Military Review

Stories about weapons. 76-mm mountain gun GP (M-99)

Stories about weapons. 76-mm mountain gun GP (M-99)

We have already told about the predecessor of the heroine of our story, 76-mm mountain cannon of the 1938 model of the year.

Stories about weapons. 76-mm mountain gun 1938 model of the year

Today we will talk about the next generation.

The 76-mm 1938 model mountain cannon very well established itself in the fields (more precisely, the mountains) of the battles of World War II. However, time took its toll, and after 30 years of service the guns in our army, it was decided to replace. And the development of a newer and more perfect weapons.

The new weapon also had to operate in mountain conditions, as well as on rough and difficult terrain. In addition, the gun should be as light as possible. There was another lobby here, from comrade Margelov, who reformatted the Airborne Forces in 50's and tried to provide paratroopers with everything he could reach.

The experience of previous developments was taken into account, therefore it is quite natural that the gun was designed in SKB-172 under the guidance of M.Yu. Tsirulnikova.

And began to be produced in Perm, on the "Motovilikha", plant number 172, under the symbol M-99.

Officially, the M-99 cannon was adopted by the Soviet Army in the year 1958 under the designation "76-mm mountain gun of GP". Just at the same time, a new indexation of the barrel artillery systems is being introduced in the Department of Defense of the Ministry of Defense, and the M-99 cannon receives a new index “product 2А2”.

The gun has a collapsible barrel, which consists of a pipe, breech and casing. The breech and the pipe, connecting with each other in rifled sectors, fasten the casing. The inside of the barrel and the ballistics are identical to the 76-mm mountain cannon of the 1938 model of the year.

The shutter is horizontal wedge, with semi-automatic spring-type, not dependent on the speed of the run-up (opening is made by opening the spring, and closing - closing spring). The wheel chock is placed in the cradle under the barrel. Rollback hydraulic brake, spindle type, with spring compressor. Knuckle hydropneumatic. When fired, the recoil devices roll back along with the barrel. The lifting mechanism has one sector, the turning mechanism is of screw type.

The balancing mechanism is spring, pulling type, mounted on the upper machine, where lifting and turning mechanisms are also assembled, providing a vertical firing angle from -10 ° to + 70 ° and horizontal - to 45 °. The upper machine is connected to the lower machine with a pin. Box-type sliding beds, can be folded and disassembled into two parts. In the pivot on the front of the right frame there is an auxiliary (front) small diameter roller for moving the weapon on the battlefield. An integral part of the upper machine is also a two-piece light shield cover. It protects the calculation from small arms bullets and fragments of artillery shells and mines of small caliber.

To reduce the weight of the gun shield cover can be removed. Metal wheels odnoskatnye from the car "Moskvich" with a tire "gusmatik." Suspension - torsion type.

The gun is equipped with GWP or GWP-70 sights. The peculiarity of this gun is that it can conduct both flat and hinged shooting. To ensure high stability of the gun at high elevation angles, the design of the bottom mast machine allows you to change the height of the line of fire from 650 mm - at an elevation angle of less than 30 ° to 850 mm - at an elevation angle of more than 30 °.

Here you can see something in common with the mortar "Cornflower". The gun, which can hang, and a mortar capable of slapping direct fire with a cumulative mine.

In mountainous conditions, the gun can be transported as ten individual packs to pack animals. Or not animals, as lucky. At the same time, the maximum weight of one bag does not exceed 85 kg.

With proper preparation, the 4-6 minutes can assemble and disassemble the cannon into the transport position.

When used in the northern areas, the mountain cannon can be equipped with a special ski installation LO-8, which allows it to be transported in deep snow and marshland. If necessary, you can shoot directly from the skis. The weight of the ski machine LO-8 does not exceed 85 kg, so it is quite possible to tow a gun with a UAZ-469 car.

Due to its small mass and unreleased dimensions, the gun is naturally transported through the air by all possible military vehicles and is landed from them.

Shooting is conducted by separate-cartridge loading shots with high-explosive, armor-piercing, cumulative and smoke projectiles, as well as shrapnel.

The maximum range of high-explosive fragmentation projectile mass 6,28 kg with an initial speed 485 m / s is 10 000 m.

The 76-mm GP gun was in service with artillery units of the mountain-rifle units of the Soviet Army, was actively used in the fighting of the Limited contingent of Soviet troops in Afghanistan in 1979-1989, as well as in numerous ethnic conflicts in the late twentieth century in the former Soviet Union .

At present, the 76-mm mountain gun of the GP continues to be in service with the Russian Army.

TTX GP (M-99)

Weight in the fighting position - 735 kg
Barrel length - 1630 mm
Threaded length - 1122 mm

Calculation - 6 man

Travel speed - up to 60 km / h

Rate of Fire - sighting - 10 - 14 rds / min, maximum - 20 rds / min

The longest firing range - 10 000 m
Direct shot range - 850 m

Shooting angles:

Horizontal - 45 °
Vertically - 10 ° + 70 °

Shirokorad A. B. Encyclopedia of domestic artillery
Historical photo:

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  1. VladGashek
    VladGashek 7 August 2018 17: 09
    Thanks to the author. An informative article, it was difficult to hear about such a rarity to a simple layman. I, who served in the early 70s (73-74), did not know anything about this gun. Apparently, it was not very widely represented in the nomenclature of weapons.
  2. Conductor
    Conductor 7 August 2018 17: 51
    Thanks to the article. And I did NOT know about such a gun, but 6 people in the calculation is not too much? and it’s strange why separate shell loading.
    1. Bersaglieri
      Bersaglieri 7 August 2018 21: 37
      For the possibility of a "game" with a propelling charge?
      1. Conductor
        Conductor 7 August 2018 22: 23
        Maybe so, but to carry separate loading in the mountains, and I have not heard about separate loading for 76 mm.
        1. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I 8 August 2018 00: 26
          The mountain 76-mm GP gun can shoot with unitary shots ... in addition, part of the unitary shots was made with a “removable” bottom (it was possible to withdraw part of the charge ...)
      2. Conductor
        Conductor 7 August 2018 22: 26
        Create a separate ammunition for a mountain gun!
    2. Warrior2015
      Warrior2015 8 August 2018 09: 32
      Quote: Conductor
      but the 6 people in the calculation is not too much?

