How Kievan Rus became Bandera Ukraine. Part of 3. German-American influence
The Galician-German stage coincided with the grandiose events of 1917 that unfolded in the open spaces of Russia of the year, which provided an invaluable service to the Galician Ukrainizers. An old acquaintance of the Grushevsky cadet Milyukov, who takes his views on the “Ukrainian issue” well, becomes Foreign Minister of the Provisional Government and March 2 1917 states that the Ukrainians of Galicia, if they wish, can unite with the Ukrainians populating Russia, thereby recognizing for the first time at the level of Government existence of two different nations - Russian and "Ukrainian".
Given that almost all the “Ukrainians” were outside of Russia, their leaders were not slow to leave Austrian Galicia and quickly move to Kiev, establishing the Central Council, headed by the Austrian citizen Grushevsky. By appointing themselves members of their own (from 18, the heads of the 12 CRs were Austrian subjects), they begin their energetic efforts to create a “independent Ukraine”. At the same time, they do not unite Galicia with Russia, but join the lands of the South-Western Territory to Galicia.
So, as a result of the collusion of the short-sighted part of the Russian elite with the “Mazepians”, they were given the opportunity to detach part of the Russian lands from Russia. All further activity of the Central Council was to consolidate the captured rights and push the “Ukrainian question” to the international level, while the Germans and Austrians enthusiastically supported the aspirations of their puppets, as they had long dreamed of rejecting these lands from Russia.
The leaders of the Central Council for international recognition of the educated "state" come to an agreement with the German command, sign a separate "peace treaty" with it. Under this agreement for the supply of grain and meat to Germany, the latter committed itself to fight against the Bolsheviks and occupy Ukraine. The signing of this “treaty” made the Bolsheviks agree to the disgraceful Brest Peace and abandon Ukraine, while the German-Austrian troops occupied Ukraine in a short time, taking the Crimea, Rostov, and Belgorod.
Later, the head of the German headquarters on the eastern front, General Max Hoffman, wrote: “Ukraine is nothing more than an ephemeral creation ... In fact, Ukraine is the business of my hands, and not the creation of the conscious will of the Russian people. No one else, like me, created Ukraine to be able to make peace with it. ”
The ensuing chaos and anarchy in the open spaces of the South-Western Territory are quickly swept away by the successively established “Ukrainian” regimes and sham “states” of the civil war, which with each new “government” only intensified the propaganda of “Ukrainian independence” without any support among the population. All this bedlam ends with the victory of the Bolsheviks, who, on the basis of their ideological goals, began a new phase of Ukrainization.
At the same time, the Galician Ukrainians undergo a mutation towards Nazism and begin to create structures of the corresponding orientation. Of all the independent organizations, the Ukrainian military organization (1920), which together with other nationalist groups in the year 1929, creates the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) headed by the former Austrian officer Konovalets, acquires the greatest importance.
From the very beginning, the OUN focuses on Germany, receives ideological and financial support from it and unites extremist-minded Galicians, who have decided to defend their ideas through terrorism and banditry.
The ideology of these fascist militants remains Ukrainians, who took the extreme nationalist form, in which Dmitry Dontsov added fascist and Nazi elements.
According to Dontsov, the nation should be built on a hierarchical principle - at the head is the leader, who has an asset at his disposal - “an initiative minority - the elite of the nation”. This ideology, which from the very beginning represents one of the varieties of fascism, included the entire relevant set: the mythologization of the national stories, the cult of struggle and power, the totalitarian structure of power, racism and anti-Semitism. Thus, the Ukrainians raised by the Poles in the process of evolution were vaccinated with fascist, irreconcilable Ukrainian nationalism.
After the liquidation of the Soviet special services Konovalets OUN led Bandera, and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army - the captain of the Wehrmacht Shukhevych (both became "heroes" in today's Ukraine). They were representatives of a young growth, educated in the spirit of Nazi ideology. In the 30-s, directed by Germany, they killed Poles, unworthy, in terms of the latter-day “Aryans”, to live on the lands of Galicia.
The Nazi occupation of Poland and the Soviet Union, untied the hands of OUN executioners in the ethnic cleansing in Galicia and Volhynia, where they destroyed more than one hundred thousand innocent Poles, thousands of Jews and Russians, as well as their relatives who disagree with their racial approach to the formation of the “Ukrainian nation” ". With the defeat of fascism, Dontsovsky nationalism also collapsed, without external support, having no chance to capture the minds of Little Russians.
The Soviet stage of promoting Ukrainians had its own goals, but at the same time it took much from the Galician predecessors. The main goal of the Bolsheviks was the world revolution, in which Russia, with its material and human resources, was given the place of a springboard. In their opinion, neither the Russian people nor the Russian culture should have dominated, so it was necessary to weaken the Russian colossus by dividing it into “fraternal” nations, each of which needed its own history and its own language.
At that time, the Bolsheviks did not have their own groundwork in this matter, but under their conclusions the concept of Grushevsky, cultivated by the Poles and its ideology of “two separate nations”, a special Ukrainian language and an independent culture, went well. In the absence of the best, they took the ideology of the Ukrainians as a basis and adapted it to justify the class struggle of the “Ukrainian people” for liberation from the tsarist “prison of nations”. Moreover, they invited the chief ideologue of the Ukrainians of Grushevsky to the Soviet Union, where he wrote his pseudoscientific works and even became an academician until the end of his life.
In April, the 1923 of the year the Congress of the RCP (b) announced the party’s course of “indigenization”, and the conference of the CP (b) U announced the start of the “Ukrainization” policy. The Bolsheviks took up the Ukrainization seriously and on a large scale; it was most intensively taking place under the direct supervision of Lazar Kaganovich, a man of sharp wit and indomitable will, who implemented the decision of the party with his characteristic energy and resourcefulness.
