Well, start a story about this original form of small weapons follows from the preamble that ... there is such a book, The Adventures of Inventions, written by Alexander Ivitch, and here it is very interesting to tell how and as a result of what zigzags of fate these or other inventions appeared and what was sometimes difficult for them fate However, their creators, too.
But if you turned to the fate of military inventions and developments, then ... you would surely note that the ways of military inventions were often more dramatic at times, and why it was also clear that murder weapons were invented without something. And sometimes what was created in one country found its application in another, and the money spent on development in this country, in fact, flew into the pipe. And some development, starting his history in one country, they later became the property of many countries, and only from where and how did they appear, few people were interested.
And with the spread of the Internet around the world, a completely unusual problem arose, since the same information was now not only presented in its own way every time, but also replicated in unbelievable volumes. By the way, I note that the article about the Czech automaton vz.58 on the website "Military Review" was already. I visited the Czech Republic like this, drank there plenty of real Czech beer, looked at the changing of the guard at the presidential palace, then wrote a material about the vz.52 rifle and thought that, most likely, you can imagine your own vision of this topic. Well, after thinking like that - I just sat down and wrote a new material about this automaton, and then checked the level of its novelty according to the Advego Antiplagiat system, and when it in my opinion became quite sufficient (99% novelty by phrases and 100% novelty according to the words), then laid it out here for general familiarization ...
And again, I will have to start my story about vz.58 from a distance. Because I managed to find on the Internet such a text, which I cite, albeit literally, but in my own presentation. The author informs him that in February 1942, the Czechoslovak enterprise "Skoda Plants" was most likely presented to the Wehrmacht for trial, the world's first model of weapons for an intermediate cartridge specially developed for the army - the ZK412 submachine gun. And this cartridge was originally created under the ZK 423 light machine gun. It was created by Czech engineers on their own before, other powers and the same Germany began experimenting with weapons for intermediate cartridges. The characteristics of the cartridge were generally similar to the German intermediate cartridge, but the author of the text tells us that they were superior to the level of that time. The designers of the machine were the brothers Koutzky, although Czech sources report that the developer was only one - Josef Koucky. The automation system worked by the removal of gases. The sight is adjustable, from 100 to 300 meters. The machine was designed for shooting with the 8x35 Rapid chuck and had a total length - 980 mm, a barrel length - 418 mm, four right-side slices in the barrel, the total weight with cartridges - 4,8 kg and magazine capacity - 30 cartridges. Externally, he looked like a Kalashnikov assault rifle, with the same carob shop, but without a pistol grip. Interesting information, right? That's just the content of it exactly on 50% does not correspond to reality. Although the presence of the clause "most likely" negative impression of the abundance of inaccuracies reduces ...
About the Czech patron himself it is known that he was in many ways better than his counterparts. So, on comparative tests with Mauser 7,92-mm cartridges (10 g) and 9-mm Parabellum cartridges, it turned out that the 8-Rapid cartridge bullet had an average 400 meters distance (derivation), the deviation in 15 cm, Parabellum bullet - 80 cm, and 79,2-mm bullet Mauser rifle - 7 cm. On 800 meters 8-mm Rapid bullet had a deviation 104 cm, 9-mm Parabellum - 546 cm and 500 cm - bullet “Mauser” ". In addition, at the 400-meter distance, this bullet pierced an army helmet. Created this wonderful patron by August 1941, Alois Farlik at the Česká Zbrojevka factory in Brno, and although it didn’t go further with the prototype, the Czechs can certainly be congratulated.
Germanic Kurz-cartridge 7,92x33 mm.
As for the German patron 7,92 Kurz, or the “intermediate patron” (7,92x33 mm), it was developed by the German firm Polte, as early as the end of 30's (that is, the German priority in this case is obvious!) it is also obvious that the need for just such a cartridge in Germany has already been recognized by specialists from at least some firms. But the German Arms Administration was also awake, and already in 1938, it issued an order for developing weapons for this cartridge: first, Haenel, and then, in 1940, Walter joined the work.
