Germany has its eye on the Russian C-350 “Vityaz” air defense missile system: plagiarism in NATO style or concept battle
An extremely interesting situation is currently forming around the program for the formation of a national air defense-missile defense system of the Federal Republic of Germany. So, starting from the middle of May 2015, it became known that the German Defense Ministry decided to replace the American anti-aircraft missile systems of the Patriot PAC-2 and Patriot PAC-3 families with the fundamentally new "hybrid" air defense / anti-missile defense systems of the United States - European development MEADS (Medium Extended Air Defense System, - medium-range air defense system) under the ambitious TVLS program ("Taktisches Luftverteidigungssystem", - "Tactical Air Defense System"). This was stated three years ago by the head of the German Defense Ministry, Ursula von der Lyayen. As an explanation of Berlin’s so tough hostility to the “Patriot PAC-3” complexes imposed by Americans, several circumstances can be noted.
Firstly, this is the presence in the Patriot PAC-3 battery ammunition only of the extremely expensive specialized MIM-104F PAC-3 MSE interceptor missiles, the cost of which reaches 3 million dollars. The use of these anti-aircraft missiles against all types of objects that may be in the airspace of a modern theater of operations during a high-intensity conflict is extremely costly. For example, it is absolutely inexpedient to spend dozens of times more expensive MIM-104F anti-missiles against various types of medium and long-range enemy subsonic tactical missiles, or small-sized reconnaissance drones, the cost of which can be only a few tens or hundreds of thousands of dollars.
Secondly, this is far from the ideal effectiveness of the combat operation of a complex in a difficult jamming environment. This disadvantage lies in the fact that the Patriot PAC-3 anti-aircraft missile system used exclusively active radar homing system, based on the MIM-104F interceptor missiles with active radar GOS of millimeter Ka-band with radio correction. The effectiveness of these homing heads may be questioned if the enemy’s airborne modern air-assisted multi-range electronic warfare equipment is integrated into the on-board radio-electronic equipment, which generates repeated response distractions in combination with millimeter-wave defensive noise. Moreover, MIS-104F (ERINT) missiles will be extremely vulnerable to modern high-frequency EMI combat generators capable of targeting from passive radio stations of radio-electronic signaling and surveillance radars to sabotage the receiving path of the radar homing head with a narrow high-frequency beam at 30 - 50. , and burn the electronic "stuffing" anti-aircraft missiles at a distance of about 10 km.
Thirdly, the Patriot PAC-3 anti-aircraft missile / anti-missile systems, as well as the earlier modifications of the Patriot PAC-2, were not deprived of the old flaw, the impossibility of a full-blown reflection of a massive rocket-air strike from several directions when using just one launcher. The reason for this is the use of standard launchers of the M903 type on 16 transport-launch containers for ERINT anti-aircraft missiles (analogue of the 4-x M901 cell missile for MIM-104C / E), which must be docked in azimuth to all missile-dangerous areas under conditions approximation of several high-speed elements weapons the enemy can be a deadly technological disadvantage. And finally, fourthly, the FRG is trying to adhere to its own concept and traditions in creating a national network-centric air defense system; Moreover, by the year 2015 Berlin had invested more than 1 billion euros in the MEADS project (now this amount may exceed 3 billion euros).
Previously, the TVLS program was conducted by the joint US-European concern MEADS International, the main company of which was located in Orlando (USA) and was represented by the European division of MBDA, the German LFK, and the American division of Lockheed Martin. Now the configuration has changed: a joint US-German enterprise TVLS GmbH, represented by MBDA and Lockheed Martin, was established for the final implementation of the program and the conclusion of a contract with the German Defense Ministry. And so, the German authorities transferred to the headquarters of TVLS GmbH, through the federal agency for equipment, information technology and support of the Bundeswehr, a request for the purchase of MEADS complexes already in 2019 year, as it became known from TVLS GmbH general director in August Gregory Ki 16 of the year. It says only one thing - the Germans are trying with all their might to “keep up” with the accelerated pace of renewal of the armies of Romania, Sweden and Poland with the “Patriot PAC-2018 / GEM-T” and “PAC-2MSE” complexes, prepared by the Pentagon for future military conflicts with Russia. At the same time, the concept of the future use of the MEADS air defense system is nothing more than a commonplace copying of the future methodology for the use of our promising anti-aircraft missile complex C-3 Vityaz. This is viewed in comparison of practically every MEADS element with elements of our C-350 (350Р50А) “Vityaz”.