      Not a bit much, because taking into account the deployment in the mountainous terrain, it is the calculation that is the basic force of the force.
  3. polpot
    polpot 7 August 2018 19: 38
    Thank you for the article, a mountain tool, we didn’t have many in our 40 army, although it was met, units were brought into Afghanistan with different equipment and far from mountainous, TURKVO and SAVO were not the Carpathians and the Caucasus, there they were.
  4. Runx135
    Runx135 7 August 2018 19: 40
    The article is interesting, thanks. Special thanks for the title photo !!! Super.
  5. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 7 August 2018 21: 36
    Good artillery system. But it has long been waiting for modernization. Using modern materials, the mass can be reduced by at least a third or even halved (though the price of the product will increase)
  6. abc77777
    abc77777 8 August 2018 00: 18
    The gun is used as a howitzer, variable charges are used for firing. That is why separate loading.
  7. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 8 August 2018 01: 07
    In addition to the Russian Federation, a mountain 76-mm gun can only be found in Romanians ...

    Mountain Romanian 76-mm gun "Jerry" model 1982
    I don’t think that the M-99 is an excellent weapon for mountain shooters ... All the same, the caliber is "not impressive", and at the same time -10 packs! Before the Second World War, the 107-mm mountain-pack mortar of the 1938 model was adopted for service in the USSR. In China, an 100-mm mortar is manufactured for the air assault and mountain infantry units. In Romania, in addition to the 76-mm Jerry cannon, the Buzeci 98-mm howitzer is produced (before that, the Romanian infantry units “owned” the 100-mm Skoda mountain howitzers) ... such a caliber was chosen to bypass provisions of the CFE Agreement. By the way, for this purpose, in Poland, the 98-mm mortar M-98 for highly mobile parts was created ...
    1. Walking
      Walking 8 August 2018 13: 17
      The Italians had the same 105-mm mountain howitzer M-56
    2. ARES623
      ARES623 11 August 2018 14: 00
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      I don't think the M-99 is an excellent weapon for mountain shooters ... All the same, the caliber is "not impressive", and at the same time -10 packs! Before the Second World War in the USSR, the 107-mm mountain-pack mortar Model 1938 was adopted.

      Try to drive a mine into an object under a hinged cornice. I think the presence of the ability to shoot flat fire, direct fire, a very valuable quality.
  8. DimerVladimer
    DimerVladimer 8 August 2018 13: 05
    It is also desirable to compare with existing mountain tools.
    It is typical that the 1938 mountain cannon was degraded compared to the prototype (Skoda C-5 mountain cannon) - despite a higher elevation angle - instead of 50 degrees on the prototype, they made 70 degrees, the horizontal aiming angle instead of 6.5 degrees became 10 degrees, but the gun was not able to operate in semi-automatic mode and a quarter-automatic mode was introduced - while the mass of the gun increased by 120 kg., the rate of fire decreased from 22 rounds to 10-15 rounds per minute.
    From May 20 to June 20, 1938, the cannon passed repeated field tests, which it could not withstand due to poor operation of semiautomatic devices and recoil devices. Despite this, the cannon was sent to military tests, which took place from June 22 to August 3, 1938. Based on the test results, changes were again made to the gun design - in particular, instead of semi-automatic equipment, a quarter-automatic was introduced, the design of recoil devices was slightly changed, the front part of the gun carriage was shortened, and the cradle thickness was increased. As such, the gun satisfied the military leadership

    For comparison, the American mountain howitzer 75mm Pack Howitzer M116 of the Second World War weighed 653 kg.

    Currently, 98-105 mm mountain cannons and howitzers take place in the armies (for example, the Bucegi 98 mm mountain howitzer Model 1995, the Jerry mountain gun 76 mm model 1982), but most developed countries switch to light 105 mm airmobile systems or ultralight 155 mm, which can be transported by medium-capacity helicopters - for example: 105 mm L118 / M119 (Great Britain / USA), M777.
  9. serge siberian
    serge siberian 12 August 2018 16: 41
    I used to see amateur shots with this gun, but not of such good quality. Thanks to the author for the article. And what kind of ammunition, according to the number of shells? And how, in time, to collect it? hi And so a very necessary thing in the army for our large country. soldier
  10. PXL
    PXL 10 July 2021 10: 55
    Several questions, comments and additions.
    The experience of previous developments was taken into account, therefore it is quite natural that the gun was designed in SKB-172 under the guidance of M.Yu. Tsirulnikova.

    What "prior experience" was meant? If the 100-mm experienced mountain howitzer M39, so it was created simultaneously with the M-99.
    2. Why does the bolt wedge of this gun open to the left, i.e. where is the gunner's workplace?
    3. Serial production of GP 2A2 was carried out at the Avtotraktordetal plant in Saratov.
    4. What kind of cannon is it, which, according to the 1964 edition of the Service Manual, routinely allowed three misfires of the first shot? What to say? Wunderwaffle and more! Okay, somehow this gun survived Khrushchev's persecution of barrel artillery. Blimey! Merit!
    1. Helmut
      Helmut 19 November 2022 21: 31
      The bolt wedge opens to the right. For all the time of service in the army, there were no problems with this gun (this is about misfires)