Look, create and offer. Notable samples of Chinese armored vehicles
The result of this approach was the emergence of a number of armored vehicles with a distinctive appearance. In one way or another, they may resemble the foreign developments of their classes, but at the same time they differ from them in their mission, technical features, or combat capabilities. The use of foreign ideas without their special processing also gives interesting results. How exactly does China implement borrowed ideas, and what offers on its own?
The main battle tank "Type 99" - the first production machine in its class, using laser weapons. Wikimedia Commons Photos
Currently, it is believed that new armored vehicles should be created on the basis of the so-called. unified platforms. It is proposed to create a chassis with the required characteristics, on the basis of which it is possible to build machines of different classes. A similar approach has been used before, but only in recent years, new chassis are initially created taking into account the use for different purposes. Chinese industry could not get past such promising ideas.
Since the end of the last decade, the People’s Liberation Army of China has been supplying wheeled armored vehicles of the “Type 08” family or ZBL-09, developed by NORINCO Corporation. At the heart of this line is a four-wheel drive all-wheel drive chassis with armored body. It has a bulletproof booking with the ability to install mounted modules and is equipped with an 440 hp engine. front side location. The project provides for a shoulder strap on the roof and a large compartment in the stern, suitable for installing the necessary equipment.
Options for armored vehicles based on the platform ZBL-09. Figure Toutiao.com
The main vehicle of the 08 Type family is a wheeled BMP. She carries a turret with an 30-mm automatic cannon, machine gun and HJ-73C rockets. In the aft landing compartment fits up to seven fighters. On the basis of the BMP developed a reconnaissance vehicle, which has a different composition of observation devices and devoid of troop compartment. An armored personnel carrier armed only with a heavy machine gun is also being built. A smaller combat unit allowed room for three additional paratroopers. Protected infantry vehicles became the basis for the 120-mm self-propelled mortar of the simplest architecture.
NORINCO engineers made the 08 Type / ZBL-09 chassis the basis of several artillery systems. Self-propelled guns with turrets equipped with 105, 122 and 155 mm calibers are proposed and built. It is also proposed to build an anti-aircraft self-propelled unit with an 35-mm gun. In the future, other variants of the platform with artillery weapons may appear.
The PLA also ordered a certain number of command-staff, repair and evacuation, medical, transport and engineering vehicles based on the “Type 08”. For deliveries to third countries, several specialized projects have been created with certain differences from those intended for their army.
It should be noted that the Chinese industry in the past used ready-made chassis for the construction of new technology, but the current project is markedly different from the past. The platform "Type 08" was originally created with regard to the construction of various equipment, and it was already able to confirm its potential. The promising concept proposed by the foreign military has been successfully applied in the interests of the Chinese army.
The Chinese Type 99 / ZTZ-99 main battle tank, in terms of overall appearance, is almost no different from other modern vehicles of its class. It has a combined reservation, smoothbore gun-launcher, etc. At the same time, designers from NORINCO introduced very interesting equipment into their project. "Type 99" became the first serial in the world a tankhaving a laser system for military purposes.
As a supplement to other protection systems, the 99 Type tanks receive a laser combat complex known as JD-3 and LSDW. The onboard optoelectronic suppression complex includes laser irradiation sensors, as well as a device under the designation ZM-87. The latter is a mobile unit with a combat laser of sufficient power, with the possibility of targeting in two planes.
According to known data, the application of the JD-3 system is as follows. When a laser beam is detected from an enemy rangefinder, the tank automatics must deploy the turret with the equipment in the direction of its source. The beam is sent to the target area, and its reflection is used to detect enemy optics. Next, the ZM-87 goes to maximum power. The laser beam hits the optical device and disables it. There is also the possibility of damage to the organs of vision of enemy personnel. Left with no workable optics, the enemy can not perform an aimed shot or point a guided missile.
According to known data, the power of the ZM-87 product is sufficient for a short or long blinding of optics at distances up to 8-10 km. A similar effect is on a person in the same range of distances. The Chinese side claims that the JD-3 system does not contradict the existing international agreements, since it refers to the means of combating optics, and the negative impact on humans is not its main goal.
Second of its kind
It is known that when creating its airborne troops, China tried to borrow Soviet ideas and solutions. A few years ago, this led to a natural result. In 2003, a specialized airborne assault vehicle, ZBD-03, entered service with the PLA Air Force Airborne Forces. Due to the appearance of this sample, the Chinese army was able to enter the narrow circle of owners of armored vehicles for parachute landing.
Airborne combat vehicle ZBD-03 on the track. Photo of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation / mil.ru
When creating the ZBD-03, Chinese specialists from the 201 institute, which is part of NORINCO, have carefully studied the Russian BMD-3 machine. However, they did not simply copy the foreign model and created the required equipment on their own, albeit with the application of some of the knowledge gained. The result of this was the emergence of BMD, in its characteristics resembling the Russian equivalent. In particular, the Chinese designers were able to get combat weight at the level of 8 t in the presence of small-caliber artillery and rocket weapons.