The main emphasis was placed on the introduction of the “Ukrainian language” invented in Galicia, the search and exaltation of “popular” writers, as well as heroes from the Cossacks and the promotion of folklore. Ukrainization was total, everything fell under it - state institutions, office work, schools, universities, the press, theaters, and not wanting to Ukrainianize or not passing the exam in the Ukrainian language were fired without the right to receive unemployment benefits.
Due to the shortage of personnel, ex-Petliurists were involved in the implementation of Ukrainization, and about fifty thousand enlightened Galicians were transferred from Galicia to work in the field, and they were distributed to senior positions for brainwashing.
During this period, the bearers of the ideology of Ukrainians were the party and administrative apparatus of Soviet Ukraine, a small layer of intellectuals and, of course, the “Varangians” from Galicia. The common people did not want to become "Ukrainians", did not speak the Ukrainian language, and were not interested in Ukrainian culture, and the violent forms of re-forging into Ukrainians caused him only irritation and sharp rejection.
The whole process of Ukrainization 30-s lasted about ten years, and, having met the passive resistance of the people, gradually died out. This was evidently due to the fact that Stalin understood the futility of the world revolution and, being surrounded by his worst enemies, decided to build a stronghold against capitalism in the form of a powerful Russian state.
The Soviet stage of Ukrainian advancement also ended in defeat, but its tactical successes were more serious than on the Galician stage. The toponym "Ukraine" was adopted as the name of almost a state (so far the republic with the right to secede from the Union), an independent ethnos was legalized, and the nationality "Ukrainian" appeared in the passport. Almost no one spoke Ukrainian, but everyone was obliged to study it, and many learned that there is such a “genius” poet like Taras Shevchenko, and they began to erect monuments everywhere.
The Ukrainian stage in the advancement of Ukrainians began in the period of Gorbachev's perestroika, and until today has been purposefully imposed on the people of Ukraine by all Ukrainian elites, regardless of their political tint. Such a movement had to be created practically from scratch, since in Ukraine until the end of the 80-s, even in Galicia, there were no movements for “Ukrainian” independence, except for certain marginal groups of Ukrainian intelligentsia, the existence of which the majority of the people had no idea.
In the wake of perestroika, a nationalist scum emerges and spreads in Galicia, which no one took seriously, but the party nomenclature, anticipating the ideological collapse of the Soviet Union, is already beginning to fuel these sentiments in its own interests.
With the aim of seizing power, she, without disdaining to collude with the nationalists, begins to support the pseudo-national independence movement and, using the image of the enemy in the face of another people (“Muscovites have eaten our bacon”), adopts the ideology of Ukrainians developed over the decades postulate - the existence of an independent "Ukrainian nation".
After the collapse of the Union, having received the state that fell into its hands, the new, already “Ukrainian” elite accepts Ukrainians as a national-state ideology to rally the “Ukrainian nation” and to cover up the looting of state property that has begun. self-consciousness of the people.
The methods are still the same: falsifying history, imposing "peace", creating a separatist church, a national liberation struggle against the Muscovites, denying their Russianness, advertising pseudoheroes and traitors. Despite all the efforts, the majority of the population of Ukraine did not perceive the ideas of Galician nationalism and never considered and still does not consider Bandera to be its hero. This pseudo-heroism is imposed by the authorities, and it seems that everyone believes in this nonsense.
Since independence, the United States has been hard at work in the Ukrainian direction and is using Ukrainian nationalism for its own purposes as a means of putting pressure on Russia in a global confrontation with it. For this, the third decade has eroded the foundations of Ukrainian society with the help of specially created funds and support for anti-Russian elites, introducing Russophobia and hatred of everything Russian.
Despite the targeted imposition of Ukrainian identity, it was not so easy to create a “Ukrainian nation”. The proposed new identity was perceived by the majority of the people as something alien, unnatural to their national identity. With all the efforts of the United States to bring to power through democratic elections, candid nationalists did not work at all, the nationalist idea was not supported in society.
To solve this problem, we had to find other ways, form and train the “Ukrainian nation” combat core from the population of Galicia, which was Ukrainized by Austrian terror, create training centers for militants all over Ukraine and prepare a coup d'état. Taking advantage of Yanukovych’s refusal to sign the Euro-Association, such a coup was accomplished and for the first time nationalists came to power in Ukraine, under the leadership of the United States, realizing the task of finally turning Ukraine into an anti-Russian state and integrating it into Euro-Atlantic structures.
With the coming of the ruling regime established by the Americans, in four years Ukraine has transformed into a Nazi state with all its attributes of violence, suppression of any dissent, support for nationalist radicals and unleashing a civil war against its own population.
As a result of the centuries-old activity of external forces, in order to destroy Russian unity in the Russian lands, an anti-Russian state was created, used by the West as a springboard for containing Russia and assimilating Russian civilization by the West. The most interesting thing is that only the state has been created and political elites have been formed, supported by a part of the population. The bulk of the population did not accept the ideology of nationalism and Nazism, imposed by force, and is forced to endure the ruling regime, since so far there are no forces capable of dislodging it.
The question of the future of Ukraine at this stage is in limbo. None of the conflicting contradictions, political, ethnic, economic, social or territorial, has been resolved. Having become a bargaining chip in the confrontation between Russia and the West and becoming a loyal vassal of the latter, the ruling regime is not able to take the Ukrainian society out of a systemic crisis, and this issue will have to be solved by external forces.
- Yuri Apukhtin
- How Kievan Rus became Bandera Ukraine. Part of 1. Polish-Lithuanian influence
How Kievan Rus became Bandera Ukraine. Part of 2. Polish-Austrian influence
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