Firstly, this is ammunition, represented by two types of short-range and medium / long-range anti-aircraft missiles. In our SAM intended to replace the family C-300PS / PM1, as the "long arm" will be used surface-to-air missile with active radar homing 9M96DM possessing range interception 120 - 150 km and the possibility of interception of ballistic and aerodynamic purposes by kinetic defeat (direct hit, “hit-to-kill”) due to the presence of a “gas-dynamic belt” of transverse-control engines (DPU) located at the center of mass of the rocket. It is known that until recently, the developer (ICB Torch) could not solve serious problems with the active X-ray missile guidance system 9М96, which did not allow effectively capturing targets for accurate and long-term auto-tracking, and then “lead” them immediately until the moment of destruction.
This unpleasant fact took place to be in the course of field tests of the ship Redundant air defense system, and today it became the main obstacle for the completion of the Vityaz acceptance tests. MEADS (TVLS program) will use MIM-104F PAC-3MSE missiles as a “long-range asset”, which can also hit the target with the kinetic method due to the high-precision Ka-band active CWTH and the more complex “gas-dynamic belt” from 10 "Rings" on 18 microracket engines located in front of the center of mass of the rocket. And despite the fact that the range of MIM-104F on aerodynamic targets can only reach 75 - 80 km (versus 120 - 150 km with our 9М96Е2 / DM), American missiles have long been in mass production and have no problems with the guidance system.
If you look at the “middle asset” of the MEADS anti-aircraft missile system “IRIS-T”, you can immediately draw a parallel with the anti-aircraft guided self-defense missile (short-range) 9М100, which should be included in the Vityaz ammunition package, as well as the ship Reduta. The multifunction interceptor IRIS-T, originally adapted for use with the Typhoon and Tornado multipurpose fighter jets, is equipped with a thermal homing head with medium-wave (3 - 5 μm) infrared photo-receiver based on indium antimonide with 128XXNNXX resolution. Despite the fact that this range of GOS operating waves is not characterized by better permeability through the atmosphere compared to the long-wavelength range 128 - 6 μm (especially in adverse weather conditions), its list of advantages includes the possibility of direction finding against the background of the earth’s surface or airspace even slightly contrasting thermal objects. In other words, the IR GOS of the IRIS-T rocket can easily detect not only enemy tactical fighters in the afterburner of engines, but also, for example, strategic cruise missiles of the Caliber family from the weak thermal radiation of the engine even into the forward hemisphere, and also high-speed tactical missiles on the heated nose fairing due to frontal resistance.
The maneuverable capabilities of IRIS-T are also at a very decent level. The rocket has the ability to maneuver with ultra-large angles of attack and high angular speeds of turning (about 200 degrees / s) due to the combination of a wide-chord wing of low elongation with developed aerodynamic rudders and a gas-jet deflection system of the thrust vector represented by 4 rotary nozzle planes of heat-resistant material; at the same time, the constructive overload of the missile can reach 60 - 65 units, which allows intercepting enemy air attack weapons that perform anti-aircraft maneuvers with overload from 20 to 25G. Such capabilities of the rocket are also promoted by the placement of IKGSN on a two-axis gimbal gimbal, which provides the coordinator's pumping angles within ± 90 degrees, which allows such inconceivable rocket maneuvers. There is a noticeable drawback to the IRIS-T thrust vector control system: immediately after the solid-fuel charge of the dual-mode solid-fuel rocket engine FiatAvio burns out, the nozzle planes cease to take part in the control of the rocket and the maneuverability decreases sharply. In the case of a ground launch modification (as part of the MEADS complex), this occurs at a distance of about 10 km from the launcher.