ZBD-03 is built on the basis of an armored hull with a wide use of light alloys and has a front-engine layout. The central compartment is given under the fighting compartment, and the landing is located in the stern. The small mass of the car allowed to use the engine with the power of just 210 hp. The chassis received a controlled hydropneumatic suspension. The tower is set 30-mm gun with a twin machine gun. There is also a launcher for missiles HJ-73D.
With a mass of about 8 and Chinese BMD speeds up to 70 km / h on land and to 6 km / h on water. It is operated by a crew of three and transports four paratroopers. The possibility of transportation by military transport aircraft with a landing or parachute landing was provided. The Y-8 aircraft transports two such vehicles with parachute systems, IL-76 - three.
Chinese ZBD-03 (left) and Russian BMD-2 (center). Photo of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation / mil.ru
The Soviet / Russian concept of an assault vehicle is to some extent unique. Until recently, only our country had armored vehicles built on these ideas. Since 2003, China has similar technology. With this, the PLA confirmed its intention to borrow the best ideas and solutions that would increase the combat capability of the troops.
Especially for marines
Currently, all developed countries have large quantities of floating armored vehicles. In this case, not all of these samples have high performance on the water. Especially for the landing of amphibious assault forces in different countries, a whole series of armored vehicles was developed. Some of these developments are now used by the Chinese army.
In 2006, the PLA Marine Corps is equipped with a specialized floating armored vehicle "Type 05" or ZBD-05. This model of military equipment is a floating infantry fighting vehicle designed for use in the landing of amphibious assault forces. Soon, based on the BMP, a lightweight amphibious tank ZTD-05 was created with more powerful weapons and similar mobility indicators on land and on water. According to official data, on land, these machines can reach speeds of up to 65 km / h, while on water they accelerate to 45 km / h.
ZBD-05 and ZTD-05 are capable of high speeds thanks to several basic features. First of all, they have an armored hull with a large margin of buoyancy and special contours. The folding nasal panels and the bottom of a special shape allow you to switch to gliding mode and reduce water resistance. The diesel engine has a special mode of operation for swimming, which develops power 1475 hp. vs xnumx hp on the land. On the water, the engine drives a pair of highly efficient feed water cannons.
Floating armored vehicles have a similar hull design, but differ in combat compartments and functions. In the version of the BMP "Type 05" carries a tower with a 30-mm cannon and machine gun. It is operated by a crew of three and transports eight paratroopers. The ZTD-05 lightweight floating tank is armed with an 105-mm rifled gun; its crew is increased to four people, there is no troop compartment.
Infantry fighting vehicles and amphibious tanks "Type 05" are in service with the PLA for more than ten years and provide high mobility of the marines when performing landing operations. They allow you to perform over-the-horizon landing with high efficiency, to deliver the landing force to the coast in the shortest time, and then to support the fighters with cannon and machine gun fire. It is important that third-party serial direct analogues ZBD-05 and ZTD-05 are not yet available, although they were developed in the past.
Look, copy and rethink
China seeks to become the undisputed regional leader, and then join a narrow club of world superpowers. Implementation of such plans is impossible without a powerful, well-armed and trained army. In this regard, the Chinese industry is creating new interesting samples of armored combat vehicles for various purposes.
Chinese engineers can not yet be called world leaders in the field of armored vehicles, but they are doing everything possible to ensure parity with foreign colleagues and competitors. To solve such problems, all available methods and tools are used. As a result, the army gets the desired equipment, and the industry accumulates the necessary experience.
It should be recalled that the Chinese defense industry began with licensed production and copying of foreign-made equipment. Later, experiments began with the creation of their own projects. Over the past decades, China has managed to form its design school, and is now able to independently close almost all the needs in the field of land technology. However, in some cases, he still needs foreign assistance in the form of certain components, etc.
As they accumulate their own experience, Chinese specialists do not refuse to study and copy foreign developments. If some other people's decisions are considered promising, they are used in creating their own projects. It should be noted that such methods sometimes lead to very interesting results. For example, in the framework of the BMP “Type 05” project, NORINCO Corporation was able to repeat the concept of the American armored amphibian EFV / AAAV. Moreover, its high-speed floating machine, as opposed to foreign, reached the series and the troops. It is also worth recalling about the JD-3 armored vehicle protection system using a real combat laser. Other countries do not equip their tanks with similar systems.
For several decades, China was able to build a developed defense industry and create its own design school, capable of creating new armored fighting vehicles. Chinese experts are gradually catching up with foreign colleagues and regularly show new results. All this contributes to the development of their own ideas, and rethinking borrowed.
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