Automatic machine "Walther" MKb.42 (W) with a grenade launcher-nozzle at the end of the barrel.
The Walter automatic machine MKb.42 (W) operated due to the pressure of the powder gases on the annular gas piston worn on the barrel. The piston moved back and forth inside the casing of the barrel and pushed the tube, worn on the barrel, and that, in turn, had two projections on the U-shaped slide frame, inside which there was a bolt that locked the barrel as a result of a skew. Well, the imbalance itself was carried out due to the fact that the lugs of the shutter slid in the grooves of the receiver, which made it swing in the vertical plane either up or down. The bolt handle was on the left, which was characteristic of all the automatic machines developed in Germany during the war.
Automatic MP44. (Army Museum in Stockholm)
The development of the machine at the company Haenel was done by the famous designer Hugo Schmeisser, who already in 1940 created the prototype of a new weapon: the “automatic carbine” or MaschinenKarabiner (MKb.) - since this is how the Germans classified this type of weapon from the very beginning. His machine gun had a different gas engine design, also with a piston, but on a long rod, which pushed the bolt that was tilted when it moved. In this, both machines were similar. And, by the way, it is precisely in this that both samples are different from the Kalashnikov assault rifle, where the principle of locking the breech block is completely different, and this is a very important, one might say, main difference.
Automatic MKb.42 (H). (Archive of the Springfield Arsenal USA)
Already by July 1942, the company Haenel prepared 50 pre-production samples of its submachine gun, and from November 1942 until April 1943, about 8000 copies of the new submachine gun were delivered to take part in the military trials that took place on the Eastern Front. It turned out that MKb.42 (H) is a promising design, although it needs to be improved, which was then carried out under the ciphers MP-43 and MP-44 assigned to it. Moreover, it turned out that his competitor, that is, the Walter machine gun, is better balanced and shoots more accurately, but ... the manufacturability is higher with the Hugo Schmeisser machine gun and this then decided the whole thing - it was his development that went into the series and entered service under the designation StG 44 . In total, about 420 of thousands of such assault rifles were released, which fell after the defeat of Nazi Germany in the armies of many countries of the world and, in particular, to the People’s Police and the German Democratic Republic, the army and police of the Federal Republic of Germany, and it was in service with the airborne forces. And it is clear that the same Czechoslovak military and engineers of military factories could well become familiar with and learn all the strengths and weaknesses.
Automatic MKb.42 (H). Incomplete disassembly. (Archive of the Springfield Arsenal USA)
However, there was also a third sample of the automaton proposed by the Mauser company, and it was he who bypassed his better-known competitor, the Hugo Schmeisser automaton!
Parade of the People's Police of the GDR, armed with StG 44.
Well, it all started with the fact that Dr. Meyer, who worked in the mathematical department of this company, suggested that he should abandon the complex, in his opinion, automation system based on the gas-extracting mechanism, and move from rigid locking of the barrel to a semi-free gate. Work on the new assault rifle based on this principle and under the intermediate cartridge 7,92х33 Kurz, the company "Mauser Werke" began in the year 1939. Engineer Ludwig Vorgrimler developed it, and the project itself was code-named "Gerät 06" ("06 Device").
Automatic machine StG 45 (M). (Museum in Munster) By the way, why such a short store? Yes, because of the direct location of the butt on this machine, as well as on the Schmeisser and Walter machines, it was necessary to raise aiming devices, which together with the 30-charging magazine made the shooter lift very high above the ground and be substituted for bullets. With a short magazine on 10 cartridges high rise was no longer necessary.
In the spring of 1943, the 43 made thousands of shots without a single delay from the new machine, which received the designation Mkb.6 (M), after which the Land Forces Army Administration of Germany decided to conduct field tests of this machine gun. By the end of 1944, they ended and it was then that it turned out that StG 44, which had just entered mass production, was significantly inferior in all respects to the new model! He was immediately adopted under the designation as StG 45 (M), but released only 30 sets of parts for the assembly of an experimental batch.
To be continued ...