It is with the help of the IRIS-T anti-aircraft missiles integrated into the ammunition kits of the MEADS complexes that the Germans plan to eliminate two main problems inherent in the Patriot PAC-3, the need to use only extremely expensive ERINT SAM systems to destroy all types of targets (including cheap drones and tactical cruise missiles), as well as doubtful noise immunity due to a single active radar homing system. So, in the case of the use of powerful EW systems by the enemy, during the cover of the strategically important industrial facilities of the Federal Republic of Germany and the ground forces of the Bundeswehr located in 10 - 15 km from the MEADS battery, less expensive IRIS-T missiles can be used, which are invulnerable to standard electronic countermeasures .
Moreover, the use of these missiles is able to solve the problem of rapid “depletion of ammunition”, since one regular transport and launch container for MIM-104F anti-missile can accommodate 4 cells for Irises. Meanwhile, all this “German rationality” miraculously repeats the ammunition of our Vityaz S-350, the first model of which was presented at the International Aviation and Space Salon MAKS-1999. Even as part of the first demonstrator, one could pay attention to the presence of 9М100Е missiles, which are located in small 200-mm transport-launch modules in addition to the modules for 9М96DM missiles in one of the versions of the 50П6А self-propelled gun. There is an attempt of the Germans to copy the concept of our air defense system.
Based on data from various sources, we can say that our self-defense 9М100 self-defense system also uses ICGSN and the thrust vector deflection system, which should indicate a high efficiency of the Vityaz complex in a difficult noise situation. Nevertheless, the photos of the full-size demonstrator 9М100 from MAKS-2017 exposition are extremely bad thoughts. Before our eyes, there is a slightly reworked modification of the 9М331 anti-aircraft missile system of the Tor-М1 complex, made according to the “duck” scheme, but with the nose aerodynamic control surfaces shifted closer to the center of mass to realize maneuvers on a trajectory with large overloads (within 25 - 27 units). ). The maximum similarity with the 9М331 SAM also indicates the diameter of the 9М100Е case, which is 200 m versus 239 mm in the first one. But the most interesting point is the principle of guidance 9М100Е. Despite the fact that Almaz-Antey and other resources speak about infrared GOS, judging from photos from MAKS-2017, it can be assumed that this is a typical radio command guidance used by the Tor-M1 / M2KM family of complexes, because in the nose There is no visible rounding of the optic-transparent fairing IKGSN. Consequently, it is still too early to talk about the unique possibilities in terms of noise immunity. The only option is to use an auxiliary optical-electronic reticle of the new generation (by analogy with 9Sh33А “Karat-2” on the C-125 family).
And finally, the last stage of the so-called “conceptual plagiarism” can be considered the creation of MBDA (with the support of Raytheon and Lockheed Martin specialists) for the MEADS complex of a multifunctional MFCR (“Multifunction Fire Control Radar”) guidance and guidance system. In accordance with the statement on the developer’s website www.mbda-systems.com/press-releases, the product is represented by an X-band multi-element active phased array antenna with the possibility of circular view due to the rotation of the antenna post, which gives the radar a huge advantage over the "Patriot" radar AN / MPQ-65. Similarly, the centimeter X-band multifunctional multi-purpose radar with the 50Н6А index is also equipped with our Vityaz C-350. The computational facilities of the antenna post are accompanied on the 48 VTs aisle and are captured on the exact 8 auto-tracking facilities, which is almost equivalent to the Triumph C-92 multi-purpose radar (6 of captured targets).
Speaking in a more accessible language: the German corporation TVLS GmbH, in every sense of the word, used the verified and advanced concept of our Vityaz C-350 air defense system as an example to build a national missile defense system, passing by the unprofitable Patriot PAC-3 scheme. Is this not a reason for pride in our defense industry? It is possible ... But only if our leadership makes the maximum financial efforts to ensure that the Vityaz, who are spared off problems on the missile part, have arrived at the combat units earlier than the American-German MEADS will acquire operational combat readiness.
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