlies, and instructors. And none of these specialties was missing. Especially surgeons. I will try to see this film again and the ones mentioned. Many doctors had difficulty operating on the battlefield, they tried. The film has about Burdenko, operations.
  6. +1
    23 August 2018 22: 29
    I was interested in ambulance trains, but of the First World War. I can’t find anything about the ambulance train 1040. My grandmother was sent there in 1915, after the Smolny Red Cross courses, I went to the front .. here I was looking for something about this period of her life, alas.
  7. +2
    23 August 2018 22: 30
    Good article, few comments. Whoever at least once dragged a wounded man on himself can appreciate the feat of Soviet doctors.
  8. 0
    24 August 2018 20: 28
    the film "For the rest of my life" is about this VSP No. 312

    "so let, my dears, our train will be the measure of kindness, truth, honest service to the Motherland! Honest! For the rest of your life" (quoted from the film)

    You can’t say better - Soviet doctors honestly served the motherland!
  9. 0
    3 November 2018 18: 26
    Good, informative material. Nevertheless, the author must read the material before publication. 1977? A trifle, of course, but still.

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