Poem about Maxim. Retrospective. Part of 8. Machine Guns of Nordenfeld and Gardner

The inertia of consciousness is a terrible thing, but it also protects humanity from unnecessary expenses. Yes, the new is always interesting, but the old is more familiar. Nervous energy has already gone on its development, which means that forces and food have been spent. It would be just here to enjoy the result, when suddenly something new appears again, and you have to master it again, strain your head, and this is hard and troublesome. So people come up with various excuses for their unwillingness to learn, this is the newest thing to accept and live with him.

"Machine gun" Palmkrantsa aboard the ship. One sailor suggests, the other rotates the drive handle.

So it was with Maxim's machine gun. It would seem clear what the prospects of its application and what opportunities opens up, but ... "difficult", "expensive", and so on. How many people, so many explanations why this novelty should not be used. In addition, competitors stood in the way of the innovations created by him. It was clear to them that high rate of fire is good. However, they immediately tried to convince the public that it could be achieved in more traditional and familiar ways, without resorting to complex automation. As a result, projects to Maxim like mushrooms after the rain at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century began to appear projects of new and new machine guns with manual drive - still much more familiar. In addition, many designers not only wanted to make money on new types weapons, but also to bypass Maxim, to show that they too can make a “typewriter” no worse than he.

Poem about Maxim. Retrospective. Part of 8. Machine Guns of Nordenfeld and Gardner

The device mitraliezy Gatling. The complexity of the design is striking.

Mitraleza Gatling for tumbovoy installation.

One such gunsmith’s engineer was the Swede H. Palmcranz, who in 1897 offered his own version of a weapon with a high rate of fire and, according to tradition, with several barrels and a mechanical, manual drive.

Hotchkis five-barreled turret gun with a rotating block of barrels.

In fact, Palmcranz was engaged in nothing more than the improvement of the mitralia known to him, and above all, the Gatling mitraillea. Only she had six barrels and they all rotated, and in the most common version of the Palmcrant machine gun there were only four with a common receiver and separate bolts at each barrel, which were mounted in a row on a single carriage. That, in turn, was mounted on a tumbov installation with an "artillery" type of wheels, which had the necessary equipment for targeting in the horizontal and vertical planes. And this again, no one was surprised. All exactly the same thing there was in other mitralia. Nevertheless, he managed to simplify the design of Gatling's mitraleza in such a way that he became a competitor to Maxim’s machine guns on some kind of “machine gun” he created.

Diagram of the device Hotchkiss.

And this was what he managed to come up with: each barrel of his machine gun, regardless of their number, had its own gate. It was a cylinder, moving in a reciprocating manner inside the receiver along the guides. Inside the gate was a drummer and a mainspring. In the movement of the valves were driven by means of braces connected to the crankshaft. He had a handle for rotation, located on the right side of the side of the receiver. On the shaft were mounted discs, which served as flywheels, which had a lenticular projection. The protrusion was inside the parts in the form of an inverted “P”, mounted on the back of the bolt. During rotation, he forced the shutter to move back and forth. At the same time, the striker was cocked and at the same time with a special lever with a tooth-hook it also rotated and went down.

Five-sided ship installation Palmkrantsa.

For one full turn, each barrel made one shot. If the protrusions of all the discs were in the same plane, all four barrels would fire in one gulp. But at the same time, the recoil would be too high and the position of the protrusions was expanded in such a way that the barrels fired alternately. Now, for a half turn of the handle, two volleys occurred, and for a full turn all the gun barrels made a shot.

Four-barred installation on the wheel machine.

Well, this mechanic worked as follows: aiming, the shooter rotated this handle, rotating the crankshaft. As soon as the shaft with the faces began to rotate, the closures alternately moved back, and the cartridges from the total for all the trunks of the store under their own weight fell down onto the disilline. Then the bolts also alternately pushed the cartridges into the chamber, and at the extreme front point of their movement, the protrusions on the disk protruded. Shots took place, then the spent cartridges were extracted and everything repeated. The system was fully functional, and besides, it was convenient because its rate of fire was easily increased by simply increasing the number of barrels: two barrels - one rate of fire, four - the other, and if you put ten barrels in a row, it will grow and more. However, the more barrels - the greater the weight of the disks on the shaft, and the inertia of the system, that is, rotation of the handle of the 10-barrel machine gun would be very tedious for the shooter. Well, on the other hand, if you put a conventional electric motor instead of a handle, then the rate of fire of such a system could increase many times, and the weight and complexity of the design for the same ship installations would not play a big role!

Diagram of the Palmcrant gate valve group.

Delighted with his success, Palmcranz now began to improve the design of the machine gun. And it is interesting that its development has gone in two directions: the first is an increase in the number of trunks, and the second is an increase in their caliber. At the same time, machine guns with more than five barrels received a special mechanism, which made it possible to separate barrels to the sides and thus create a real fan of bullets flying in the same plane. Due to the deviation of the trunks at a distance of 300 meters, it was possible to move the aiming point of the trunk to the side more than a meter, and thereby significantly increase the density of fire. As for the caliber, various models of Palmcranz machine guns could use ammunition in caliber from 7,69 to 25,4 mm, which turned them into small-caliber guns. But large-caliber samples somehow did not take root, although they had a strong destructive effect on the then destroyers and mineboats. Do not become massive and options with more than five trunks. The United Kingdom, for example, ordered mainly three, four and five barrels of .303 and .45 calibers. It is noteworthy that Palmcranz has developed a special armor-piercing cartridge with a steel core in the nose of the bullet for his machine gun.

Scheme of double-barreled machine gun. Top and side view.

The work of Palmcrantz aroused the interest of the prominent businessman T. Nordenfelt, who first financed the completion of work on the machine gun, and then organized its serial production at his factory ... “Maxim-Nordenfelt”, giving it the name “Nordenfelt machine gun”. In every possible way praising the simplicity, cheapness and effectiveness of his “machine guns,” Nordenfelt managed in 1898 to sell it to the English military, who found this weapon more familiar than the machine gun of H. Maxim. They began to be installed primarily on British ships fleet, after which other European countries became interested in the new product. Apparently, the authority of Britain affected, that is, what is good for the British will be good for us too! In general, by the beginning of the XNUMXth century, the production of these machine guns at the Maxim-Nordenfelt plant had become widespread.

The device stores to the five-barreled machine gun.

Positive in the design of the machine gun Palmkrantsa was that it was simple and, therefore, relatively cheap. At the same time, a large receiver and a flat block of trunks turned it into a rather cumbersome weapon. In terms of weight, he, however, slightly surpassed Maxim's machine gun, but lost much to him in ease of use. One shooter was uncomfortable at the same time and firing, that is, to rotate the handle, and direct the machine gun at the target. Well, then, the rate of fire ... If even the earlier versions of Maxim's machine gun could make 600 shots per minute, Palmcran's machine gun, even with 10 barrels, did not give more 400 shots. For this reason, very soon they began to be removed from service, and by the beginning of 1910, they were completely removed. True, their images remained in almost all military encyclopedias and books about the fleet ...

To be continued ...
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  1. Cat
    25 August 2018 07: 16
    The morning began in the village! good
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, frankly, was pleased with the continuation of the poem! Although, to be honest, the sample you examined is still according to our Russian qualifications a card case, not a machine gun.
  2. +4
    25 August 2018 08: 14
    hi ... Earlier Gatling machine gun models were heavy and difficult to transport over rough terrain. In 1872, Gatling patented a lighter construction that had a shorter and lighter firing mechanism, and with shorter barrels, the lightweight Gatling could be transported by infantry and mounted on a tripod (or camel!) ...
  3. +3
    25 August 2018 08: 23
    ... In addition to the topic:
    ... The mechanism of a 5-barrel gun by William Gardner, patented in August 1881. At that time, the United States Army was tightly attached to the Gatling machine gun and did not show much interest, so Gardner made this gun in the UK, selling mainly to the Royal Navy, which appreciated its lighter weight than Gatling. A 5-barrel gun fired .45 inches. bullets up to 812 rounds per minute at a range of 2000 meters ... soldier
  4. +2
    25 August 2018 08: 56
    That's where the Spanish "Meroka" legs grow.
    1. +2
      25 August 2018 10: 24

      By the way, a very interesting sample
  5. +1
    25 August 2018 11: 12
    If even the earliest versions of Maxim's machine gun could do 600 rounds per minute, the Palmkranz machine gun, even with 10 barrels, did not give more than 400 shots. For this reason, very soon they began to be withdrawn from service,

    Thanks for the interesting series of articles. Not a great addition, I hope you do not mind;

    "- rapid-fire weapons must produce at least 400 rounds per minute "
    this is one of the requirements of the English Committee on small-caliber machine guns, weapons are fully consistent with this.
    To interest the British, Thorsten Nordenfelt built a machine gun factory in the British Isles, with an office in London.

    It was inconvenient for one shooter to fire at the same time, that is, to rotate the handle, and to aim the machine gun at the target

    Everything depended on the modification, there were also those that allowed one shooter to fire from him.
  6. +5
    25 August 2018 11: 39
    In my opinion, it is not correct to call Palmcrantz's "mitraleses" the development of Gatling's grape-throwers ("mitraleses")! Still, different designs! And the machine guns of the late 19th and early 20th centuries are more similar to Gardner's 1-2 barrel grapeshot

    Bir's "machine gun":

    Single-barreled "machine gun" Nordenfelt:
    If we go back to Gatling's grape-shot, we immediately remember the "likeness" constructed by Farrington:
    1. Cat
      25 August 2018 13: 37
      It’s bad that some of the pictures do not open.
      And so, that uses the energy of powder gases from automatic fire, it’s a machine gun that has a manual bucket gun or manual foot drive.
      Although to be honest, in the Russian army at the dawn of automatic weapons there was some confusion.
      Today there is a sluggish controversy, to which include automatic small-caliber electric guns. But without much success on the part of lovers of gourmets!
      1. +2
        26 August 2018 02: 03
        Well, if you rely on logic, then the Gatlings, Gardners, even some Palmcrants, Nordenfelt, Reffi-machine guns; because. "use" rifle (or rifle type ...) bullet (!) cartridges! Logically, the card holders are something different ... What "unites" them? Buckshot fired "in bulk" (volley, single charge ...)! 24-30 mm blunderbuss (trombones) -cart-casters ... "secret howitzer" Shuvalov-casters. Even the Tsar Cannon is "declared" by some experts as a "shotgun" (grape-shooter)! The French-style card-holder is mitrailleuse ... "languages ​​unlike Russian ... fool
        Ash-tree stump, which even now "gatlings" are the basis of modern rapid-fire artillery installations. The Americans are dominated by an external electric drive, in Russia, the gas "engine". But all this appeared on "gatlings", as stated in one article, at the end of the 19th century: an external electric drive, a gas "drive", and a tape cartridge "power" ...
        By the way, indeed, the most common were 6-barrel gatlings .... but there were 5-barrel and 10-barrel ... I read somewhere that the minimum is 3 (4) barrels ... the maximum -10 (12) trunks.
  7. 0
    25 August 2018 17: 42
    In all these meat grinders there is a plus, if you solve the problem of turnover, then you get a machine for equipping ribbons (for example, Rakov’s machine)
  8. +1
    25 August 2018 18: 30
    "Machine gun" Palmkrantsa aboard the ship. One sailor suggests, the other rotates the drive handle.

    It doesn’t spin but pulls! And in the figure and in the photographs it is clearly seen that the handle can only move in one plane, along the trunks.

    In general, a complete trash of some sort!

    The article is a thick mess of confused descriptions of several fundamentally different systems. The Northfield cardwoman has nothing in common with Gatling, much less a machine gun. Sorry but this is not an article but complete nonsense. True with good pictures. True, they are all out of place and out of topic.
  9. +1
    25 August 2018 22: 44
    Quote: Kotischa

    Today there is a sluggish controversy, to which include automatic small-caliber electric guns. But without much success on the part of lovers of gourmets!

    It is a little unclear why the polemic is here. "Automatic m-caliber cannons with an electric drive", they are automatic m-caliber cannons with an electric drive, but what does the "meat grinder" have to do with the cannon? That way, everything can be compared with everything, - each "gun" has a barrel. Argue just to argue? hi
  10. +3
    25 August 2018 22: 47
    Quote: Saxahorse
    This is not an article, but complete nonsense. True with good pictures. True, they are all out of place and out of topic.

    What is out of place and what is out of topic. Do me a favor, explain in more detail. You can without pictures. hi
    1. +1
      26 August 2018 18: 05
      It is possible without pictures. A machine gun differs from mitralosis in that it reloads and shoots sequentially, mitrallosis in parallel. Gatling is a machine gun, but the drawn Nordenfelt card holder is pure mitraliasis. These are just four rifles with a direct shutter stroke set side by side. Therefore, the handle that moves only back and forth to recharge. It is absurd to illustrate the description of the mitralleza of Nordenfelt by the Gochkins gun which is almost pure Gatling.

      The design of Palmcrantz and Gardner is a hybrid, here the feed goes in parallel and the shooting is either in one gulp or in an extended volley. It is shown by a single diagram of the "Palmcrantz double-barreled machine gun".

      Check out the video suggested above by "san4es" with Gardner's five-barreled gun. Very clear. Well, the single-barreled "Nordenfelt machine gun" is just a Mannlicher M1895 rifle :)

      In general, an article in this is intended to confuse the reader rather than explain to him the difference between systems or the history of their creation. Of course, the presentation of the primitive mitrenleza of Nordenfelt as a prototype of a machine gun is especially outraged :(
  11. +1
    27 August 2018 01: 35
    Quote: Saxahorse

    It is possible without pictures. A machine gun differs from mitralosis in that it reloads and shoots sequentially, mitrallosis in parallel. Gatling is a machine gun

    Thank you, I understand you. The answer is comprehensive and detailed. hi
  12. 0
    27 August 2018 17: 13
    Americans love multi-barreled fast-firing electric cannons. It is more difficult, but there is an advantage compared to the usual recharge by exhaust gas: powder gases clog the channels, carbon deposits form. If forgot and not cleaned, the system may be bent.
  13. 0
    28 August 2018 12: 52
    Now, for half a turn of the handle there were two volleys, and for a full revolution all the machine gun barrels were fired at a shot.

    Actually, a volley is a simultaneous shot from several barrels, but not less than from two.
    That is, two volleys mean at least four shots.

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